Abstract

Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems are highly attractive in today's communication scenario, since they offer large transmission capacity and also achieve higher spectral efficiency. A scheme to reduce four-wave mixing (FWM) cross talk by using optical spreading code-based channel frequency allocation to a set of unevenly spaced channels is proposed. This assignment scheme provides several advantages over previously proposed schemes. The performance of this scheme for equal and unequal spaced channels of 4- and 16-channel DWDM systems is analyzed for various coding formats, including return to zero, nonreturn to zero, carrier-suppressed return to zero, and vestigial-sideband return to zero. It is observed that unequal channel spacing provides an improvement in the Q factor for all coding formats, and it is also noted that the vestigial-sideband return to zero technique is more tolerant to FWM cross-talk components.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. R. Chraplyvy, ''Limitations imposed on lightwave communications by optical-fiber nonlinearities,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1548-1557 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. P. Agarwal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).
  3. Forgheri, R. W. Tackh, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, ''Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 754-756 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Inoue, ''Suppression technique for fiber FWM using optical multi-/demultiplexers and a delay line,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 455-461 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Watanabe and T. Chikama, ''Cancellation of four wave mixing in multichannel fiber transmission by midway optical phase conjunction,'' Electron. Lett. 30, 1156-1157 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Bogoni and Luca Potti, ''Effective channel allocation to reduce in band FWM crosstalk in DWDM transmission systems,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 387-392 (2004).
  7. R. Ramasami and S. N. Kumar, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective (Kauffman, 1998).
  8. M. Eiself, ''Limits on WDM systems due to four wave mixing: a statistical approach,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2261-2267 (1999).
  9. A. O. Yu and M. J. Mahoney, ''Optimisation of wavelength spacing in a WDM transmission system in the presence of fiber nonlinearities,'' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 142, 190-196 (1995).
  10. N. Shibata, R. P. Braun, and R. G. Waans, ''Phase mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four wave mixing in a single mode optical fiber,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1205-1210 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, and V. K. Wei, ''Optical orthogonal codes design, analysis and applications,'' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Kitayama, H. Sotobayashi, and N. Wada, ''Optical code division multiplexing and its applications to photonic networks,'' IEICE Trans. Fundamentals 12, 2616-2626 (1999).
  13. K. Inoue, ''Influence of fiber four wave mixing in multichannel RZ signal transmission,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 293-295 (1996).
  14. F. Forghieri, P. R. Prucnal, and R. W. Tkach, ''RZ versus NRZ in nonlinear WDM systems,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1035-1037 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E. A. Golovehenko, W. W. Patterson, R. L. Maybach, and N. S. Bergano, ''Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ modulation formats in a 64×12.3 Gb/s WDM transmission experiment over 9000 km,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WF4.
  16. L. N. Binh, B. Pujji, and S. L. Leong, ''Vestigial side band modulation formats for ultra-high capacity 40 Gb/s optical communication systems,'' Technical Report, Monash University (2003), pp. 23-29.
  17. T. Ono and Y. Yano, ''Key technologies for terabit/second WDM Systems with high spectral efficiency of over 1 bit/s/Hz,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2080-2088 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Sorio and E. Berglind, ''Optical filter impact on eye opening in vestigial sideband systems,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 433-439 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2004 (2)

A. Bogoni and Luca Potti, ''Effective channel allocation to reduce in band FWM crosstalk in DWDM transmission systems,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 387-392 (2004).

J. Sorio and E. Berglind, ''Optical filter impact on eye opening in vestigial sideband systems,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 433-439 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

L. N. Binh, B. Pujji, and S. L. Leong, ''Vestigial side band modulation formats for ultra-high capacity 40 Gb/s optical communication systems,'' Technical Report, Monash University (2003), pp. 23-29.

2001 (2)

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E. A. Golovehenko, W. W. Patterson, R. L. Maybach, and N. S. Bergano, ''Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ modulation formats in a 64×12.3 Gb/s WDM transmission experiment over 9000 km,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WF4.

G. P. Agarwal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

1999 (2)

M. Eiself, ''Limits on WDM systems due to four wave mixing: a statistical approach,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2261-2267 (1999).

K. Kitayama, H. Sotobayashi, and N. Wada, ''Optical code division multiplexing and its applications to photonic networks,'' IEICE Trans. Fundamentals 12, 2616-2626 (1999).

1998 (2)

T. Ono and Y. Yano, ''Key technologies for terabit/second WDM Systems with high spectral efficiency of over 1 bit/s/Hz,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2080-2088 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Ramasami and S. N. Kumar, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective (Kauffman, 1998).

1997 (1)

F. Forghieri, P. R. Prucnal, and R. W. Tkach, ''RZ versus NRZ in nonlinear WDM systems,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1035-1037 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. Inoue, ''Influence of fiber four wave mixing in multichannel RZ signal transmission,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 293-295 (1996).

1995 (1)

A. O. Yu and M. J. Mahoney, ''Optimisation of wavelength spacing in a WDM transmission system in the presence of fiber nonlinearities,'' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 142, 190-196 (1995).

1994 (2)

Forgheri, R. W. Tackh, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, ''Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 754-756 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. Watanabe and T. Chikama, ''Cancellation of four wave mixing in multichannel fiber transmission by midway optical phase conjunction,'' Electron. Lett. 30, 1156-1157 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. Inoue, ''Suppression technique for fiber FWM using optical multi-/demultiplexers and a delay line,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 455-461 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

A. R. Chraplyvy, ''Limitations imposed on lightwave communications by optical-fiber nonlinearities,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1548-1557 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, and V. K. Wei, ''Optical orthogonal codes design, analysis and applications,'' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

N. Shibata, R. P. Braun, and R. G. Waans, ''Phase mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four wave mixing in a single mode optical fiber,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1205-1210 (1987).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, G. P.

G. P. Agarwal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

Bakhshi, B.

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E. A. Golovehenko, W. W. Patterson, R. L. Maybach, and N. S. Bergano, ''Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ modulation formats in a 64×12.3 Gb/s WDM transmission experiment over 9000 km,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WF4.

Bergano, N. S.

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E. A. Golovehenko, W. W. Patterson, R. L. Maybach, and N. S. Bergano, ''Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ modulation formats in a 64×12.3 Gb/s WDM transmission experiment over 9000 km,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WF4.

Berglind, E.

Binh, L. N.

L. N. Binh, B. Pujji, and S. L. Leong, ''Vestigial side band modulation formats for ultra-high capacity 40 Gb/s optical communication systems,'' Technical Report, Monash University (2003), pp. 23-29.

Bogoni, A.

A. Bogoni and Luca Potti, ''Effective channel allocation to reduce in band FWM crosstalk in DWDM transmission systems,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 387-392 (2004).

Braun, R. P.

N. Shibata, R. P. Braun, and R. G. Waans, ''Phase mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four wave mixing in a single mode optical fiber,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1205-1210 (1987).
[Crossref]

Chikama, T.

S. Watanabe and T. Chikama, ''Cancellation of four wave mixing in multichannel fiber transmission by midway optical phase conjunction,'' Electron. Lett. 30, 1156-1157 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

Forgheri, R. W. Tackh, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, ''Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 754-756 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. R. Chraplyvy, ''Limitations imposed on lightwave communications by optical-fiber nonlinearities,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1548-1557 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chung, F. R. K.

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, and V. K. Wei, ''Optical orthogonal codes design, analysis and applications,'' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).
[Crossref]

Eiself, M.

Forgheri,

Forgheri, R. W. Tackh, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, ''Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 754-756 (1994).
[Crossref]

Forghieri, F.

F. Forghieri, P. R. Prucnal, and R. W. Tkach, ''RZ versus NRZ in nonlinear WDM systems,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1035-1037 (1997).
[Crossref]

Golovehenko, E. A.

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E. A. Golovehenko, W. W. Patterson, R. L. Maybach, and N. S. Bergano, ''Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ modulation formats in a 64×12.3 Gb/s WDM transmission experiment over 9000 km,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WF4.

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, ''Influence of fiber four wave mixing in multichannel RZ signal transmission,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 293-295 (1996).

K. Inoue, ''Suppression technique for fiber FWM using optical multi-/demultiplexers and a delay line,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 455-461 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kitayama, K.

K. Kitayama, H. Sotobayashi, and N. Wada, ''Optical code division multiplexing and its applications to photonic networks,'' IEICE Trans. Fundamentals 12, 2616-2626 (1999).

Kumar, S. N.

R. Ramasami and S. N. Kumar, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective (Kauffman, 1998).

Leong, S. L.

L. N. Binh, B. Pujji, and S. L. Leong, ''Vestigial side band modulation formats for ultra-high capacity 40 Gb/s optical communication systems,'' Technical Report, Monash University (2003), pp. 23-29.

Mahoney, M. J.

A. O. Yu and M. J. Mahoney, ''Optimisation of wavelength spacing in a WDM transmission system in the presence of fiber nonlinearities,'' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 142, 190-196 (1995).

Marcuse, D.

Forgheri, R. W. Tackh, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, ''Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 754-756 (1994).
[Crossref]

Maybach, R. L.

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E. A. Golovehenko, W. W. Patterson, R. L. Maybach, and N. S. Bergano, ''Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ modulation formats in a 64×12.3 Gb/s WDM transmission experiment over 9000 km,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WF4.

Ono, T.

T. Ono and Y. Yano, ''Key technologies for terabit/second WDM Systems with high spectral efficiency of over 1 bit/s/Hz,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2080-2088 (1998).
[Crossref]

Patterson, W. W.

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E. A. Golovehenko, W. W. Patterson, R. L. Maybach, and N. S. Bergano, ''Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ modulation formats in a 64×12.3 Gb/s WDM transmission experiment over 9000 km,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WF4.

Potti, Luca

A. Bogoni and Luca Potti, ''Effective channel allocation to reduce in band FWM crosstalk in DWDM transmission systems,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 387-392 (2004).

Prucnal, P. R.

F. Forghieri, P. R. Prucnal, and R. W. Tkach, ''RZ versus NRZ in nonlinear WDM systems,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1035-1037 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pujji, B.

L. N. Binh, B. Pujji, and S. L. Leong, ''Vestigial side band modulation formats for ultra-high capacity 40 Gb/s optical communication systems,'' Technical Report, Monash University (2003), pp. 23-29.

Ramasami, R.

R. Ramasami and S. N. Kumar, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective (Kauffman, 1998).

Salehi, J. A.

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, and V. K. Wei, ''Optical orthogonal codes design, analysis and applications,'' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).
[Crossref]

Shibata, N.

N. Shibata, R. P. Braun, and R. G. Waans, ''Phase mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four wave mixing in a single mode optical fiber,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1205-1210 (1987).
[Crossref]

Sorio, J.

Sotobayashi, H.

K. Kitayama, H. Sotobayashi, and N. Wada, ''Optical code division multiplexing and its applications to photonic networks,'' IEICE Trans. Fundamentals 12, 2616-2626 (1999).

Tackh, R. W.

Forgheri, R. W. Tackh, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, ''Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 754-756 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tkach, R. W.

F. Forghieri, P. R. Prucnal, and R. W. Tkach, ''RZ versus NRZ in nonlinear WDM systems,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1035-1037 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vaa, M.

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E. A. Golovehenko, W. W. Patterson, R. L. Maybach, and N. S. Bergano, ''Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ modulation formats in a 64×12.3 Gb/s WDM transmission experiment over 9000 km,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WF4.

Waans, R. G.

N. Shibata, R. P. Braun, and R. G. Waans, ''Phase mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four wave mixing in a single mode optical fiber,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1205-1210 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wada, N.

K. Kitayama, H. Sotobayashi, and N. Wada, ''Optical code division multiplexing and its applications to photonic networks,'' IEICE Trans. Fundamentals 12, 2616-2626 (1999).

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe and T. Chikama, ''Cancellation of four wave mixing in multichannel fiber transmission by midway optical phase conjunction,'' Electron. Lett. 30, 1156-1157 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wei, V. K.

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, and V. K. Wei, ''Optical orthogonal codes design, analysis and applications,'' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).
[Crossref]

Yano, Y.

T. Ono and Y. Yano, ''Key technologies for terabit/second WDM Systems with high spectral efficiency of over 1 bit/s/Hz,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2080-2088 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yu, A. O.

A. O. Yu and M. J. Mahoney, ''Optimisation of wavelength spacing in a WDM transmission system in the presence of fiber nonlinearities,'' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 142, 190-196 (1995).

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Watanabe and T. Chikama, ''Cancellation of four wave mixing in multichannel fiber transmission by midway optical phase conjunction,'' Electron. Lett. 30, 1156-1157 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. (1)

A. O. Yu and M. J. Mahoney, ''Optimisation of wavelength spacing in a WDM transmission system in the presence of fiber nonlinearities,'' IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 142, 190-196 (1995).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

N. Shibata, R. P. Braun, and R. G. Waans, ''Phase mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four wave mixing in a single mode optical fiber,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1205-1210 (1987).
[Crossref]

T. Ono and Y. Yano, ''Key technologies for terabit/second WDM Systems with high spectral efficiency of over 1 bit/s/Hz,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2080-2088 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Bogoni and Luca Potti, ''Effective channel allocation to reduce in band FWM crosstalk in DWDM transmission systems,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 387-392 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

K. Inoue, ''Influence of fiber four wave mixing in multichannel RZ signal transmission,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 293-295 (1996).

F. Forghieri, P. R. Prucnal, and R. W. Tkach, ''RZ versus NRZ in nonlinear WDM systems,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1035-1037 (1997).
[Crossref]

Forgheri, R. W. Tackh, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, ''Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 754-756 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, and V. K. Wei, ''Optical orthogonal codes design, analysis and applications,'' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. Fundamentals (1)

K. Kitayama, H. Sotobayashi, and N. Wada, ''Optical code division multiplexing and its applications to photonic networks,'' IEICE Trans. Fundamentals 12, 2616-2626 (1999).

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

K. Inoue, ''Suppression technique for fiber FWM using optical multi-/demultiplexers and a delay line,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 455-461 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. R. Chraplyvy, ''Limitations imposed on lightwave communications by optical-fiber nonlinearities,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1548-1557 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Sorio and E. Berglind, ''Optical filter impact on eye opening in vestigial sideband systems,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 433-439 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Eiself, ''Limits on WDM systems due to four wave mixing: a statistical approach,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2261-2267 (1999).

Other (4)

R. Ramasami and S. N. Kumar, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective (Kauffman, 1998).

B. Bakhshi, M. Vaa, E. A. Golovehenko, W. W. Patterson, R. L. Maybach, and N. S. Bergano, ''Comparison of CRZ, RZ and NRZ modulation formats in a 64×12.3 Gb/s WDM transmission experiment over 9000 km,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WF4.

L. N. Binh, B. Pujji, and S. L. Leong, ''Vestigial side band modulation formats for ultra-high capacity 40 Gb/s optical communication systems,'' Technical Report, Monash University (2003), pp. 23-29.

G. P. Agarwal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.