Abstract

Feature Issue on Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

The emerging transparent optical networks, employing spectrally efficient modulation formats, require new methods for supervision of signal quality in order to maintain control over the transmission in all-optical domains. Optical performance monitoring of optical signal-to-noise ratio, chromatic dispersion, and polarization-mode dispersion in return-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift keying signals is demonstrated using asynchronous delay-tap sampling and pattern recognition algorithms. Precise estimation of parameters over a broad range of impairment levels and good degradation isolation is shown by means of numerical simulation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).
  2. D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).
  4. G. Charlet, "Progress in optical modulation formats for high-bit rate WDM transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 469-483 (2006).
  5. P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).
  6. R. Griffin and A. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2002), paper WX6.
  7. C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Gnauck and P. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. D. Dods and T. B. Anderson, "Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2006), paper OThP5.
  10. S. D. Dods, T. B. Anderson, K. Clarke, M. Bakaul, and A. Kowalczyk, "Asynchronous sampling for optical performance monitoring," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2007), paper OMM5.
  11. T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farrell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2006), paper OWN4.
  12. K. Clarke, T. B. Anderson, and S. D. Dods, "Monitoring of multiple modulation formats using asynchronous delay-tap sampling," in 6th International Conference on the Optical Internet--Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT), Melbourne, Australia (2007), paper MoA1-2.
  13. J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, "A survey of the Hough transform," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 44, 87-116 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. S. Nixon and A. S. Aguado, Feature Extraction and Image Processing (Newnes, 2002).
  15. Z. Li and G. Li, "Chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals based on asynchronous amplitude-histogram evaluation," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2859-2866 (2006).
  16. Z. Li and G. Li, "In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 472-474 (2006).
  17. B. Kozicki and H. Takara, "Application of asynchronous amplitude histogram method to monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals," in 12th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), Yokohama, Japan (2007), paper 13A1-2.
  18. Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
  19. Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Song, R. Motaghian, S. Havstad, and A. E. Willner, "Monitoring chromatic dispersion and PMD impairments in optical differential phase-shift-keyed (DPSK) systems," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2003), paper WP1.
  20. J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4541-4550 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).

2006 (5)

S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).

G. Charlet, "Progress in optical modulation formats for high-bit rate WDM transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 469-483 (2006).

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

Z. Li and G. Li, "Chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals based on asynchronous amplitude-histogram evaluation," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2859-2866 (2006).

Z. Li and G. Li, "In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 472-474 (2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).

2000 (1)

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4541-4550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, "A survey of the Hough transform," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 44, 87-116 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aguado, A. S.

M. S. Nixon and A. S. Aguado, Feature Extraction and Image Processing (Newnes, 2002).

Anderson, T. B.

K. Clarke, T. B. Anderson, and S. D. Dods, "Monitoring of multiple modulation formats using asynchronous delay-tap sampling," in 6th International Conference on the Optical Internet--Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT), Melbourne, Australia (2007), paper MoA1-2.

S. D. Dods and T. B. Anderson, "Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2006), paper OThP5.

S. D. Dods, T. B. Anderson, K. Clarke, M. Bakaul, and A. Kowalczyk, "Asynchronous sampling for optical performance monitoring," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2007), paper OMM5.

T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farrell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2006), paper OWN4.

Bach, R.

Bakaul, M.

S. D. Dods, T. B. Anderson, K. Clarke, M. Bakaul, and A. Kowalczyk, "Asynchronous sampling for optical performance monitoring," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2007), paper OMM5.

Blumenthal, D.

Carter, A.

R. Griffin and A. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2002), paper WX6.

Charlet, G.

G. Charlet, "Progress in optical modulation formats for high-bit rate WDM transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 469-483 (2006).

Christen, L.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).

Clarke, K.

K. Clarke, T. B. Anderson, and S. D. Dods, "Monitoring of multiple modulation formats using asynchronous delay-tap sampling," in 6th International Conference on the Optical Internet--Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT), Melbourne, Australia (2007), paper MoA1-2.

S. D. Dods, T. B. Anderson, K. Clarke, M. Bakaul, and A. Kowalczyk, "Asynchronous sampling for optical performance monitoring," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2007), paper OMM5.

Dods, S. D.

T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farrell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2006), paper OWN4.

S. D. Dods and T. B. Anderson, "Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2006), paper OThP5.

S. D. Dods, T. B. Anderson, K. Clarke, M. Bakaul, and A. Kowalczyk, "Asynchronous sampling for optical performance monitoring," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2007), paper OMM5.

K. Clarke, T. B. Anderson, and S. D. Dods, "Monitoring of multiple modulation formats using asynchronous delay-tap sampling," in 6th International Conference on the Optical Internet--Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT), Melbourne, Australia (2007), paper MoA1-2.

Einstein, D.

Essiambre, R.-J.

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

Farrell, P. M.

T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farrell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2006), paper OWN4.

Gnauck, A.

Gordon, J. P.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4541-4550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, R.

R. Griffin and A. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2002), paper WX6.

Havstad, S.

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Song, R. Motaghian, S. Havstad, and A. E. Willner, "Monitoring chromatic dispersion and PMD impairments in optical differential phase-shift-keyed (DPSK) systems," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2003), paper WP1.

Illingworth, J.

J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, "A survey of the Hough transform," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 44, 87-116 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).

Kilper, D.

Kittler, J.

J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, "A survey of the Hough transform," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 44, 87-116 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4541-4550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

S. D. Dods, T. B. Anderson, K. Clarke, M. Bakaul, and A. Kowalczyk, "Asynchronous sampling for optical performance monitoring," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2007), paper OMM5.

Kozicki, B.

B. Kozicki and H. Takara, "Application of asynchronous amplitude histogram method to monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals," in 12th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), Yokohama, Japan (2007), paper 13A1-2.

Landolsi, T.

Li, G.

Z. Li and G. Li, "In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 472-474 (2006).

Z. Li and G. Li, "Chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals based on asynchronous amplitude-histogram evaluation," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2859-2866 (2006).

Li, Z.

Z. Li and G. Li, "In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 472-474 (2006).

Z. Li and G. Li, "Chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals based on asynchronous amplitude-histogram evaluation," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2859-2866 (2006).

Liu, X.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lize, Y. K.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).

Mas, C.

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).

Motaghian, R.

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Song, R. Motaghian, S. Havstad, and A. E. Willner, "Monitoring chromatic dispersion and PMD impairments in optical differential phase-shift-keyed (DPSK) systems," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2003), paper WP1.

Nixon, M. S.

M. S. Nixon and A. S. Aguado, Feature Extraction and Image Processing (Newnes, 2002).

Nuccio, S.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).

Ostar, L.

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Song, R. Motaghian, S. Havstad, and A. E. Willner, "Monitoring chromatic dispersion and PMD impairments in optical differential phase-shift-keyed (DPSK) systems," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2003), paper WP1.

Preiss, M.

Saghari, P.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).

Song, Y.

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Song, R. Motaghian, S. Havstad, and A. E. Willner, "Monitoring chromatic dispersion and PMD impairments in optical differential phase-shift-keyed (DPSK) systems," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2003), paper WP1.

Takara, H.

B. Kozicki and H. Takara, "Application of asynchronous amplitude histogram method to monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals," in 12th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), Yokohama, Japan (2007), paper 13A1-2.

Tomkos, I.

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).

Tzanakaki, A.

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).

Varvarigos, E.

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).

Vogiatzis, D.

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).

Wang, Y.

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Song, R. Motaghian, S. Havstad, and A. E. Willner, "Monitoring chromatic dispersion and PMD impairments in optical differential phase-shift-keyed (DPSK) systems," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2003), paper WP1.

Wei, X.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Song, R. Motaghian, S. Havstad, and A. E. Willner, "Monitoring chromatic dispersion and PMD impairments in optical differential phase-shift-keyed (DPSK) systems," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2003), paper WP1.

Winzer, P.

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

Wong, E.

T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farrell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2006), paper OWN4.

Xu, C.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).

Yoo, S. J. B.

Zacharopoulos, I.

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).

Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. (1)

J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, "A survey of the Hough transform," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 44, 87-116 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. Charlet, "Progress in optical modulation formats for high-bit rate WDM transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 469-483 (2006).

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. Li and G. Li, "In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 472-474 (2006).

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4541-4550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Song, R. Motaghian, S. Havstad, and A. E. Willner, "Monitoring chromatic dispersion and PMD impairments in optical differential phase-shift-keyed (DPSK) systems," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2003), paper WP1.

R. Griffin and A. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2002), paper WX6.

S. D. Dods and T. B. Anderson, "Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2006), paper OThP5.

S. D. Dods, T. B. Anderson, K. Clarke, M. Bakaul, and A. Kowalczyk, "Asynchronous sampling for optical performance monitoring," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2007), paper OMM5.

T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farrell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California (2006), paper OWN4.

K. Clarke, T. B. Anderson, and S. D. Dods, "Monitoring of multiple modulation formats using asynchronous delay-tap sampling," in 6th International Conference on the Optical Internet--Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT), Melbourne, Australia (2007), paper MoA1-2.

B. Kozicki and H. Takara, "Application of asynchronous amplitude histogram method to monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals," in 12th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), Yokohama, Japan (2007), paper 13A1-2.

M. S. Nixon and A. S. Aguado, Feature Extraction and Image Processing (Newnes, 2002).

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