Abstract

<p><a href="http://www.osa-jon.org/virtual_issue.cfm?vid=28">Feature Issue on Nanoscale Integrated Photonics for Optical Networks</a></p>The goal of the research program that we describe is to break the emerging performance wall in microprocessor development arising from limited bandwidth and density of on-chip interconnects and chip-to-chip (processor-to-memory) electrical interfaces. Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible photonic devices provide an infrastructure for deployment of a range of integrated photonic networks, which will replace state-of-the-art electrical interconnects, providing significant gains at the system level. Scaling of wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) architectures using high-index-contrast (HIC) waveguides offers one path to realizing the energy efficiency and density requirements of high data rate links. HIC microring-resonator filters are well suited to support add-drop nodes in dense WDM photonic networks with high aggregate data rates because they support high Q's and, due to their traveling-wave character, naturally support physically separated input and drop ports. A novel reconfigurable, 'hitless' switch is presented that does not perturb the express channels either before, during, or after reconfiguration. In addition, multigigahertz operation of low-power, Mach-Zehnder silicon modulators as well as germanium-on-silicon photodiodes are presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, ''High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. D. Cannon, ''Strain-engineered CMOS-compatible Ge photodetectors,'' Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003).
  31. D. D. Cannon, ''Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 906-908 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (4)

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

D. Schinkel, E. Mensink, E. A. Klumperink, E. van Tuijl, and B. Nauta, ''A 3-Gbits/s/ch transceiver for 10-mm uninterrupted RC-limited global on-chip interconnects,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 297-306 (2006).

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popovic, and M. R. Watts, ''Broadband hitless bypass switch for integrated photonic circuits,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1137-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Popovic, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, ''Universally balanced photonic interferometers,'' Opt. Lett. 31, 2713-2715 (2006).

2005 (7)

M. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, ''MEMS-actuated microdisk resonators with variable power coupling ratios,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1034-1036 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, D. Samara-Rubio, L. Liao, and M. Paniccia, ''Scaling the modulation bandwidth and phase efficiency of a silicon optical modulator,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 367-372 (2005).

F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, ''High-speed silicon electro-optic modulator design,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007-1009 (2005).

Q. Xu, Br. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, ''Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,'' Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kongetira, K. Aingaran, and K. Olukotun, ''Niagara: A 32-Way Multithreaded SPARC Processor,'' IEEE Micro 25, 21-29 (2005).

S. J. Emelett and R. Soref, ''Design and simulation of silicon microring optical routing switches,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1800-1807 (2005).

M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, ''Multistage high-order microring-resonator filters with relaxed tolerances for high through-port extinction,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 266-268.

2004 (3)

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, ''Fabrication and analysis of add/drop filters based on microring resonators in SiN,'' Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE2004), paper TuL4.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, R. Pafchek, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, E. Laskowski, G. Bogert, and G. Richards, ''Wavelength add-drop node using silica waveguide integration,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2755-2762 (2004).

D. D. Cannon, ''Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 906-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. D. Cannon, ''Strain-engineered CMOS-compatible Ge photodetectors,'' Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003).

B. E. Little, ''Advances in microring resonators,'' in Proceedings of the Integrated Photonics Research Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 165-167.

R. Ho, K. Mai, and M. Horowitz, ''Efficient on-chip global interconnects,'' Symposium on VLSI Circuits, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2003), pp. 271-274.

2001 (1)

R. Ho, K. W. Mai, and M. A. Horowitz, ''The future of wires,'' Proc. IEEE 89, 490-504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, ''CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, ''High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

B. E. Little, H. A. Haus, J. S. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, E. P. Ippen, and D. J. Ripin, ''Wavelength switching and routing using absorption and resonance,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 816-818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, ''Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, ''Microwaves and Photonics,'' in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (TOPS), Vol. 23 Symposium on Electro-Optics: Present and Future (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 2-8.

R. E. Scotti, C. K. Madsen, C. H. Henry, G. Lenz, Y. P. Li, H. Presby, and A. White, ''A hitless reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for WDM networks utilizing planar waveguides, thermo-optic switches and UV-induced gratings,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 142-143.

T. Shiragaki, N. Henmi, M. Fujiwara, M. Misono, T. Shiozawa, and S. Suzuki, ''Optical cross-connect system incorporated with newly developed operation and management system,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1179-1189 (1998).

1997 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, ''Microring resonator channel dropping filters,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. A. Magel, ''Integrated optic devices using micromachined metal membranes,'' in Integrated Optics and Microstructures III, Proc. SPIE 2686, 54-63 (1996).

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, ''Silicon-based optoelectronics,'' Proc. IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

B. Mukherjee, ''WDM-based local lightwave networks. I. Single-hop systems,'' IEEE Network 6, 12-27 (1992).

1969 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, ''Bends in optical dielectric guides,'' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103-2132 (1969).

Aingaran, K.

P. Kongetira, K. Aingaran, and K. Olukotun, ''Niagara: A 32-Way Multithreaded SPARC Processor,'' IEEE Micro 25, 21-29 (2005).

Aipperspach, T.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Barwicz, T.

M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, ''Multistage high-order microring-resonator filters with relaxed tolerances for high through-port extinction,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 266-268.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, ''Fabrication and analysis of add/drop filters based on microring resonators in SiN,'' Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE2004), paper TuL4.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, F. X. Kaertner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, ''Fabrication control of the resonance frequencies of high-index-contrast microphotonic cavities,'' presented at Integrated Photonics Research and Applications, April 24-26, 2006, Uncasville, Connecticut, USA (Optical Society of America), paper JWA3.

Boerstler, D.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Bogert, G.

Bolliger, M.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Cannon, D. D.

D. D. Cannon, ''Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 906-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cannon, ''Strain-engineered CMOS-compatible Ge photodetectors,'' Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003).

Cappuzzo, M.

Chabloz, M.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, ''CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhry, R.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Chen, E.

Chen, K. M.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, ''High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, ''Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, ''Microring resonator channel dropping filters,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cox, D.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Dainesi, P.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, ''CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Declerq, M.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, ''CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

Emelett, S. J.

Fazan, P.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, ''CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fluckiger, P.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, ''CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, ''Microring resonator channel dropping filters,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, ''Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, H. A. Haus, J. S. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, E. P. Ippen, and D. J. Ripin, ''Wavelength switching and routing using absorption and resonance,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 816-818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

T. Shiragaki, N. Henmi, M. Fujiwara, M. Misono, T. Shiozawa, and S. Suzuki, ''Optical cross-connect system incorporated with newly developed operation and management system,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1179-1189 (1998).

Gan, F.

F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, ''High-speed silicon electro-optic modulator design,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007-1009 (2005).

Gomez, L.

Greene, W.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, ''Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, P.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Harvey, P. M.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popovic, and M. R. Watts, ''Broadband hitless bypass switch for integrated photonic circuits,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1137-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, ''Fabrication and analysis of add/drop filters based on microring resonators in SiN,'' Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE2004), paper TuL4.

H. A. Haus, ''Microwaves and Photonics,'' in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (TOPS), Vol. 23 Symposium on Electro-Optics: Present and Future (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 2-8.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, ''Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, H. A. Haus, J. S. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, E. P. Ippen, and D. J. Ripin, ''Wavelength switching and routing using absorption and resonance,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 816-818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, ''Microring resonator channel dropping filters,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Henmi, N.

T. Shiragaki, N. Henmi, M. Fujiwara, M. Misono, T. Shiozawa, and S. Suzuki, ''Optical cross-connect system incorporated with newly developed operation and management system,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1179-1189 (1998).

Henry, C. H.

R. E. Scotti, C. K. Madsen, C. H. Henry, G. Lenz, Y. P. Li, H. Presby, and A. White, ''A hitless reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for WDM networks utilizing planar waveguides, thermo-optic switches and UV-induced gratings,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 142-143.

Ho, R.

R. Ho, K. Mai, and M. Horowitz, ''Efficient on-chip global interconnects,'' Symposium on VLSI Circuits, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2003), pp. 271-274.

R. Ho, K. W. Mai, and M. A. Horowitz, ''The future of wires,'' Proc. IEEE 89, 490-504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hofstee, H. P.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Horowitz, M.

R. Ho, K. Mai, and M. Horowitz, ''Efficient on-chip global interconnects,'' Symposium on VLSI Circuits, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2003), pp. 271-274.

Horowitz, M. A.

R. Ho, K. W. Mai, and M. A. Horowitz, ''The future of wires,'' Proc. IEEE 89, 490-504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ionescu, A.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, ''CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

M. A. Popovic, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, ''Universally balanced photonic interferometers,'' Opt. Lett. 31, 2713-2715 (2006).

M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, ''Multistage high-order microring-resonator filters with relaxed tolerances for high through-port extinction,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 266-268.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, ''Fabrication and analysis of add/drop filters based on microring resonators in SiN,'' Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE2004), paper TuL4.

B. E. Little, H. A. Haus, J. S. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, E. P. Ippen, and D. J. Ripin, ''Wavelength switching and routing using absorption and resonance,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 816-818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, ''Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, F. X. Kaertner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, ''Fabrication control of the resonance frequencies of high-index-contrast microphotonic cavities,'' presented at Integrated Photonics Research and Applications, April 24-26, 2006, Uncasville, Connecticut, USA (Optical Society of America), paper JWA3.

Johns, C.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Kaertner, F. X.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, F. X. Kaertner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, ''Fabrication control of the resonance frequencies of high-index-contrast microphotonic cavities,'' presented at Integrated Photonics Research and Applications, April 24-26, 2006, Uncasville, Connecticut, USA (Optical Society of America), paper JWA3.

Kahle, J.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Kameyama, A.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Kärtner, F. X.

M. A. Popovic, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, ''Universally balanced photonic interferometers,'' Opt. Lett. 31, 2713-2715 (2006).

F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, ''High-speed silicon electro-optic modulator design,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007-1009 (2005).

M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, ''Multistage high-order microring-resonator filters with relaxed tolerances for high through-port extinction,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 266-268.

Keaty, J.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Kimerling, L. C.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, ''High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, ''Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, H. A. Haus, J. S. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, E. P. Ippen, and D. J. Ripin, ''Wavelength switching and routing using absorption and resonance,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 816-818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klumperink, E. A.

D. Schinkel, E. Mensink, E. A. Klumperink, E. van Tuijl, and B. Nauta, ''A 3-Gbits/s/ch transceiver for 10-mm uninterrupted RC-limited global on-chip interconnects,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 297-306 (2006).

Kongetira, P.

P. Kongetira, K. Aingaran, and K. Olukotun, ''Niagara: A 32-Way Multithreaded SPARC Processor,'' IEEE Micro 25, 21-29 (2005).

Kung, A.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, ''CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lagos, A.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, ''CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.-P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, ''Microring resonator channel dropping filters,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E.

Lee, K. K.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, ''High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. M.

M. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, ''MEMS-actuated microdisk resonators with variable power coupling ratios,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1034-1036 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

R. E. Scotti, C. K. Madsen, C. H. Henry, G. Lenz, Y. P. Li, H. Presby, and A. White, ''A hitless reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for WDM networks utilizing planar waveguides, thermo-optic switches and UV-induced gratings,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 142-143.

Levy, D. S.

Li, Y. P.

R. E. Scotti, C. K. Madsen, C. H. Henry, G. Lenz, Y. P. Li, H. Presby, and A. White, ''A hitless reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for WDM networks utilizing planar waveguides, thermo-optic switches and UV-induced gratings,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 142-143.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, D. Samara-Rubio, L. Liao, and M. Paniccia, ''Scaling the modulation bandwidth and phase efficiency of a silicon optical modulator,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 367-372 (2005).

Lim, D. R.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, ''High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, Br. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, ''Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,'' Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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B. E. Little, ''Advances in microring resonators,'' in Proceedings of the Integrated Photonics Research Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 165-167.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, ''Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, H. A. Haus, J. S. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, E. P. Ippen, and D. J. Ripin, ''Wavelength switching and routing using absorption and resonance,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 816-818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, ''Microring resonator channel dropping filters,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, D. Samara-Rubio, L. Liao, and M. Paniccia, ''Scaling the modulation bandwidth and phase efficiency of a silicon optical modulator,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 367-372 (2005).

Luan, H.-C.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, ''High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. K.

R. E. Scotti, C. K. Madsen, C. H. Henry, G. Lenz, Y. P. Li, H. Presby, and A. White, ''A hitless reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for WDM networks utilizing planar waveguides, thermo-optic switches and UV-induced gratings,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 142-143.

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G. A. Magel, ''Integrated optic devices using micromachined metal membranes,'' in Integrated Optics and Microstructures III, Proc. SPIE 2686, 54-63 (1996).

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R. Ho, K. Mai, and M. Horowitz, ''Efficient on-chip global interconnects,'' Symposium on VLSI Circuits, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2003), pp. 271-274.

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R. Ho, K. W. Mai, and M. A. Horowitz, ''The future of wires,'' Proc. IEEE 89, 490-504 (2001).
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E. A. J. Marcatili, ''Bends in optical dielectric guides,'' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103-2132 (1969).

Masubuchi, Y.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Mensink, E.

D. Schinkel, E. Mensink, E. A. Klumperink, E. van Tuijl, and B. Nauta, ''A 3-Gbits/s/ch transceiver for 10-mm uninterrupted RC-limited global on-chip interconnects,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 297-306 (2006).

Misono, M.

T. Shiragaki, N. Henmi, M. Fujiwara, M. Misono, T. Shiozawa, and S. Suzuki, ''Optical cross-connect system incorporated with newly developed operation and management system,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1179-1189 (1998).

Mukherjee, B.

B. Mukherjee, ''WDM-based local lightwave networks. I. Single-hop systems,'' IEEE Network 6, 12-27 (1992).

Nauta, B.

D. Schinkel, E. Mensink, E. A. Klumperink, E. van Tuijl, and B. Nauta, ''A 3-Gbits/s/ch transceiver for 10-mm uninterrupted RC-limited global on-chip interconnects,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 297-306 (2006).

Olukotun, K.

P. Kongetira, K. Aingaran, and K. Olukotun, ''Niagara: A 32-Way Multithreaded SPARC Processor,'' IEEE Micro 25, 21-29 (2005).

Pafchek, R.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, D. Samara-Rubio, L. Liao, and M. Paniccia, ''Scaling the modulation bandwidth and phase efficiency of a silicon optical modulator,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 367-372 (2005).

Pham, D. C.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Pham, M.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Pille, J.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Popovic, M. A.

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popovic, and M. R. Watts, ''Broadband hitless bypass switch for integrated photonic circuits,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1137-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Popovic, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, ''Universally balanced photonic interferometers,'' Opt. Lett. 31, 2713-2715 (2006).

M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, ''Multistage high-order microring-resonator filters with relaxed tolerances for high through-port extinction,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 266-268.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, ''Fabrication and analysis of add/drop filters based on microring resonators in SiN,'' Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE2004), paper TuL4.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, F. X. Kaertner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, ''Fabrication control of the resonance frequencies of high-index-contrast microphotonic cavities,'' presented at Integrated Photonics Research and Applications, April 24-26, 2006, Uncasville, Connecticut, USA (Optical Society of America), paper JWA3.

Posluszny, S.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, Br. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, ''Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,'' Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H.

R. E. Scotti, C. K. Madsen, C. H. Henry, G. Lenz, Y. P. Li, H. Presby, and A. White, ''A hitless reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for WDM networks utilizing planar waveguides, thermo-optic switches and UV-induced gratings,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 142-143.

Rakich, P. T.

M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, ''Multistage high-order microring-resonator filters with relaxed tolerances for high through-port extinction,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 266-268.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, ''Fabrication and analysis of add/drop filters based on microring resonators in SiN,'' Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE2004), paper TuL4.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, F. X. Kaertner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, ''Fabrication control of the resonance frequencies of high-index-contrast microphotonic cavities,'' presented at Integrated Photonics Research and Applications, April 24-26, 2006, Uncasville, Connecticut, USA (Optical Society of America), paper JWA3.

Renaud, P.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, ''CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richards, G.

Riley, M.

D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, ''Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).

Ripin, D. J.

B. E. Little, H. A. Haus, J. S. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, E. P. Ippen, and D. J. Ripin, ''Wavelength switching and routing using absorption and resonance,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 816-818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robert, P.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, ''CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, D. Samara-Rubio, L. Liao, and M. Paniccia, ''Scaling the modulation bandwidth and phase efficiency of a silicon optical modulator,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 367-372 (2005).

Sandland, J. G.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, ''High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schinkel, D.

D. Schinkel, E. Mensink, E. A. Klumperink, E. van Tuijl, and B. Nauta, ''A 3-Gbits/s/ch transceiver for 10-mm uninterrupted RC-limited global on-chip interconnects,'' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 297-306 (2006).

Schmidt, Br.

Q. Xu, Br. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, ''Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,'' Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scotti, R. E.

R. E. Scotti, C. K. Madsen, C. H. Henry, G. Lenz, Y. P. Li, H. Presby, and A. White, ''A hitless reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for WDM networks utilizing planar waveguides, thermo-optic switches and UV-induced gratings,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 142-143.

Shiozawa, T.

T. Shiragaki, N. Henmi, M. Fujiwara, M. Misono, T. Shiozawa, and S. Suzuki, ''Optical cross-connect system incorporated with newly developed operation and management system,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1179-1189 (1998).

Shiragaki, T.

T. Shiragaki, N. Henmi, M. Fujiwara, M. Misono, T. Shiozawa, and S. Suzuki, ''Optical cross-connect system incorporated with newly developed operation and management system,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1179-1189 (1998).

Smith, H. I.

M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, ''Multistage high-order microring-resonator filters with relaxed tolerances for high through-port extinction,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 266-268.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, ''Fabrication and analysis of add/drop filters based on microring resonators in SiN,'' Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE2004), paper TuL4.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, F. X. Kaertner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, ''Fabrication control of the resonance frequencies of high-index-contrast microphotonic cavities,'' presented at Integrated Photonics Research and Applications, April 24-26, 2006, Uncasville, Connecticut, USA (Optical Society of America), paper JWA3.

Socci, L.

M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, ''Multistage high-order microring-resonator filters with relaxed tolerances for high through-port extinction,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 266-268.

Soref, R.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, ''Silicon-based optoelectronics,'' Proc. IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stasiak, D. L.

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Steinmeyer, G.

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