Abstract

The relentless quest for processing speed in the range of teraflops and beyond has accelerated the need for scalable, parallel, high-performance computing (HPC) systems. To meet this high bandwidth and low power requirements, optical interconnect-based system architectures are being implemented by the HPC industry. While computer-aided design tools have significantly assisted electronic system simulation, the field of system level optoelectronics modeling has lagged behind owing to lack of simulation methodologies and tools. This paper explores the design space of developing OPTISIM, a system level modeling and simulation methodology of optical interconnects for HPC systems. OPTISIM can provide computer architects, designers, and researchers a highly optimized, efficient, and accurate discrete-event environment to test various research hypotheses on HPC systems with power-performance implications. For any given optical interconnect architecture with optical transceivers, wavelength assignment, and traffic patterns, OPTISIM provides end users with network throughput, average latency, power loss, power consumption, and signal strength at the output. The proposed OPTISIM simulation methodology is explained with a case study on the performance of an optical HPC architecture called RAPID.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 115-128 (2004).
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  6. B. K. Whitlock, J. J. Morikuni, E. Conforti, and S.-M. Kang, 'Simulating optical interconnects,' IEEE Circuits Syst. Mag. 11, 12-18 (1995).
  7. P. K. Pepelijugoski and D. M. Kuchta, 'Design of optical communications data links,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 47, 223-237 (2003).
  8. M. Kahrs, S. P. Levitan, D. M. Chiarulli, T. P. Kurzweg, J. A. Martnez, J. Boles, A. J. Davare, E. Jackson, C. Windish, F. Kiamilev, A. Bhaduri, M. Taufik, X. Wang, A. S. Morris, J. Kruchowski, and B. K. Gilbert, 'System-level modeling and simulation of 10g optoelectronic interconnect,' J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3244-3256 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  19. A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, 'Design of a high-speed optical interconnect for scalable shared memory multiprocessors,' IEEE Micro 25, 41-49 (2005).
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  21. F. Petrini, E. Frachtenberg, A. Hoisie, and S. Coll, 'Performance evaluation of the quadrics interconnection network,' J. Cluster Comput. 6, 125-142 (2003).
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  23. B. Towles and W. J. Dally, 'Worst-case traffic for oblivious routing functions,' in ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA) (ACM, 2002), pp. 1-8.
  24. Y. Qian, A. Afsahi, N. R. Fredrickson, and R. Zamani, 'Performance evaluation of the sun fire link smp clusters,' in Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on High Performance Computing Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 145-156.
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2006

J. J. Yi and D. J. Lilja, 'Simulation of computer architectures: simulators, benchmarks, methodologies, and recommendations,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 55, 268-280 (2006).

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, B. A. Small, and K. Bergman, 'Physical layer scalability of wdm optical packet interconnection networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 262-270 (2006).

2005

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, 'Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, 'Design of a high-speed optical interconnect for scalable shared memory multiprocessors,' IEEE Micro 25, 41-49 (2005).

2004

2003

M. Kahrs, S. P. Levitan, D. M. Chiarulli, T. P. Kurzweg, J. A. Martnez, J. Boles, A. J. Davare, E. Jackson, C. Windish, F. Kiamilev, A. Bhaduri, M. Taufik, X. Wang, A. S. Morris, J. Kruchowski, and B. K. Gilbert, 'System-level modeling and simulation of 10g optoelectronic interconnect,' J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3244-3256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Petrini, E. Frachtenberg, A. Hoisie, and S. Coll, 'Performance evaluation of the quadrics interconnection network,' J. Cluster Comput. 6, 125-142 (2003).

P. K. Pepelijugoski and D. M. Kuchta, 'Design of optical communications data links,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 47, 223-237 (2003).

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Alameldeen, M. M. K. Martin, C. J. Mauer, K. E. Moore, M. Xu, M. D. Hill, D. A. Wood, and D. J. Sorin, 'Simulating a $2m commercial server on a $2k PC,' IEEE Computer 36, 50-57 (2003).

2000

1999

1995

B. K. Whitlock, J. J. Morikuni, E. Conforti, and S.-M. Kang, 'Simulating optical interconnects,' IEEE Circuits Syst. Mag. 11, 12-18 (1995).

Adve, S. V.

V. Pai, P. Ranganathan, and S. V. Adve, RSIM Reference Manual Version 1.0 (Rice Univ., 1997).

Afsahi, A.

Y. Qian, A. Afsahi, N. R. Fredrickson, and R. Zamani, 'Performance evaluation of the sun fire link smp clusters,' in Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on High Performance Computing Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 145-156.

Alameldeen, A. R.

A. R. Alameldeen, M. M. K. Martin, C. J. Mauer, K. E. Moore, M. Xu, M. D. Hill, D. A. Wood, and D. J. Sorin, 'Simulating a $2m commercial server on a $2k PC,' IEEE Computer 36, 50-57 (2003).

Alduino, A.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 115-128 (2004).

Andreou, A. G.

A. Apsel and A. G. Andreou, 'Analysis of short distance optoelectronic link architectures,' in Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 840-843.

Apsel, A.

A. Apsel and A. G. Andreou, 'Analysis of short distance optoelectronic link architectures,' in Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 840-843.

Barbary, G.

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, B.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 115-128 (2004).

Benner, A. F.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, 'Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

Bergman, K.

Bhaduri, A.

Boles, J.

Braunisch, H.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 115-128 (2004).

Campenhut, J. V.

Charlot, J.-J.

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, L.-S. Peh, G.-Y. Wei, Y.-K. Huang, and P. Prucnal, 'Exploring the design space of power-aware opto-electronic networked systems,' in 11th International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-11), (IEEE, 2005), pp. 120-131.

Chiarulli, D. M.

Cho, H.

Coll, S.

F. Petrini, E. Frachtenberg, A. Hoisie, and S. Coll, 'Performance evaluation of the quadrics interconnection network,' J. Cluster Comput. 6, 125-142 (2003).

Collet, J. H.

Conforti, E.

B. K. Whitlock, J. J. Morikuni, E. Conforti, and S.-M. Kang, 'Simulating optical interconnects,' IEEE Circuits Syst. Mag. 11, 12-18 (1995).

Constant, S.

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dally, W. J.

A. Singh, W. J. Dally, and B. Towles, 'Goal: a load balanced adaptive routing logarithm for torus networks,' in Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE, 2003), pp. 194-205.

W. J. Dally and B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

B. Towles and W. J. Dally, 'Worst-case traffic for oblivious routing functions,' in ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA) (ACM, 2002), pp. 1-8.

Davare, A. J.

Desgreys, P.

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Desmulliez, M.

Destrez, A.

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Esener, S. C.

Fan, C.

Frachtenberg, E.

F. Petrini, E. Frachtenberg, A. Hoisie, and S. Coll, 'Performance evaluation of the quadrics interconnection network,' J. Cluster Comput. 6, 125-142 (2003).

Fredrickson, N. R.

Y. Qian, A. Afsahi, N. R. Fredrickson, and R. Zamani, 'Performance evaluation of the sun fire link smp clusters,' in Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on High Performance Computing Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 145-156.

Gilbert, B. K.

Goodman, J.

Ha, J.-H.

J.-H. Ha and T. M. Pinkston, 'The speed cache coherence for an optical multi-access interconnect architecture,' in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (IEEE, 1995), pp. 98-107.

Heck, J.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 115-128 (2004).

Herv, Y.

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. D.

A. R. Alameldeen, M. M. K. Martin, C. J. Mauer, K. E. Moore, M. Xu, M. D. Hill, D. A. Wood, and D. J. Sorin, 'Simulating a $2m commercial server on a $2k PC,' IEEE Computer 36, 50-57 (2003).

Hoisie, A.

F. Petrini, E. Frachtenberg, A. Hoisie, and S. Coll, 'Performance evaluation of the quadrics interconnection network,' J. Cluster Comput. 6, 125-142 (2003).

Huang, Y.-K.

X. Chen, L.-S. Peh, G.-Y. Wei, Y.-K. Huang, and P. Prucnal, 'Exploring the design space of power-aware opto-electronic networked systems,' in 11th International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-11), (IEEE, 2005), pp. 120-131.

Ignatowski, M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, 'Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

Jackson, E.

Jesshope, C.

Jump, J. R.

J. R. Jump, YACSIM Reference Manual (Rice Univ., 1993).

Kahrs, M.

Kang, S.-M.

B. K. Whitlock, J. J. Morikuni, E. Conforti, and S.-M. Kang, 'Simulating optical interconnects,' IEEE Circuits Syst. Mag. 11, 12-18 (1995).

Kapur, P.

Karray, M.

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, 'Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

Kiamilev, F.

Kibar, O.

Kodi, A. K.

A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, 'Design of a high-speed optical interconnect for scalable shared memory multiprocessors,' IEEE Micro 25, 41-49 (2005).

A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, 'Rapid: reconfigurable and scalable all-photonic interconnect for distributed shared memory multiprocessors,' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2101-2110 (2004).

Kruchowski, J.

Kuchta, D. M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, 'Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

P. K. Pepelijugoski and D. M. Kuchta, 'Design of optical communications data links,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 47, 223-237 (2003).

Kurzweg, T. P.

Le Brun, C.

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levitan, S. P.

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

Lilja, D. J.

J. J. Yi and D. J. Lilja, 'Simulation of computer architectures: simulators, benchmarks, methodologies, and recommendations,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 55, 268-280 (2006).

Litaize, D.

Liu, A.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 115-128 (2004).

Louri, A.

Lu, D.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 115-128 (2004).

Marec, M.

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. M. K.

A. R. Alameldeen, M. M. K. Martin, C. J. Mauer, K. E. Moore, M. Xu, M. D. Hill, D. A. Wood, and D. J. Sorin, 'Simulating a $2m commercial server on a $2k PC,' IEEE Computer 36, 50-57 (2003).

Martnez, J. A.

Mauer, C. J.

A. R. Alameldeen, M. M. K. Martin, C. J. Mauer, K. E. Moore, M. Xu, M. D. Hill, D. A. Wood, and D. J. Sorin, 'Simulating a $2m commercial server on a $2k PC,' IEEE Computer 36, 50-57 (2003).

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, 'Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,' Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, E.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 115-128 (2004).

Mollier, J.-C.

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, R.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 115-128 (2004).

Moore, K. E.

A. R. Alameldeen, M. M. K. Martin, C. J. Mauer, K. E. Moore, M. Xu, M. D. Hill, D. A. Wood, and D. J. Sorin, 'Simulating a $2m commercial server on a $2k PC,' IEEE Computer 36, 50-57 (2003).

Morikuni, J. J.

B. K. Whitlock, J. J. Morikuni, E. Conforti, and S.-M. Kang, 'Simulating optical interconnects,' IEEE Circuits Syst. Mag. 11, 12-18 (1995).

Morris, A. S.

Pai, V.

V. Pai, P. Ranganathan, and S. V. Adve, RSIM Reference Manual Version 1.0 (Rice Univ., 1997).

Peh, L.-S.

X. Chen, L.-S. Peh, G.-Y. Wei, Y.-K. Huang, and P. Prucnal, 'Exploring the design space of power-aware opto-electronic networked systems,' in 11th International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-11), (IEEE, 2005), pp. 120-131.

Pepelijugoski, P. K.

P. K. Pepelijugoski and D. M. Kuchta, 'Design of optical communications data links,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 47, 223-237 (2003).

Petrini, F.

F. Petrini, E. Frachtenberg, A. Hoisie, and S. Coll, 'Performance evaluation of the quadrics interconnection network,' J. Cluster Comput. 6, 125-142 (2003).

Pez, Z. T. M.

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pinkston, T. M.

J.-H. Ha and T. M. Pinkston, 'The speed cache coherence for an optical multi-access interconnect architecture,' in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (IEEE, 1995), pp. 98-107.

Prucnal, P.

X. Chen, L.-S. Peh, G.-Y. Wei, Y.-K. Huang, and P. Prucnal, 'Exploring the design space of power-aware opto-electronic networked systems,' in 11th International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-11), (IEEE, 2005), pp. 120-131.

Qian, Y.

Y. Qian, A. Afsahi, N. R. Fredrickson, and R. Zamani, 'Performance evaluation of the sun fire link smp clusters,' in Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on High Performance Computing Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 145-156.

Ranganathan, P.

V. Pai, P. Ranganathan, and S. V. Adve, RSIM Reference Manual Version 1.0 (Rice Univ., 1997).

Rissons, A.

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, M. B.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, 'Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

Saraswat, K. C.

Singh, A.

A. Singh, W. J. Dally, and B. Towles, 'Goal: a load balanced adaptive routing logarithm for torus networks,' in Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE, 2003), pp. 194-205.

Small, B. A.

Snaidero, S.

Z. T. M. Pez, P. Desgreys, Y. Herv, C. Le Brun, J.-C. Mollier, G. Barbary, J.-J. Charlot, S. Constant, A. Destrez, M. Karray, M. Marec, A. Rissons, and S. Snaidero, 'Multilevel behavioral simulation of vcsel-based optoelectronic modules,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 949-960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sorin, D. J.

A. R. Alameldeen, M. M. K. Martin, C. J. Mauer, K. E. Moore, M. Xu, M. D. Hill, D. A. Wood, and D. J. Sorin, 'Simulating a $2m commercial server on a $2k PC,' IEEE Computer 36, 50-57 (2003).

Taufik, M.

Thienpont, H.

Thomas, T.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 115-128 (2004).

Towles, B.

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