Abstract

Feature Issue on Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

I propose an integrated hybrid optical node (i-HON) architecture that is designed to combine both packet-switched and circuit-switched data in an effective manner to maximize link utilization, minimize communication latencies, and improve overall performance. I demonstrate the feasibility of i-HON by proposing a single wavelength optical header encoder and self-routing binary-encoded optical header address processing. I then develop dynamic hybrid routing heuristics and adapt these to the novel dynamic reconfiguration and routing algorithms suited for asynchronous bufferless optical networks that incorporate optical routing logic. I compare the performance of the presented algorithms. I use simulation results to show that i-HON provides overall system throughput performance improvements of up to 40% with ∼50% reduction in network latency.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. B. Stunkel, 'Commercial MPP networks: time for optics?,' in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (IEEE, 1997), pp. 90-95.
  2. R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, and B. J. Offrein, 'Silicon-oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications,' J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2237-2241 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. L. Bona, R. Germann, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and H. W. M. Salemink, 'Versatile silicon-oxynitride planar lightwave circuits for interconnect applications,' in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Parallel Interconnects (IEEE, 2000), pp. 145-148.
  4. D. A. B. Miller, 'Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,' Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Esener and P. Marchand, 'Present and future needs of free-space optical interconnects,' presented at the 14th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, Cancun, Mexico, 1-5 May 2000.
  6. J. Yu and G. K. Chang, 'A novel technique for optical label and payload generation and multiplexing using optical carrier suppression and separation,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 320-322 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. McDermott, Wireless Digital Communications: Design and Theory (Tucson Amateur Packet Radio Corporation, 1996).
  8. O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, R. Jordan, and K. Bergman, '10Gbps NRZ-DPSK modulation in SOA-based optical packet switching networks,' in Proceedings of the 31st European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 4, pp. 875-876.
  9. E. Okorafor and M. Lu, 'Percolation in a 3-dimensional multicomputer network topology using optical interconnection,' J. Opt. Netw. 4, 157-175 (2005).
  10. E. Okorafor and M. Lu, 'A self-routing strategy for 3D mesh-connected all-optical packet switched multiprocessor systems,' presented at the International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 20-24 July 2003.
  11. W. Shieh, X. Yi, and A. V. Tran, 'Label swapping for DPSK encoded labels without wavelength conversion,' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2005), p. 3.
  12. J. Kim and D. Lilja, 'Utilizing heterogeneous networks in distributed parallel computing systems,' in Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing (IEEE, 1997), p. 336.
  13. B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks (McGraw-Hill, 1997).
  14. R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, 'Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 858-867 (1996).
  15. S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, and S. Dixit, 'Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 84-90 (2000).
  16. C. Qiao and M. Yoo, 'Optical burst switching (OBS)--A new paradigm for an optical network,' J. High Speed Networks 8, 69-84 (1999).
  17. Y. Chen, C. Qaio, and X. Yu, 'Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,' IEEE Network 18, 16-23 (2004).
  18. S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, 'A unified study of contention resolution schemes in optical packet-switched networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Tarek, El-Bawab, and J. Shin, 'Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 60-65 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. Hunter, and A. Tzanakaki, 'The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 128-135 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Dutta and G. N. Rouskas, 'A survey of virtual topology design algorithms for wavelength routed optical networks,' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 73-89 (2000).
  22. H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, 'A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).
  23. C. Qiao, 'Labeled optical burst switching for IP-over-WDM integration,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 104-114 (2000).
  24. M. Dser and P. Bayvel, 'Analysis of a dynamically wavelength-routed optical burst switched network architecture,' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 574-586 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. I. de Miguel, E. Kozlovski, and P. Bayvel, 'Provision of end-to-end delay guarantees in wavelength-routed optical burst-switched networks,' in Proceedings of Next Generation Optical Network Design and Modelling ONDM'02, A.Bianco and F.Neri, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 2003), pp. 85-100.
  26. C. Dovrolis and P. Ramanathan, 'Dynamic class selection: from relative differentiation to absolute QoS,' in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP 2001) (IEEE, 2001), pp. 120-128.
  27. Y. Chen, M. Hamdi, D. H. K. Tsang, and C. Qiao, 'Proportional differentiation--A scalable QoS approach,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 52-58 (2003).

2005

2004

Y. Chen, C. Qaio, and X. Yu, 'Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,' IEEE Network 18, 16-23 (2004).

J. Yu and G. K. Chang, 'A novel technique for optical label and payload generation and multiplexing using optical carrier suppression and separation,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 320-322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Chen, M. Hamdi, D. H. K. Tsang, and C. Qiao, 'Proportional differentiation--A scalable QoS approach,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 52-58 (2003).

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, 'A unified study of contention resolution schemes in optical packet-switched networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Tarek, El-Bawab, and J. Shin, 'Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 60-65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Dser and P. Bayvel, 'Analysis of a dynamically wavelength-routed optical burst switched network architecture,' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 574-586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. Hunter, and A. Tzanakaki, 'The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 128-135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Dutta and G. N. Rouskas, 'A survey of virtual topology design algorithms for wavelength routed optical networks,' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 73-89 (2000).

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, 'A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).

C. Qiao, 'Labeled optical burst switching for IP-over-WDM integration,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 104-114 (2000).

R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, and B. J. Offrein, 'Silicon-oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications,' J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2237-2241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, 'Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,' Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, and S. Dixit, 'Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 84-90 (2000).

1999

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, 'Optical burst switching (OBS)--A new paradigm for an optical network,' J. High Speed Networks 8, 69-84 (1999).

1996

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, 'Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 858-867 (1996).

Bayvel, P.

M. Dser and P. Bayvel, 'Analysis of a dynamically wavelength-routed optical burst switched network architecture,' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 574-586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. de Miguel, E. Kozlovski, and P. Bayvel, 'Provision of end-to-end delay guarantees in wavelength-routed optical burst-switched networks,' in Proceedings of Next Generation Optical Network Design and Modelling ONDM'02, A.Bianco and F.Neri, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 2003), pp. 85-100.

Bergman, K.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, R. Jordan, and K. Bergman, '10Gbps NRZ-DPSK modulation in SOA-based optical packet switching networks,' in Proceedings of the 31st European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 4, pp. 875-876.

Beyeler, R.

R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, and B. J. Offrein, 'Silicon-oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications,' J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2237-2241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bona, G. L.

R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, and B. J. Offrein, 'Silicon-oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications,' J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2237-2241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Bona, R. Germann, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and H. W. M. Salemink, 'Versatile silicon-oxynitride planar lightwave circuits for interconnect applications,' in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Parallel Interconnects (IEEE, 2000), pp. 145-148.

Chang, G. K.

J. Yu and G. K. Chang, 'A novel technique for optical label and payload generation and multiplexing using optical carrier suppression and separation,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 320-322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, C. Qaio, and X. Yu, 'Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,' IEEE Network 18, 16-23 (2004).

Y. Chen, M. Hamdi, D. H. K. Tsang, and C. Qiao, 'Proportional differentiation--A scalable QoS approach,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 52-58 (2003).

de Miguel, I.

I. de Miguel, E. Kozlovski, and P. Bayvel, 'Provision of end-to-end delay guarantees in wavelength-routed optical burst-switched networks,' in Proceedings of Next Generation Optical Network Design and Modelling ONDM'02, A.Bianco and F.Neri, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 2003), pp. 85-100.

Dixit, S.

Dovrolis, C.

C. Dovrolis and P. Ramanathan, 'Dynamic class selection: from relative differentiation to absolute QoS,' in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP 2001) (IEEE, 2001), pp. 120-128.

Dser, M.

Dutta, R.

R. Dutta and G. N. Rouskas, 'A survey of virtual topology design algorithms for wavelength routed optical networks,' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 73-89 (2000).

El-Bawab,

S. Tarek, El-Bawab, and J. Shin, 'Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 60-65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Esener, S.

S. Esener and P. Marchand, 'Present and future needs of free-space optical interconnects,' presented at the 14th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, Cancun, Mexico, 1-5 May 2000.

Germann, R.

R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, and B. J. Offrein, 'Silicon-oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications,' J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2237-2241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Bona, R. Germann, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and H. W. M. Salemink, 'Versatile silicon-oxynitride planar lightwave circuits for interconnect applications,' in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Parallel Interconnects (IEEE, 2000), pp. 145-148.

Hamdi, M.

Y. Chen, M. Hamdi, D. H. K. Tsang, and C. Qiao, 'Proportional differentiation--A scalable QoS approach,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 52-58 (2003).

Horst, F.

R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, and B. J. Offrein, 'Silicon-oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications,' J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2237-2241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Bona, R. Germann, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and H. W. M. Salemink, 'Versatile silicon-oxynitride planar lightwave circuits for interconnect applications,' in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Parallel Interconnects (IEEE, 2000), pp. 145-148.

Hunter, D.

M. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. Hunter, and A. Tzanakaki, 'The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 128-135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, R. Jordan, and K. Bergman, '10Gbps NRZ-DPSK modulation in SOA-based optical packet switching networks,' in Proceedings of the 31st European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 4, pp. 875-876.

Jue, J.

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, 'A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).

Kim, J.

J. Kim and D. Lilja, 'Utilizing heterogeneous networks in distributed parallel computing systems,' in Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing (IEEE, 1997), p. 336.

Kozlovski, E.

I. de Miguel, E. Kozlovski, and P. Bayvel, 'Provision of end-to-end delay guarantees in wavelength-routed optical burst-switched networks,' in Proceedings of Next Generation Optical Network Design and Modelling ONDM'02, A.Bianco and F.Neri, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 2003), pp. 85-100.

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, R. Jordan, and K. Bergman, '10Gbps NRZ-DPSK modulation in SOA-based optical packet switching networks,' in Proceedings of the 31st European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 4, pp. 875-876.

Lilja, D.

J. Kim and D. Lilja, 'Utilizing heterogeneous networks in distributed parallel computing systems,' in Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing (IEEE, 1997), p. 336.

Lu, M.

E. Okorafor and M. Lu, 'Percolation in a 3-dimensional multicomputer network topology using optical interconnection,' J. Opt. Netw. 4, 157-175 (2005).

E. Okorafor and M. Lu, 'A self-routing strategy for 3D mesh-connected all-optical packet switched multiprocessor systems,' presented at the International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 20-24 July 2003.

Marchand, P.

S. Esener and P. Marchand, 'Present and future needs of free-space optical interconnects,' presented at the 14th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, Cancun, Mexico, 1-5 May 2000.

McDermott, T.

T. McDermott, Wireless Digital Communications: Design and Theory (Tucson Amateur Packet Radio Corporation, 1996).

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, 'Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,' Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, 'A unified study of contention resolution schemes in optical packet-switched networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, 'A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, and S. Dixit, 'Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 84-90 (2000).

B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks (McGraw-Hill, 1997).

Offrein, B. J.

R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, and B. J. Offrein, 'Silicon-oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications,' J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2237-2241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Bona, R. Germann, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and H. W. M. Salemink, 'Versatile silicon-oxynitride planar lightwave circuits for interconnect applications,' in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Parallel Interconnects (IEEE, 2000), pp. 145-148.

Okorafor, E.

E. Okorafor and M. Lu, 'Percolation in a 3-dimensional multicomputer network topology using optical interconnection,' J. Opt. Netw. 4, 157-175 (2005).

E. Okorafor and M. Lu, 'A self-routing strategy for 3D mesh-connected all-optical packet switched multiprocessor systems,' presented at the International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 20-24 July 2003.

O'Mahony, M.

M. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. Hunter, and A. Tzanakaki, 'The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 128-135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qaio, C.

Y. Chen, C. Qaio, and X. Yu, 'Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,' IEEE Network 18, 16-23 (2004).

Qiao, C.

Y. Chen, M. Hamdi, D. H. K. Tsang, and C. Qiao, 'Proportional differentiation--A scalable QoS approach,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 52-58 (2003).

C. Qiao, 'Labeled optical burst switching for IP-over-WDM integration,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 104-114 (2000).

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, 'Optical burst switching (OBS)--A new paradigm for an optical network,' J. High Speed Networks 8, 69-84 (1999).

Ramanathan, P.

C. Dovrolis and P. Ramanathan, 'Dynamic class selection: from relative differentiation to absolute QoS,' in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP 2001) (IEEE, 2001), pp. 120-128.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, 'Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 858-867 (1996).

Rouskas, G. N.

R. Dutta and G. N. Rouskas, 'A survey of virtual topology design algorithms for wavelength routed optical networks,' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 73-89 (2000).

Salemink, H. W. M.

R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, and B. J. Offrein, 'Silicon-oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications,' J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2237-2241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Bona, R. Germann, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and H. W. M. Salemink, 'Versatile silicon-oxynitride planar lightwave circuits for interconnect applications,' in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Parallel Interconnects (IEEE, 2000), pp. 145-148.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh, X. Yi, and A. V. Tran, 'Label swapping for DPSK encoded labels without wavelength conversion,' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2005), p. 3.

Shin, J.

S. Tarek, El-Bawab, and J. Shin, 'Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 60-65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simeonidou, D.

M. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. Hunter, and A. Tzanakaki, 'The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 128-135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, 'Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 858-867 (1996).

Stunkel, C. B.

C. B. Stunkel, 'Commercial MPP networks: time for optics?,' in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (IEEE, 1997), pp. 90-95.

Tarek, S.

S. Tarek, El-Bawab, and J. Shin, 'Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 60-65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tran, A. V.

W. Shieh, X. Yi, and A. V. Tran, 'Label swapping for DPSK encoded labels without wavelength conversion,' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2005), p. 3.

Tsang, D. H. K.

Y. Chen, M. Hamdi, D. H. K. Tsang, and C. Qiao, 'Proportional differentiation--A scalable QoS approach,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 52-58 (2003).

Tzanakaki, A.

M. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. Hunter, and A. Tzanakaki, 'The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 128-135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yao, S.

Yi, X.

W. Shieh, X. Yi, and A. V. Tran, 'Label swapping for DPSK encoded labels without wavelength conversion,' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2005), p. 3.

Yoo, M.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, 'Optical burst switching (OBS)--A new paradigm for an optical network,' J. High Speed Networks 8, 69-84 (1999).

Yoo, S. J. B.

Yu, J.

J. Yu and G. K. Chang, 'A novel technique for optical label and payload generation and multiplexing using optical carrier suppression and separation,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 320-322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

Y. Chen, C. Qaio, and X. Yu, 'Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,' IEEE Network 18, 16-23 (2004).

Zang, H.

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, 'A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, and S. Dixit, 'Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 84-90 (2000).

S. Tarek, El-Bawab, and J. Shin, 'Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 60-65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. Hunter, and A. Tzanakaki, 'The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 128-135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Hamdi, D. H. K. Tsang, and C. Qiao, 'Proportional differentiation--A scalable QoS approach,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 52-58 (2003).

C. Qiao, 'Labeled optical burst switching for IP-over-WDM integration,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 104-114 (2000).

IEEE Network

Y. Chen, C. Qaio, and X. Yu, 'Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,' IEEE Network 18, 16-23 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Yu and G. K. Chang, 'A novel technique for optical label and payload generation and multiplexing using optical carrier suppression and separation,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 320-322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, 'Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 858-867 (1996).

J. Electrochem. Soc.

R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, and B. J. Offrein, 'Silicon-oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications,' J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2237-2241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. High Speed Networks

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, 'Optical burst switching (OBS)--A new paradigm for an optical network,' J. High Speed Networks 8, 69-84 (1999).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Netw.

Opt. Netw. Mag.

R. Dutta and G. N. Rouskas, 'A survey of virtual topology design algorithms for wavelength routed optical networks,' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 73-89 (2000).

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, 'A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).

Proc. IEEE

D. A. B. Miller, 'Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,' Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Esener and P. Marchand, 'Present and future needs of free-space optical interconnects,' presented at the 14th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, Cancun, Mexico, 1-5 May 2000.

G. L. Bona, R. Germann, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and H. W. M. Salemink, 'Versatile silicon-oxynitride planar lightwave circuits for interconnect applications,' in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Parallel Interconnects (IEEE, 2000), pp. 145-148.

T. McDermott, Wireless Digital Communications: Design and Theory (Tucson Amateur Packet Radio Corporation, 1996).

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, R. Jordan, and K. Bergman, '10Gbps NRZ-DPSK modulation in SOA-based optical packet switching networks,' in Proceedings of the 31st European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 4, pp. 875-876.

E. Okorafor and M. Lu, 'A self-routing strategy for 3D mesh-connected all-optical packet switched multiprocessor systems,' presented at the International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 20-24 July 2003.

W. Shieh, X. Yi, and A. V. Tran, 'Label swapping for DPSK encoded labels without wavelength conversion,' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2005), p. 3.

J. Kim and D. Lilja, 'Utilizing heterogeneous networks in distributed parallel computing systems,' in Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing (IEEE, 1997), p. 336.

B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks (McGraw-Hill, 1997).

C. B. Stunkel, 'Commercial MPP networks: time for optics?,' in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (IEEE, 1997), pp. 90-95.

I. de Miguel, E. Kozlovski, and P. Bayvel, 'Provision of end-to-end delay guarantees in wavelength-routed optical burst-switched networks,' in Proceedings of Next Generation Optical Network Design and Modelling ONDM'02, A.Bianco and F.Neri, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 2003), pp. 85-100.

C. Dovrolis and P. Ramanathan, 'Dynamic class selection: from relative differentiation to absolute QoS,' in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP 2001) (IEEE, 2001), pp. 120-128.

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