Abstract

We present the performance limitations of an electronic code-division-multiple-access-based control signaling mechanism for wavelength division multiplexed packet networks. In this mechanism, a unique electronic code is allocated to each wavelength channel in the network and therefore can be electronically identified without a wavelength demultiplexer. We analyze the scalability of the signaling mechanism in the presence of noise and interference, and the optimum power tapping ratio for the error-free recovery of the payload data and electronic code-division-multiple-access-based control signal. Theoretical analyses were performed for the optimum control arm power tapping ratio for varying modulation depth and the transmission bit rate of the payload data signal.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Ooghe, J. D. Clercq, I. V. d. Voorde, Y. T'Joens, and J. D. Jaegher, 'Impact of the evolution of the metropolitan network on the DSL access architecture,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 140-145 (2003).
  2. X. Rong, G. Qian, and Y. Peida, 'A novel IP with MPLS over WDM-based broad-band wavelength switched IP network,' J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 596-602 (2001).
  3. S. Davidson, 'Testing LANs optically to the gigabit Ethernet standard,' IEEE Spectrum 34, 86-90 (1997).
  4. M. C. Nuss, 'Optical Ethernet in the Metro,' in Proceedings of the 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2001), p. 289.
  5. H. Shi and M. Kavehrad, 'ALOHA/slotted-CSMA protocol for a very high-speed optical fiber local area network using passive star topology,' in Proceedings of IEEE, the 10th Annual Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE, 1991), pp. 1510-1515.
  6. K. V. Shrikhande, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, S. M. Gemelos, M. S. Rogge, Y. Fukashiro, M. Avenarius, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'HORNET: a packet-over-WDM multiple access metropolitan area ring network,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 2004-2016 (2000).
  7. E. Park and A. E. Willner, 'Self-routing of wavelength packets using an all-optical wavelength shifter and QPSK subcarrier routing control headers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 938-940 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. G. Kazovsky, I. M. White, K. Shrikhande, and M. S. Rogge, 'High capacity metropolitan area networks for the next generation Internet,' in Proceedings of the 35th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (IEEE, 2001), pp. 3-7.
  9. D. Dey, A. van Bochove, A. Koonen, D. Geuzebroek, and M. Salvador, 'FLAMINGO: a packet-switched IP-over-WDM all-optical MAN,' in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2001), pp. 480-481.
  10. N. Nadarajah, E. Wong, and A. Nirmalathas, 'Packet labeling technique using electronic code-division multiple-access for WDM packet-based access networks,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 607-609 (2006).
  11. N. Nadarajah, A. Nirmalathas, and E. Wong, 'Packet labeling using electronic code division multiple access technique for WDM packet networks,' in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Optical Internet and 28th Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (2003), pp. 481-484.
  12. A. Mehrnia, K. Shakeri, A. A. Eftekhar, F. Soheili, M. Nassiri, and A. Fotowat, 'An all digital spread spectrum processor featuring multiplier free zero-IF down conversion, decimation, and multiplexed despreading,' in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Microelectronics (2000), pp. 363-366.
  13. S. K. S. Chan and V. C. M. Leung, 'An FPGA receiver for CPSK spread spectrum signaling,' 45, 181-191 (1999).
  14. G. Yunfeng, Z. Zhaoyang, C. Yanyan, J. Xiangfeng, and Q. Peilang, 'An all digital packet DS-CDMA transceiver for HFC network upstream transmission,' in Proceedings of LEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Circuits, Systems and Electronic Communication Systems (IEEE, 2000), pp. 694-698.
  15. J. Ramos, C. Crespo, E. Carballo, M. Burgos, J. M. De Bias, and J. L. Alonso, 'Digital DS-spread spectrum receiver with reduced computation cost,' in Proceedings of the Eighth Mediterranean Electro-technical Conference (1996), pp. 1039-1042.
  16. Q. Shi, S. R. Korfhage, and R. J. O'Dea, 'A low cost receiver design for DSSS location system,' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems and West Sino Expositions (IEEE, 2002), pp. 220-224.
  17. S. Yoshizawa, Y. Miyanaga, H. Ochi, Y. Itho, N. Hataoka, B. Sai, N. Takayama, and M. Hirata, '300-Mbps OFDM baseband transceiver for wireless LAN systems,' in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), p. 4.
  18. T. Onizawa, A. Ohta, Y. Asai, and S. Aikawa, 'Experimental evaluation of eigenbeam MIMO-OFDM implemented in FPGA for wireless LAN,' in Proceedings of the 63rd Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1782-1786.
  19. G. H. Smith, A. Nirmalathas, J. Yates, and D. Novak, 'Millimetre-wave fibre-radio system incorporating broadband radio CDMA,' in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communications (1998), pp. 671-672.
  20. D. Podwika, D. Stefanski, J. S. Witkowski, and E. M. Pawlik, 'Computer networks based on optical passive couplers,' in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2000), pp. 123-126.
  21. S. Kajiya, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, 'Proposal of fiber-optic highway networks using CDMA method,' in Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE International Conference on Universal Personal Communications (IEEE, 1995), pp. 496-500.
  22. C. Desem, 'Optical interference in subcarrier multiplexed systems with multiple optical carriers,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1290-1295 (1990).
  23. K. S. Shanmugam, Digital and Analog Communication Systems (Wiley, 1985).
  24. R. Ramaswami, Optical Networks--A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).
  25. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1997).
  26. J.-S. Baik and C.-H. Lee, 'Capacity analysis of a hybrid WDM/SCMA-PON,' in Proceedings of the Ninth Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (2005), pp. 762-763.

2006 (1)

N. Nadarajah, E. Wong, and A. Nirmalathas, 'Packet labeling technique using electronic code-division multiple-access for WDM packet-based access networks,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 607-609 (2006).

2003 (1)

S. Ooghe, J. D. Clercq, I. V. d. Voorde, Y. T'Joens, and J. D. Jaegher, 'Impact of the evolution of the metropolitan network on the DSL access architecture,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 140-145 (2003).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

K. V. Shrikhande, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, S. M. Gemelos, M. S. Rogge, Y. Fukashiro, M. Avenarius, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'HORNET: a packet-over-WDM multiple access metropolitan area ring network,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 2004-2016 (2000).

1999 (1)

S. K. S. Chan and V. C. M. Leung, 'An FPGA receiver for CPSK spread spectrum signaling,' 45, 181-191 (1999).

1997 (1)

S. Davidson, 'Testing LANs optically to the gigabit Ethernet standard,' IEEE Spectrum 34, 86-90 (1997).

1996 (1)

E. Park and A. E. Willner, 'Self-routing of wavelength packets using an all-optical wavelength shifter and QPSK subcarrier routing control headers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 938-940 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. Desem, 'Optical interference in subcarrier multiplexed systems with multiple optical carriers,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1290-1295 (1990).

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1997).

Aikawa, S.

T. Onizawa, A. Ohta, Y. Asai, and S. Aikawa, 'Experimental evaluation of eigenbeam MIMO-OFDM implemented in FPGA for wireless LAN,' in Proceedings of the 63rd Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1782-1786.

Alonso, J. L.

J. Ramos, C. Crespo, E. Carballo, M. Burgos, J. M. De Bias, and J. L. Alonso, 'Digital DS-spread spectrum receiver with reduced computation cost,' in Proceedings of the Eighth Mediterranean Electro-technical Conference (1996), pp. 1039-1042.

Asai, Y.

T. Onizawa, A. Ohta, Y. Asai, and S. Aikawa, 'Experimental evaluation of eigenbeam MIMO-OFDM implemented in FPGA for wireless LAN,' in Proceedings of the 63rd Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1782-1786.

Avenarius, M.

K. V. Shrikhande, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, S. M. Gemelos, M. S. Rogge, Y. Fukashiro, M. Avenarius, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'HORNET: a packet-over-WDM multiple access metropolitan area ring network,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 2004-2016 (2000).

Baik, J.-S.

J.-S. Baik and C.-H. Lee, 'Capacity analysis of a hybrid WDM/SCMA-PON,' in Proceedings of the Ninth Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (2005), pp. 762-763.

Burgos, M.

J. Ramos, C. Crespo, E. Carballo, M. Burgos, J. M. De Bias, and J. L. Alonso, 'Digital DS-spread spectrum receiver with reduced computation cost,' in Proceedings of the Eighth Mediterranean Electro-technical Conference (1996), pp. 1039-1042.

Carballo, E.

J. Ramos, C. Crespo, E. Carballo, M. Burgos, J. M. De Bias, and J. L. Alonso, 'Digital DS-spread spectrum receiver with reduced computation cost,' in Proceedings of the Eighth Mediterranean Electro-technical Conference (1996), pp. 1039-1042.

Chan, S. K. S.

S. K. S. Chan and V. C. M. Leung, 'An FPGA receiver for CPSK spread spectrum signaling,' 45, 181-191 (1999).

Clercq, J. D.

S. Ooghe, J. D. Clercq, I. V. d. Voorde, Y. T'Joens, and J. D. Jaegher, 'Impact of the evolution of the metropolitan network on the DSL access architecture,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 140-145 (2003).

Crespo, C.

J. Ramos, C. Crespo, E. Carballo, M. Burgos, J. M. De Bias, and J. L. Alonso, 'Digital DS-spread spectrum receiver with reduced computation cost,' in Proceedings of the Eighth Mediterranean Electro-technical Conference (1996), pp. 1039-1042.

Davidson, S.

S. Davidson, 'Testing LANs optically to the gigabit Ethernet standard,' IEEE Spectrum 34, 86-90 (1997).

De Bias, J. M.

J. Ramos, C. Crespo, E. Carballo, M. Burgos, J. M. De Bias, and J. L. Alonso, 'Digital DS-spread spectrum receiver with reduced computation cost,' in Proceedings of the Eighth Mediterranean Electro-technical Conference (1996), pp. 1039-1042.

Desem, C.

C. Desem, 'Optical interference in subcarrier multiplexed systems with multiple optical carriers,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1290-1295 (1990).

Dey, D.

D. Dey, A. van Bochove, A. Koonen, D. Geuzebroek, and M. Salvador, 'FLAMINGO: a packet-switched IP-over-WDM all-optical MAN,' in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2001), pp. 480-481.

Eftekhar, A. A.

A. Mehrnia, K. Shakeri, A. A. Eftekhar, F. Soheili, M. Nassiri, and A. Fotowat, 'An all digital spread spectrum processor featuring multiplier free zero-IF down conversion, decimation, and multiplexed despreading,' in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Microelectronics (2000), pp. 363-366.

Fotowat, A.

A. Mehrnia, K. Shakeri, A. A. Eftekhar, F. Soheili, M. Nassiri, and A. Fotowat, 'An all digital spread spectrum processor featuring multiplier free zero-IF down conversion, decimation, and multiplexed despreading,' in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Microelectronics (2000), pp. 363-366.

Fukashiro, Y.

K. V. Shrikhande, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, S. M. Gemelos, M. S. Rogge, Y. Fukashiro, M. Avenarius, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'HORNET: a packet-over-WDM multiple access metropolitan area ring network,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 2004-2016 (2000).

Gemelos, S. M.

K. V. Shrikhande, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, S. M. Gemelos, M. S. Rogge, Y. Fukashiro, M. Avenarius, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'HORNET: a packet-over-WDM multiple access metropolitan area ring network,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 2004-2016 (2000).

Geuzebroek, D.

D. Dey, A. van Bochove, A. Koonen, D. Geuzebroek, and M. Salvador, 'FLAMINGO: a packet-switched IP-over-WDM all-optical MAN,' in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2001), pp. 480-481.

Hataoka, N.

S. Yoshizawa, Y. Miyanaga, H. Ochi, Y. Itho, N. Hataoka, B. Sai, N. Takayama, and M. Hirata, '300-Mbps OFDM baseband transceiver for wireless LAN systems,' in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), p. 4.

Hirata, M.

S. Yoshizawa, Y. Miyanaga, H. Ochi, Y. Itho, N. Hataoka, B. Sai, N. Takayama, and M. Hirata, '300-Mbps OFDM baseband transceiver for wireless LAN systems,' in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), p. 4.

Itho, Y.

S. Yoshizawa, Y. Miyanaga, H. Ochi, Y. Itho, N. Hataoka, B. Sai, N. Takayama, and M. Hirata, '300-Mbps OFDM baseband transceiver for wireless LAN systems,' in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), p. 4.

Jaegher, J. D.

S. Ooghe, J. D. Clercq, I. V. d. Voorde, Y. T'Joens, and J. D. Jaegher, 'Impact of the evolution of the metropolitan network on the DSL access architecture,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 140-145 (2003).

Kajiya, S.

S. Kajiya, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, 'Proposal of fiber-optic highway networks using CDMA method,' in Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE International Conference on Universal Personal Communications (IEEE, 1995), pp. 496-500.

Kavehrad, M.

H. Shi and M. Kavehrad, 'ALOHA/slotted-CSMA protocol for a very high-speed optical fiber local area network using passive star topology,' in Proceedings of IEEE, the 10th Annual Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE, 1991), pp. 1510-1515.

Kazovsky, L. G.

K. V. Shrikhande, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, S. M. Gemelos, M. S. Rogge, Y. Fukashiro, M. Avenarius, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'HORNET: a packet-over-WDM multiple access metropolitan area ring network,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 2004-2016 (2000).

L. G. Kazovsky, I. M. White, K. Shrikhande, and M. S. Rogge, 'High capacity metropolitan area networks for the next generation Internet,' in Proceedings of the 35th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (IEEE, 2001), pp. 3-7.

Komaki, S.

S. Kajiya, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, 'Proposal of fiber-optic highway networks using CDMA method,' in Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE International Conference on Universal Personal Communications (IEEE, 1995), pp. 496-500.

Koonen, A.

D. Dey, A. van Bochove, A. Koonen, D. Geuzebroek, and M. Salvador, 'FLAMINGO: a packet-switched IP-over-WDM all-optical MAN,' in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2001), pp. 480-481.

Korfhage, S. R.

Q. Shi, S. R. Korfhage, and R. J. O'Dea, 'A low cost receiver design for DSSS location system,' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems and West Sino Expositions (IEEE, 2002), pp. 220-224.

Lee, C.-H.

J.-S. Baik and C.-H. Lee, 'Capacity analysis of a hybrid WDM/SCMA-PON,' in Proceedings of the Ninth Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (2005), pp. 762-763.

Leung, V. C. M.

S. K. S. Chan and V. C. M. Leung, 'An FPGA receiver for CPSK spread spectrum signaling,' 45, 181-191 (1999).

Mehrnia, A.

A. Mehrnia, K. Shakeri, A. A. Eftekhar, F. Soheili, M. Nassiri, and A. Fotowat, 'An all digital spread spectrum processor featuring multiplier free zero-IF down conversion, decimation, and multiplexed despreading,' in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Microelectronics (2000), pp. 363-366.

Miyanaga, Y.

S. Yoshizawa, Y. Miyanaga, H. Ochi, Y. Itho, N. Hataoka, B. Sai, N. Takayama, and M. Hirata, '300-Mbps OFDM baseband transceiver for wireless LAN systems,' in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), p. 4.

Nadarajah, N.

N. Nadarajah, E. Wong, and A. Nirmalathas, 'Packet labeling technique using electronic code-division multiple-access for WDM packet-based access networks,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 607-609 (2006).

N. Nadarajah, A. Nirmalathas, and E. Wong, 'Packet labeling using electronic code division multiple access technique for WDM packet networks,' in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Optical Internet and 28th Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (2003), pp. 481-484.

Nassiri, M.

A. Mehrnia, K. Shakeri, A. A. Eftekhar, F. Soheili, M. Nassiri, and A. Fotowat, 'An all digital spread spectrum processor featuring multiplier free zero-IF down conversion, decimation, and multiplexed despreading,' in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Microelectronics (2000), pp. 363-366.

Nirmalathas, A.

N. Nadarajah, E. Wong, and A. Nirmalathas, 'Packet labeling technique using electronic code-division multiple-access for WDM packet-based access networks,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 607-609 (2006).

N. Nadarajah, A. Nirmalathas, and E. Wong, 'Packet labeling using electronic code division multiple access technique for WDM packet networks,' in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Optical Internet and 28th Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (2003), pp. 481-484.

G. H. Smith, A. Nirmalathas, J. Yates, and D. Novak, 'Millimetre-wave fibre-radio system incorporating broadband radio CDMA,' in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communications (1998), pp. 671-672.

Novak, D.

G. H. Smith, A. Nirmalathas, J. Yates, and D. Novak, 'Millimetre-wave fibre-radio system incorporating broadband radio CDMA,' in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communications (1998), pp. 671-672.

Nuss, M. C.

M. C. Nuss, 'Optical Ethernet in the Metro,' in Proceedings of the 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2001), p. 289.

Ochi, H.

S. Yoshizawa, Y. Miyanaga, H. Ochi, Y. Itho, N. Hataoka, B. Sai, N. Takayama, and M. Hirata, '300-Mbps OFDM baseband transceiver for wireless LAN systems,' in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), p. 4.

O'Dea, R. J.

Q. Shi, S. R. Korfhage, and R. J. O'Dea, 'A low cost receiver design for DSSS location system,' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems and West Sino Expositions (IEEE, 2002), pp. 220-224.

Ohta, A.

T. Onizawa, A. Ohta, Y. Asai, and S. Aikawa, 'Experimental evaluation of eigenbeam MIMO-OFDM implemented in FPGA for wireless LAN,' in Proceedings of the 63rd Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1782-1786.

Onizawa, T.

T. Onizawa, A. Ohta, Y. Asai, and S. Aikawa, 'Experimental evaluation of eigenbeam MIMO-OFDM implemented in FPGA for wireless LAN,' in Proceedings of the 63rd Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1782-1786.

Ooghe, S.

S. Ooghe, J. D. Clercq, I. V. d. Voorde, Y. T'Joens, and J. D. Jaegher, 'Impact of the evolution of the metropolitan network on the DSL access architecture,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 140-145 (2003).

Park, E.

E. Park and A. E. Willner, 'Self-routing of wavelength packets using an all-optical wavelength shifter and QPSK subcarrier routing control headers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 938-940 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pawlik, E. M.

D. Podwika, D. Stefanski, J. S. Witkowski, and E. M. Pawlik, 'Computer networks based on optical passive couplers,' in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2000), pp. 123-126.

Peida, Y.

Peilang, Q.

G. Yunfeng, Z. Zhaoyang, C. Yanyan, J. Xiangfeng, and Q. Peilang, 'An all digital packet DS-CDMA transceiver for HFC network upstream transmission,' in Proceedings of LEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Circuits, Systems and Electronic Communication Systems (IEEE, 2000), pp. 694-698.

Podwika, D.

D. Podwika, D. Stefanski, J. S. Witkowski, and E. M. Pawlik, 'Computer networks based on optical passive couplers,' in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2000), pp. 123-126.

Qian, G.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, Optical Networks--A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).

Ramos, J.

J. Ramos, C. Crespo, E. Carballo, M. Burgos, J. M. De Bias, and J. L. Alonso, 'Digital DS-spread spectrum receiver with reduced computation cost,' in Proceedings of the Eighth Mediterranean Electro-technical Conference (1996), pp. 1039-1042.

Rogge, M. S.

K. V. Shrikhande, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, S. M. Gemelos, M. S. Rogge, Y. Fukashiro, M. Avenarius, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'HORNET: a packet-over-WDM multiple access metropolitan area ring network,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 2004-2016 (2000).

L. G. Kazovsky, I. M. White, K. Shrikhande, and M. S. Rogge, 'High capacity metropolitan area networks for the next generation Internet,' in Proceedings of the 35th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (IEEE, 2001), pp. 3-7.

Rong, X.

Sai, B.

S. Yoshizawa, Y. Miyanaga, H. Ochi, Y. Itho, N. Hataoka, B. Sai, N. Takayama, and M. Hirata, '300-Mbps OFDM baseband transceiver for wireless LAN systems,' in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), p. 4.

Salvador, M.

D. Dey, A. van Bochove, A. Koonen, D. Geuzebroek, and M. Salvador, 'FLAMINGO: a packet-switched IP-over-WDM all-optical MAN,' in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2001), pp. 480-481.

Shakeri, K.

A. Mehrnia, K. Shakeri, A. A. Eftekhar, F. Soheili, M. Nassiri, and A. Fotowat, 'An all digital spread spectrum processor featuring multiplier free zero-IF down conversion, decimation, and multiplexed despreading,' in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Microelectronics (2000), pp. 363-366.

Shanmugam, K. S.

K. S. Shanmugam, Digital and Analog Communication Systems (Wiley, 1985).

Shi, H.

H. Shi and M. Kavehrad, 'ALOHA/slotted-CSMA protocol for a very high-speed optical fiber local area network using passive star topology,' in Proceedings of IEEE, the 10th Annual Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE, 1991), pp. 1510-1515.

Shi, Q.

Q. Shi, S. R. Korfhage, and R. J. O'Dea, 'A low cost receiver design for DSSS location system,' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems and West Sino Expositions (IEEE, 2002), pp. 220-224.

Shrikhande, K.

L. G. Kazovsky, I. M. White, K. Shrikhande, and M. S. Rogge, 'High capacity metropolitan area networks for the next generation Internet,' in Proceedings of the 35th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (IEEE, 2001), pp. 3-7.

Shrikhande, K. V.

K. V. Shrikhande, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, S. M. Gemelos, M. S. Rogge, Y. Fukashiro, M. Avenarius, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'HORNET: a packet-over-WDM multiple access metropolitan area ring network,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 2004-2016 (2000).

Smith, G. H.

G. H. Smith, A. Nirmalathas, J. Yates, and D. Novak, 'Millimetre-wave fibre-radio system incorporating broadband radio CDMA,' in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communications (1998), pp. 671-672.

Soheili, F.

A. Mehrnia, K. Shakeri, A. A. Eftekhar, F. Soheili, M. Nassiri, and A. Fotowat, 'An all digital spread spectrum processor featuring multiplier free zero-IF down conversion, decimation, and multiplexed despreading,' in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Microelectronics (2000), pp. 363-366.

Stefanski, D.

D. Podwika, D. Stefanski, J. S. Witkowski, and E. M. Pawlik, 'Computer networks based on optical passive couplers,' in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2000), pp. 123-126.

Takayama, N.

S. Yoshizawa, Y. Miyanaga, H. Ochi, Y. Itho, N. Hataoka, B. Sai, N. Takayama, and M. Hirata, '300-Mbps OFDM baseband transceiver for wireless LAN systems,' in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), p. 4.

T'Joens, Y.

S. Ooghe, J. D. Clercq, I. V. d. Voorde, Y. T'Joens, and J. D. Jaegher, 'Impact of the evolution of the metropolitan network on the DSL access architecture,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 140-145 (2003).

Tsukamoto, K.

S. Kajiya, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, 'Proposal of fiber-optic highway networks using CDMA method,' in Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE International Conference on Universal Personal Communications (IEEE, 1995), pp. 496-500.

van Bochove, A.

D. Dey, A. van Bochove, A. Koonen, D. Geuzebroek, and M. Salvador, 'FLAMINGO: a packet-switched IP-over-WDM all-optical MAN,' in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2001), pp. 480-481.

Voorde, I. V. d.

S. Ooghe, J. D. Clercq, I. V. d. Voorde, Y. T'Joens, and J. D. Jaegher, 'Impact of the evolution of the metropolitan network on the DSL access architecture,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 140-145 (2003).

White, I. M.

K. V. Shrikhande, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, S. M. Gemelos, M. S. Rogge, Y. Fukashiro, M. Avenarius, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'HORNET: a packet-over-WDM multiple access metropolitan area ring network,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 2004-2016 (2000).

L. G. Kazovsky, I. M. White, K. Shrikhande, and M. S. Rogge, 'High capacity metropolitan area networks for the next generation Internet,' in Proceedings of the 35th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (IEEE, 2001), pp. 3-7.

Willner, A. E.

E. Park and A. E. Willner, 'Self-routing of wavelength packets using an all-optical wavelength shifter and QPSK subcarrier routing control headers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 938-940 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Witkowski, J. S.

D. Podwika, D. Stefanski, J. S. Witkowski, and E. M. Pawlik, 'Computer networks based on optical passive couplers,' in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2000), pp. 123-126.

Wong, E.

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