Abstract

Several optical add–drop multiplexers (OADM) and optical cross-connect (OXC) architectures and technologies have been proposed in the literature and are being used in existing networks. We present a comparison of these architectures and technologies from the failure behavior point of view, including power drop, in-band and out-band jamming, and wavelength misalignment.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Mas Machuca, I. Tomkos, and O. Tonguz, ''Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1508-1519 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, ''Optical add drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,'' presented at International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Warsaw, Poland, June 2003.
  3. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Gao, Z. Ghassemlooy, and P. Ball, ''Crosstalk analysis for all optical routers,'' presented at Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP 2002), Session E2.2, Stafford, UK, July 2002.
  5. A. Tzananaki ''Near and Longer Term Architectural Designs for OACs/OADMs/Network topologies,'' presented at Photonics in Switching 2003 Conference, Paris, France, September 2003.

2005 (1)

C. Mas Machuca, I. Tomkos, and O. Tonguz, ''Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1508-1519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, ''Optical add drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,'' presented at International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Warsaw, Poland, June 2003.

A. Tzananaki ''Near and Longer Term Architectural Designs for OACs/OADMs/Network topologies,'' presented at Photonics in Switching 2003 Conference, Paris, France, September 2003.

2002 (2)

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Gao, Z. Ghassemlooy, and P. Ball, ''Crosstalk analysis for all optical routers,'' presented at Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP 2002), Session E2.2, Stafford, UK, July 2002.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Ball, P.

R. Gao, Z. Ghassemlooy, and P. Ball, ''Crosstalk analysis for all optical routers,'' presented at Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP 2002), Session E2.2, Stafford, UK, July 2002.

Gao, R.

R. Gao, Z. Ghassemlooy, and P. Ball, ''Crosstalk analysis for all optical routers,'' presented at Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP 2002), Session E2.2, Stafford, UK, July 2002.

Ghassemlooy, Z.

R. Gao, Z. Ghassemlooy, and P. Ball, ''Crosstalk analysis for all optical routers,'' presented at Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP 2002), Session E2.2, Stafford, UK, July 2002.

Mas Machuca, C.

C. Mas Machuca, I. Tomkos, and O. Tonguz, ''Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1508-1519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

C. Mas Machuca, I. Tomkos, and O. Tonguz, ''Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1508-1519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, ''Optical add drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,'' presented at International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Warsaw, Poland, June 2003.

Tonguz, O.

C. Mas Machuca, I. Tomkos, and O. Tonguz, ''Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1508-1519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tzanakaki, A.

A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, ''Optical add drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,'' presented at International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Warsaw, Poland, June 2003.

Tzananaki, A.

A. Tzananaki ''Near and Longer Term Architectural Designs for OACs/OADMs/Network topologies,'' presented at Photonics in Switching 2003 Conference, Paris, France, September 2003.

Zacharopoulos, I.

A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, ''Optical add drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,'' presented at International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Warsaw, Poland, June 2003.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

C. Mas Machuca, I. Tomkos, and O. Tonguz, ''Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1508-1519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, ''Optical add drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,'' presented at International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Warsaw, Poland, June 2003.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Gao, Z. Ghassemlooy, and P. Ball, ''Crosstalk analysis for all optical routers,'' presented at Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP 2002), Session E2.2, Stafford, UK, July 2002.

A. Tzananaki ''Near and Longer Term Architectural Designs for OACs/OADMs/Network topologies,'' presented at Photonics in Switching 2003 Conference, Paris, France, September 2003.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Serial single λ OADM using (left) FBG and (right) TFF technologies.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Serial multiple λ OADM using (left) FBG and (right) TFF technologies.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Parallel OADM architecture based on AWG.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left, B&S OXC architecture; right, WS OXC architecture.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power drop case of study scenario. TX, transmitter; RX, receiver; Sens, sensitivity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Number of OADM stages allowed when different percentages of power drop occur with span lengths of (a) 40 and (b) 60 kms .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Number of OXC stages with different percentages of power drop for span lengths of (a) 40 and (b) 60 kms .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Basic scenario for the OSNR degradation study.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Model used to compute the equivalent NF.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of the analytical and simulated OSNR degradation for a different number of (a) amplifier and OADM spans, (b) amplifier and OXC spans.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relative OSNR difference of the studied OADM and OXC architectures with respect to the use of amplifiers.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Insertion loss dependence on wavelength misalignment distortion for different OADM architectures.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Insertion loss dependence on wavelength misalignment distortion for different OXC architectures.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of Parameters Used in the Analytical Study a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of In-Band and Out-Band Isolation Values (dB)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Behavior of the Studied Architectures for Each Failure Scenario

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

NF equivalent = NF 1 + NF 2 G 1 L OADM OXC ,
OSNR = P launched h f B O ( G 1 ) ( T amplifiers NF amplifier + T OADM OXC NF equivalent ) ,
P interf = P launched α L L circ ( N 1 ) L FBG - through L FBG - isolation L coupler ,
P signal = P add L combiner L coupler ,