Abstract

We examine the negative impact of wavelength conversion cascading on the performance of all-optical routing. When data in a circuit-switched connection are routed all optically from source to destination, each wavelength conversion performed along the lightpath of the connection causes some signal-to-noise deterioration. If the distortion of the signal quality becomes significant enough, the receiver would not be able to recover the original data. There is therefore an upper bound (threshold) on the number of wavelength conversions that a signal can go through when it is switched optically from its source to its destination. This constraint, which we refer to as the conversion cascading constraint, has largely been ignored by previous performance evaluation studies on all-optical routing. We proceed to show that existing static and dynamic routing and wavelength-assignment algorithms largely fail in the presence of the conversion cascading constraints. We then propose two constraint-aware dynamic algorithms: The first, greedy constraint-aware routing algorithm, minimizes the number of wavelength conversions for each connection establishing, and the second, weighted adaptive constraint-aware routing (W-ACAR) algorithm, considers the distribution of free wavelengths, the length of each route, and the conversion cascading constraints, jointly. The results conclusively demonstrate that the proposed algorithms, especially W-ACAR, can achieve much better blocking performance in the environment of full and sparse wavelength conversion.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. El Houmaidi, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Dominating set algorithms for sparse placement of full and limited wavelength converters in WDM optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 2, 162–177 (2003).
  2. H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wave length-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 1, 47–60 (2000).
  3. H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sabasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 100–108 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Ramaswami, A. Segall, “Distributed network control networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 5, 936–943 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. P. Pue, G. Xiao, “Analysis of blocking probabilities for connection management schemes in optical networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM (IEEE, 2001), Vol. 3, 1546–1550.
  6. A. Birman, “Computing approximate blocking probabilities for a class of all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 852–857 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4, 544–557 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Lee, V. Li, “A wavelength-convertible optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 962–970 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Lee, V. Li, “Routing and switching in a wavelength convertible optical network,” in Proceedings INFOCOM (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 2, 578–585.
  10. M. El Houmaidi, M. Bassiouni, “k-weighted minimum dominating sets for sparse wavelength converters placement under non-uniform traffic,” in 11th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunications Systems (MASCOTS’03) (IEEE, 2003), p. 56.
  11. G. Xiao, Y. Leung, “Algorithms for allocating wavelength converters in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 545–557 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Qin, Y. Yang, “Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032–2041 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Iness, B. Mukherjee, “Space wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM optical networks,” J. Photonic Networks Commun. 1, 183–205 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Sivakumar, S. Subramaniam, “On the performance impact of wavelength assignment and wavelength conversion architecture and placement algorithms,” SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. 3, 44–53 (2002).
  15. M. El Houmaidi, M Bassiouni, “Dependency based analytical model for computing connection blocking rates and its application in the sparse placement of optical converters,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 159–168 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955–966 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength conversion in WDM networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16. 1061–1073 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Lee, D. Geraghty, M. Verdiell, M. Ziari, A. Mathur, K. Vahala, “Cascaded wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in a strained semiconductor optical amplifier at 10Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 752–754 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Gao, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Evaluating the impact of wavelength conversion cascading on the performance of optical routing algorithms,” in Proceedings of The Fourth International Conference on Communications, Internet, and Information Technology (CIIT, 2006), pp. 112–117.
  20. Y. Yoo, S. Ahn, C. S. Kim, “Adaptive routing considering the number of available wavelengths in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1263–1273 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Zhou, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks using logical link representation and efficient bitwise computation,” J. Photonic Netw. Commun. 10, 333–346 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Li, A. Somani, “Dynamic wavelength routing congestion and neighborhood information,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 779–786 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. Karasan, E. Ayanoglu, “Effects of wavelength routing and selection algorithms on wavelength conversion gain in WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 186–196 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Chan, T. P. Yum, “Analysis of least congested path routing in WDM lightwave networks,” in Proceedings of INFOCOM, Ontario, Canada, June 1994, 962–969.
  25. X. Chu, B. Li, Z. Zhang, “A dynamic RWA algorithm in a wavelength-routed all-optical network with wavelength converters,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 3, 1795–1804.

2006 (1)

M. El Houmaidi, M Bassiouni, “Dependency based analytical model for computing connection blocking rates and its application in the sparse placement of optical converters,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 159–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. Zhou, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks using logical link representation and efficient bitwise computation,” J. Photonic Netw. Commun. 10, 333–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. El Houmaidi, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Dominating set algorithms for sparse placement of full and limited wavelength converters in WDM optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 2, 162–177 (2003).

Y. Yoo, S. Ahn, C. S. Kim, “Adaptive routing considering the number of available wavelengths in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1263–1273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

X. Qin, Y. Yang, “Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032–2041 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sivakumar, S. Subramaniam, “On the performance impact of wavelength assignment and wavelength conversion architecture and placement algorithms,” SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. 3, 44–53 (2002).

2001 (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sabasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 100–108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wave length-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 1, 47–60 (2000).

1999 (3)

J. Iness, B. Mukherjee, “Space wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM optical networks,” J. Photonic Networks Commun. 1, 183–205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Xiao, Y. Leung, “Algorithms for allocating wavelength converters in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 545–557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, A. Somani, “Dynamic wavelength routing congestion and neighborhood information,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 779–786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

E. Karasan, E. Ayanoglu, “Effects of wavelength routing and selection algorithms on wavelength conversion gain in WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 186–196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength conversion in WDM networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16. 1061–1073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. Lee, D. Geraghty, M. Verdiell, M. Ziari, A. Mathur, K. Vahala, “Cascaded wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in a strained semiconductor optical amplifier at 10Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 752–754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Ramaswami, A. Segall, “Distributed network control networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 5, 936–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

A. Birman, “Computing approximate blocking probabilities for a class of all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 852–857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4, 544–557 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955–966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. Lee, V. Li, “A wavelength-convertible optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 962–970 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.

Y. Yoo, S. Ahn, C. S. Kim, “Adaptive routing considering the number of available wavelengths in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1263–1273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ayanoglu, E.

E. Karasan, E. Ayanoglu, “Effects of wavelength routing and selection algorithms on wavelength conversion gain in WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 186–196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Azizoglu, M.

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4, 544–557 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bassiouni, M

M. El Houmaidi, M Bassiouni, “Dependency based analytical model for computing connection blocking rates and its application in the sparse placement of optical converters,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 159–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bassiouni, M.

B. Zhou, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks using logical link representation and efficient bitwise computation,” J. Photonic Netw. Commun. 10, 333–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. El Houmaidi, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Dominating set algorithms for sparse placement of full and limited wavelength converters in WDM optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 2, 162–177 (2003).

X. Gao, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Evaluating the impact of wavelength conversion cascading on the performance of optical routing algorithms,” in Proceedings of The Fourth International Conference on Communications, Internet, and Information Technology (CIIT, 2006), pp. 112–117.

M. El Houmaidi, M. Bassiouni, “k-weighted minimum dominating sets for sparse wavelength converters placement under non-uniform traffic,” in 11th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunications Systems (MASCOTS’03) (IEEE, 2003), p. 56.

Birman, A.

A. Birman, “Computing approximate blocking probabilities for a class of all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 852–857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K.

K. Chan, T. P. Yum, “Analysis of least congested path routing in WDM lightwave networks,” in Proceedings of INFOCOM, Ontario, Canada, June 1994, 962–969.

Chu, X.

X. Chu, B. Li, Z. Zhang, “A dynamic RWA algorithm in a wavelength-routed all-optical network with wavelength converters,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 3, 1795–1804.

El Houmaidi, M.

M. El Houmaidi, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Dominating set algorithms for sparse placement of full and limited wavelength converters in WDM optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 2, 162–177 (2003).

M. El Houmaidi, M. Bassiouni, “k-weighted minimum dominating sets for sparse wavelength converters placement under non-uniform traffic,” in 11th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunications Systems (MASCOTS’03) (IEEE, 2003), p. 56.

Gao, X.

X. Gao, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Evaluating the impact of wavelength conversion cascading on the performance of optical routing algorithms,” in Proceedings of The Fourth International Conference on Communications, Internet, and Information Technology (CIIT, 2006), pp. 112–117.

Geraghty, D.

R. Lee, D. Geraghty, M. Verdiell, M. Ziari, A. Mathur, K. Vahala, “Cascaded wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in a strained semiconductor optical amplifier at 10Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 752–754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Houmaidi, M. El

M. El Houmaidi, M Bassiouni, “Dependency based analytical model for computing connection blocking rates and its application in the sparse placement of optical converters,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 159–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iness, J.

J. Iness, B. Mukherjee, “Space wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM optical networks,” J. Photonic Networks Commun. 1, 183–205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jue, J. P.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sabasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 100–108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wave length-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 1, 47–60 (2000).

Karasan, E.

E. Karasan, E. Ayanoglu, “Effects of wavelength routing and selection algorithms on wavelength conversion gain in WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 186–196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

Y. Yoo, S. Ahn, C. S. Kim, “Adaptive routing considering the number of available wavelengths in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1263–1273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, V. Li, “A wavelength-convertible optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 962–970 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, V. Li, “Routing and switching in a wavelength convertible optical network,” in Proceedings INFOCOM (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 2, 578–585.

Lee, R.

R. Lee, D. Geraghty, M. Verdiell, M. Ziari, A. Mathur, K. Vahala, “Cascaded wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in a strained semiconductor optical amplifier at 10Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 752–754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leung, Y.

G. Xiao, Y. Leung, “Algorithms for allocating wavelength converters in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 545–557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

X. Chu, B. Li, Z. Zhang, “A dynamic RWA algorithm in a wavelength-routed all-optical network with wavelength converters,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 3, 1795–1804.

Li, G.

B. Zhou, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks using logical link representation and efficient bitwise computation,” J. Photonic Netw. Commun. 10, 333–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. El Houmaidi, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Dominating set algorithms for sparse placement of full and limited wavelength converters in WDM optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 2, 162–177 (2003).

X. Gao, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Evaluating the impact of wavelength conversion cascading on the performance of optical routing algorithms,” in Proceedings of The Fourth International Conference on Communications, Internet, and Information Technology (CIIT, 2006), pp. 112–117.

Li, L.

L. Li, A. Somani, “Dynamic wavelength routing congestion and neighborhood information,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 779–786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, V.

K. Lee, V. Li, “A wavelength-convertible optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 962–970 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, V. Li, “Routing and switching in a wavelength convertible optical network,” in Proceedings INFOCOM (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 2, 578–585.

Mathur, A.

R. Lee, D. Geraghty, M. Verdiell, M. Ziari, A. Mathur, K. Vahala, “Cascaded wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in a strained semiconductor optical amplifier at 10Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 752–754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sabasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 100–108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wave length-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 1, 47–60 (2000).

J. Iness, B. Mukherjee, “Space wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM optical networks,” J. Photonic Networks Commun. 1, 183–205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength conversion in WDM networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16. 1061–1073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pue, J. P.

J. P. Pue, G. Xiao, “Analysis of blocking probabilities for connection management schemes in optical networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM (IEEE, 2001), Vol. 3, 1546–1550.

Qin, X.

X. Qin, Y. Yang, “Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032–2041 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, B.

B. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength conversion in WDM networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16. 1061–1073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, R.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sabasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 100–108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, A. Segall, “Distributed network control networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 5, 936–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sabasrabuddhe, L.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sabasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 100–108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Segall, A.

R. Ramaswami, A. Segall, “Distributed network control networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 5, 936–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sivakumar, M.

M. Sivakumar, S. Subramaniam, “On the performance impact of wavelength assignment and wavelength conversion architecture and placement algorithms,” SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. 3, 44–53 (2002).

Somani, A.

L. Li, A. Somani, “Dynamic wavelength routing congestion and neighborhood information,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 779–786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Somani, A. K.

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4, 544–557 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, S.

M. Sivakumar, S. Subramaniam, “On the performance impact of wavelength assignment and wavelength conversion architecture and placement algorithms,” SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. 3, 44–53 (2002).

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4, 544–557 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

R. Lee, D. Geraghty, M. Verdiell, M. Ziari, A. Mathur, K. Vahala, “Cascaded wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in a strained semiconductor optical amplifier at 10Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 752–754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verdiell, M.

R. Lee, D. Geraghty, M. Verdiell, M. Ziari, A. Mathur, K. Vahala, “Cascaded wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in a strained semiconductor optical amplifier at 10Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 752–754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, G.

G. Xiao, Y. Leung, “Algorithms for allocating wavelength converters in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 545–557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Pue, G. Xiao, “Analysis of blocking probabilities for connection management schemes in optical networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM (IEEE, 2001), Vol. 3, 1546–1550.

Yang, Y.

X. Qin, Y. Yang, “Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032–2041 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

S. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955–966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, Y.

Y. Yoo, S. Ahn, C. S. Kim, “Adaptive routing considering the number of available wavelengths in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1263–1273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yum, T. P.

K. Chan, T. P. Yum, “Analysis of least congested path routing in WDM lightwave networks,” in Proceedings of INFOCOM, Ontario, Canada, June 1994, 962–969.

Zang, H.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sabasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 100–108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wave length-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 1, 47–60 (2000).

Zhang, Z.

X. Chu, B. Li, Z. Zhang, “A dynamic RWA algorithm in a wavelength-routed all-optical network with wavelength converters,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 3, 1795–1804.

Zhou, B.

B. Zhou, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks using logical link representation and efficient bitwise computation,” J. Photonic Netw. Commun. 10, 333–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ziari, M.

R. Lee, D. Geraghty, M. Verdiell, M. Ziari, A. Mathur, K. Vahala, “Cascaded wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in a strained semiconductor optical amplifier at 10Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 752–754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sabasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 100–108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (3)

A. Birman, “Computing approximate blocking probabilities for a class of all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 852–857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength conversion in WDM networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16. 1061–1073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yoo, S. Ahn, C. S. Kim, “Adaptive routing considering the number of available wavelengths in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1263–1273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Lee, D. Geraghty, M. Verdiell, M. Ziari, A. Mathur, K. Vahala, “Cascaded wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in a strained semiconductor optical amplifier at 10Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 752–754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

X. Qin, Y. Yang, “Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032–2041 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. El Houmaidi, M Bassiouni, “Dependency based analytical model for computing connection blocking rates and its application in the sparse placement of optical converters,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 159–168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (5)

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4, 544–557 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Ramaswami, A. Segall, “Distributed network control networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 5, 936–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, A. Somani, “Dynamic wavelength routing congestion and neighborhood information,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 779–786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Karasan, E. Ayanoglu, “Effects of wavelength routing and selection algorithms on wavelength conversion gain in WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 186–196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Xiao, Y. Leung, “Algorithms for allocating wavelength converters in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 545–557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. Lee, V. Li, “A wavelength-convertible optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 962–970 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955–966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

J. Photonic Netw. Commun. (1)

B. Zhou, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks using logical link representation and efficient bitwise computation,” J. Photonic Netw. Commun. 10, 333–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Photonic Networks Commun. (1)

J. Iness, B. Mukherjee, “Space wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM optical networks,” J. Photonic Networks Commun. 1, 183–205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Networks Mag. (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wave length-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 1, 47–60 (2000).

SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. (1)

M. Sivakumar, S. Subramaniam, “On the performance impact of wavelength assignment and wavelength conversion architecture and placement algorithms,” SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. 3, 44–53 (2002).

Other (6)

X. Gao, M. Bassiouni, G. Li, “Evaluating the impact of wavelength conversion cascading on the performance of optical routing algorithms,” in Proceedings of The Fourth International Conference on Communications, Internet, and Information Technology (CIIT, 2006), pp. 112–117.

J. P. Pue, G. Xiao, “Analysis of blocking probabilities for connection management schemes in optical networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM (IEEE, 2001), Vol. 3, 1546–1550.

K. Lee, V. Li, “Routing and switching in a wavelength convertible optical network,” in Proceedings INFOCOM (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 2, 578–585.

M. El Houmaidi, M. Bassiouni, “k-weighted minimum dominating sets for sparse wavelength converters placement under non-uniform traffic,” in 11th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunications Systems (MASCOTS’03) (IEEE, 2003), p. 56.

K. Chan, T. P. Yum, “Analysis of least congested path routing in WDM lightwave networks,” in Proceedings of INFOCOM, Ontario, Canada, June 1994, 962–969.

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