Abstract

Feature Issue on Photonics in Switching

Two-wavelength switching operation between two signals at different wavelengths is reported using the optical bistability occurring in two different semiconductor laser amplifiers. With this technique an optical signal can be set in either of the optical input wavelengths by appropriate choice of the powers of the input signals. Switching of a signal beam by another control beam at different wavelength is reported experimentally with a 1550 nm distributed feedback semiconductor optical amplifier. Also, a theoretical model has been generated to analyze the wavelength switching operation with a novel amplifier type--the 1550 nm vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA). Using a 1550 nm VCSOA, wavelength switching operation is reported with a calculated input power below 1 μW. This low input power requirement for switching added to the high-frequency response of the VCSOA, and the ease of fabricating 2D arrays of these devices due to the vertical structure, makes the VCSOA a very interesting device for use in optical switching applications in the optical telecommunication networks.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Kawaguchi, Bistabilities and Nonlinearities in Laser Diodes (Artech House, 1994).
  2. W. F. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, 'High contrast, 1.3 μm optical AND gate with gain,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1510-1512 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Wen, M. D. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Vertical-cavity optical AND gate,' Opt. Commun. 219, 383-387 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Nonaka, Y. Noguchi, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, 'Digital signal regeneration with side-injection-light-controlled bistable laser diode as a wavelength converter,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 139-141 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, 'Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier,' Electron. Lett. 19, 262-263 (1983).
  6. N. F. Mitchell, J. O'Gorman, J. Hegarty, and J. C. Connolly, 'Optical bistability in asymmetric Fabry-Perot laser diode amplifiers,' Opt. Lett. 19, 269-271 (1994).
  7. P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, 'Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55 μm laser diode amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, 'Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers,' IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 134, 35-40 (1987).
  9. D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, 'Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2029-2037 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA),' Opt. Express 10, 1273-1278 (2002).
  11. M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Nonlinear gain in vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. A. Martin Pereda, 'Modeling reflective bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, 'Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55 μm VCSOA,' Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Kawaguchi, H. Tani, and K. Inoue, 'Optical bistability using a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser amplifier with two holding beams,' Opt. Lett. 12, 513-515 (1987).
  15. K. Inoue, 'High-speed all optical gate switching experiment in a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser amplifier,' Electron. Lett. 23, 921-922 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. N. Maywar, Y. Nakano, and G. P. Agrawal, '1.31 μm-to-1.55 μm wavelength conversion by optically pumping a distributed feedback amplifier,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 858-860 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, J. A. Martin-Pereda, and M. J. Adams, 'Two-wavelength switching with a distributed-feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFBSOA),' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 153, 21-27 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. J. Adams, J. V. Collins, and I. D. Henning, 'Analysis of semiconductor laser optical amplifiers,' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 132, 58-63 (1985).
  19. J. Piprek, S. Björling, and J. E. Bowers, 'Design and analysis of vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 127-134 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Westlake, M. J. Adams, and M. J. O'Mahony, 'Assessment of switching speed of optical bistability in semiconductor laser amplifiers,' Electron. Lett. 22, 541-543 (1986).
  21. P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. C. Esener, 'Optical bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA): pulsed input,' in Optics in Computing, Vol. 90 of OSA TOPS Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, 2003), pp. 75-77.

2006 (2)

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, 'Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55 μm VCSOA,' Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, J. A. Martin-Pereda, and M. J. Adams, 'Two-wavelength switching with a distributed-feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFBSOA),' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 153, 21-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. A. Martin Pereda, 'Modeling reflective bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Nonlinear gain in vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Wen, M. D. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Vertical-cavity optical AND gate,' Opt. Commun. 219, 383-387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

J. Piprek, S. Björling, and J. E. Bowers, 'Design and analysis of vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 127-134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. N. Maywar, Y. Nakano, and G. P. Agrawal, '1.31 μm-to-1.55 μm wavelength conversion by optically pumping a distributed feedback amplifier,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 858-860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, 'Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55 μm laser diode amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, 'Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2029-2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

W. F. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, 'High contrast, 1.3 μm optical AND gate with gain,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1510-1512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Nonaka, Y. Noguchi, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, 'Digital signal regeneration with side-injection-light-controlled bistable laser diode as a wavelength converter,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 139-141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1988 (1)

K. Inoue, 'High-speed all optical gate switching experiment in a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser amplifier,' Electron. Lett. 23, 921-922 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

H. Kawaguchi, H. Tani, and K. Inoue, 'Optical bistability using a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser amplifier with two holding beams,' Opt. Lett. 12, 513-515 (1987).

M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, 'Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers,' IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 134, 35-40 (1987).

1986 (1)

H. Westlake, M. J. Adams, and M. J. O'Mahony, 'Assessment of switching speed of optical bistability in semiconductor laser amplifiers,' Electron. Lett. 22, 541-543 (1986).

1985 (1)

M. J. Adams, J. V. Collins, and I. D. Henning, 'Analysis of semiconductor laser optical amplifiers,' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 132, 58-63 (1985).

1983 (1)

K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, 'Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier,' Electron. Lett. 19, 262-263 (1983).

Adams, M. J.

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, 'Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55 μm VCSOA,' Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, J. A. Martin-Pereda, and M. J. Adams, 'Two-wavelength switching with a distributed-feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFBSOA),' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 153, 21-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, 'Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55 μm laser diode amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, 'Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers,' IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 134, 35-40 (1987).

H. Westlake, M. J. Adams, and M. J. O'Mahony, 'Assessment of switching speed of optical bistability in semiconductor laser amplifiers,' Electron. Lett. 22, 541-543 (1986).

M. J. Adams, J. V. Collins, and I. D. Henning, 'Analysis of semiconductor laser optical amplifiers,' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 132, 58-63 (1985).

Agrawal, G. P.

D. N. Maywar, Y. Nakano, and G. P. Agrawal, '1.31 μm-to-1.55 μm wavelength conversion by optically pumping a distributed feedback amplifier,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 858-860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, 'Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2029-2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Björling, S.

J. Piprek, S. Björling, and J. E. Bowers, 'Design and analysis of vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 127-134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

J. Piprek, S. Björling, and J. E. Bowers, 'Design and analysis of vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 127-134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Collins, J. V.

M. J. Adams, J. V. Collins, and I. D. Henning, 'Analysis of semiconductor laser optical amplifiers,' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 132, 58-63 (1985).

Connolly, J. C.

Dagenais, M.

W. F. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, 'High contrast, 1.3 μm optical AND gate with gain,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1510-1512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Esener, S.

P. Wen, M. D. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Vertical-cavity optical AND gate,' Opt. Commun. 219, 383-387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Nonlinear gain in vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA),' Opt. Express 10, 1273-1278 (2002).

Esener, S. C.

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. C. Esener, 'Optical bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA): pulsed input,' in Optics in Computing, Vol. 90 of OSA TOPS Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, 2003), pp. 75-77.

Gonzalez-Marcos, A.

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, J. A. Martin-Pereda, and M. J. Adams, 'Two-wavelength switching with a distributed-feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFBSOA),' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 153, 21-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, 'Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55 μm VCSOA,' Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. A. Martin Pereda, 'Modeling reflective bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Nonlinear gain in vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Wen, M. D. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Vertical-cavity optical AND gate,' Opt. Commun. 219, 383-387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA),' Opt. Express 10, 1273-1278 (2002).

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. C. Esener, 'Optical bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA): pulsed input,' in Optics in Computing, Vol. 90 of OSA TOPS Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, 2003), pp. 75-77.

Hegarty, J.

Henning, I. D.

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, 'Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55 μm VCSOA,' Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Adams, J. V. Collins, and I. D. Henning, 'Analysis of semiconductor laser optical amplifiers,' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 132, 58-63 (1985).

Hurtado, A.

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, J. A. Martin-Pereda, and M. J. Adams, 'Two-wavelength switching with a distributed-feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFBSOA),' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 153, 21-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, 'Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55 μm VCSOA,' Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. A. Martin Pereda, 'Modeling reflective bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, 'High-speed all optical gate switching experiment in a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser amplifier,' Electron. Lett. 23, 921-922 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawaguchi, H. Tani, and K. Inoue, 'Optical bistability using a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser amplifier with two holding beams,' Opt. Lett. 12, 513-515 (1987).

Kawaguchi, H.

Kobayashi, S.

K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, 'Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier,' Electron. Lett. 19, 262-263 (1983).

Kurokawa, T.

K. Nonaka, Y. Noguchi, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, 'Digital signal regeneration with side-injection-light-controlled bistable laser diode as a wavelength converter,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 139-141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martin Pereda, J. A.

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. A. Martin Pereda, 'Modeling reflective bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Pereda, J. A.

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, J. A. Martin-Pereda, and M. J. Adams, 'Two-wavelength switching with a distributed-feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFBSOA),' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 153, 21-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maywar, D. N.

D. N. Maywar, Y. Nakano, and G. P. Agrawal, '1.31 μm-to-1.55 μm wavelength conversion by optically pumping a distributed feedback amplifier,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 858-860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, 'Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2029-2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, N. F.

Nakano, Y.

D. N. Maywar, Y. Nakano, and G. P. Agrawal, '1.31 μm-to-1.55 μm wavelength conversion by optically pumping a distributed feedback amplifier,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 858-860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, Y.

K. Nonaka, Y. Noguchi, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, 'Digital signal regeneration with side-injection-light-controlled bistable laser diode as a wavelength converter,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 139-141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nonaka, K.

K. Nonaka, Y. Noguchi, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, 'Digital signal regeneration with side-injection-light-controlled bistable laser diode as a wavelength converter,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 139-141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O'Gorman, J.

O'Mahony, M. J.

H. Westlake, M. J. Adams, and M. J. O'Mahony, 'Assessment of switching speed of optical bistability in semiconductor laser amplifiers,' Electron. Lett. 22, 541-543 (1986).

Otsuka, K.

K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, 'Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier,' Electron. Lett. 19, 262-263 (1983).

Pakdeevanich, P.

P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, 'Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55 μm laser diode amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, S. Björling, and J. E. Bowers, 'Design and analysis of vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 127-134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, M.

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA),' Opt. Express 10, 1273-1278 (2002).

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. C. Esener, 'Optical bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA): pulsed input,' in Optics in Computing, Vol. 90 of OSA TOPS Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, 2003), pp. 75-77.

Sanchez, M. D.

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Nonlinear gain in vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Wen, M. D. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Vertical-cavity optical AND gate,' Opt. Commun. 219, 383-387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharfin, W. F.

W. F. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, 'High contrast, 1.3 μm optical AND gate with gain,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1510-1512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tani, H.

Tsuda, H.

K. Nonaka, Y. Noguchi, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, 'Digital signal regeneration with side-injection-light-controlled bistable laser diode as a wavelength converter,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 139-141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wen, P.

P. Wen, M. D. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Vertical-cavity optical AND gate,' Opt. Commun. 219, 383-387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Nonlinear gain in vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA),' Opt. Express 10, 1273-1278 (2002).

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. C. Esener, 'Optical bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA): pulsed input,' in Optics in Computing, Vol. 90 of OSA TOPS Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, 2003), pp. 75-77.

Westlake, H.

H. Westlake, M. J. Adams, and M. J. O'Mahony, 'Assessment of switching speed of optical bistability in semiconductor laser amplifiers,' Electron. Lett. 22, 541-543 (1986).

Wyatt, R.

M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, 'Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers,' IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 134, 35-40 (1987).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. F. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, 'High contrast, 1.3 μm optical AND gate with gain,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1510-1512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, 'Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier,' Electron. Lett. 19, 262-263 (1983).

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, 'Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55 μm VCSOA,' Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, 'High-speed all optical gate switching experiment in a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser amplifier,' Electron. Lett. 23, 921-922 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Westlake, M. J. Adams, and M. J. O'Mahony, 'Assessment of switching speed of optical bistability in semiconductor laser amplifiers,' Electron. Lett. 22, 541-543 (1986).

IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. (1)

M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, 'Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers,' IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 134, 35-40 (1987).

IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. (2)

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, J. A. Martin-Pereda, and M. J. Adams, 'Two-wavelength switching with a distributed-feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFBSOA),' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 153, 21-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Adams, J. V. Collins, and I. D. Henning, 'Analysis of semiconductor laser optical amplifiers,' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 132, 58-63 (1985).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

J. Piprek, S. Björling, and J. E. Bowers, 'Design and analysis of vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 127-134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, 'Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55 μm laser diode amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, 'Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2029-2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. A. Martin Pereda, 'Modeling reflective bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

K. Nonaka, Y. Noguchi, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, 'Digital signal regeneration with side-injection-light-controlled bistable laser diode as a wavelength converter,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 139-141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Nonlinear gain in vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Maywar, Y. Nakano, and G. P. Agrawal, '1.31 μm-to-1.55 μm wavelength conversion by optically pumping a distributed feedback amplifier,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 858-860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Wen, M. D. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, 'Vertical-cavity optical AND gate,' Opt. Commun. 219, 383-387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

H. Kawaguchi, Bistabilities and Nonlinearities in Laser Diodes (Artech House, 1994).

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. C. Esener, 'Optical bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA): pulsed input,' in Optics in Computing, Vol. 90 of OSA TOPS Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, 2003), pp. 75-77.

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