Abstract

<p><a href="http://www.osa-jon.org/virtual_issue.cfm?vid=28">Feature Issue on Nanoscale Integrated Photonics for Optical Networks</a></p>Fiber optic communication is well established today in long-haul, metro, and some data communication segments. Optical technologies continue to penetrate more into the network owing to the increase in bandwidth demands; however, they still suffer from too expensive solutions. Silicon photonics is a new technology developing integrated photonic devices and circuits based on the unique silicon material that has already revolutionized the face of our planet through the microelectronics industry. This paper reviews silicon photonics technology at Intel, showing how using the same mature, low-cost silicon CMOS technology we develop many of the building blocks required in current and future optical networks. After introducing the silicon photonics motivation for networks, we discuss the various devices--waveguides, modulators, Raman amplifiers and lasers, photodetectors, optical interconnects, and photonic crystals--from the points of view of applications, principle of operation, process development, and performance results.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006

M. Settle, M. Salib, A. Michaeli, and T. F. Krauss, ''Low loss silicon on insulator photonic crystal waveguides made by 193nm optical lithography,'' Opt. Express 14, 2441-2445 (2006).

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and O. Raday, ''Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser,'' Opt. Express 14, 6705-6712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. W. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, ''Net continuous-wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,'' Opt. Express , 13, 519-525 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, ''High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,'' Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Hiramatsu and M. Kinoshita, ''Three-dimensional waveguide arrays for coupling between fiber-optic connectors and surface-mounted optoelectronic devices,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2733-2739 (2005).

K. Shiraishi and C. S. Tsai, ''A micro light-beam spot-size converter using a hemicylindrical GRIN-slab tip with high-index contrast,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3821-3826 (2005).

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, ''Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,'' Phys. Rev. B 72, 161318-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''An all-silicon Raman laser,'' Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,'' Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, R. Jones, D. Rubin, D. Samara-Rubio, O. Cohen, M. Salib, and M. Paniccia, ''Phase modulation efficiency and transmission loss of silicon optical phase shifters,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 250-257 (2005).

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''An all-silicon Raman laser,'' Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,'' Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, ''High Performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501-103503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, ''Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39GHz bandwidth,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510-1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Deeds and P. A. Sandborn, ''MOEMS chip-level optical fiber interconnect,'' IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 612-618 (2005).

E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, and Yu. A. Vlasov, ''Mapping the optical properties of slab-type two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,'' Phys. Rev. B 72, 115102-115110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, ''Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,'' Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Xianfeng, D. Zhang, and T. Lee, ''Chip level packaging for MEMS using silicon cap,'' in IEEE Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium (IEEE, 2004), pp. 342-344.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, ''Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurement in a low loss silicon waveguide,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wu, J. Scholvin, and J. A. del Alamo, ''A through-wafer interconnect in silicon for RFICs,'' IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 51, 1765-1772 (2004).

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, ''Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurement in a low loss silicon waveguide,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, ''On chip optical interconnects,'' Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

M. Paniccia, M. Morse, and M. Salib, ''Integrated photonics,'' in Silicon Photonics, L.Pavesi and D.J.Lockwood, eds. (Springer, 2004), pp. 51-88.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, ''A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,'' Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Vlasov, N. Moll, and S. J. McNab, ''Mode mixing in asymmetric double-trench photonic crystal waveguides,'' J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4538-4544 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Ryu, ''Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs,'' Opt. Express 12, 1551-1561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,'' Opt. Express 12, 4261-4267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, V. Almeida, and M. Lipson, ''Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides,'' Opt. Express 12, 4437-4442 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, ''Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,'' Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Uekawa, D. Shimura, K. Kotani, Y. Maeno, H. Sasaki, and T. Takamori, ''Expanded application of silicon V-groove platform with silicon microlens,'' in Optical Fiber Communications Conference 2003 (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 75-76.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, ''High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,'' Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, ''Fabrication of photonic crystals in silicon-on-insulator using 248-nm deep UV lithography,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 928-935 (2002).

I. Kimukin, N. Biyikli, B. Butun, O. Aytur, M. S. Ünlü, and E. Ozbay, ''InGaAs-based high-performance p-i-n photodiodes,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 366-368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Laitinen, G. Tiourine, V. Touboltsev, and J. Räisänen, ''Detection system for depth profiling of radiotracers,'' Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 190, 183-187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, ''Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54μm,'' Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002).

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, ''An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Liao, D. Lim, A. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. Lee, and L. Kimerling, ''Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,'' J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000).

1999

S. Pae, T. Su, J. P. Denton, and G. W. Neudeck, ''Multiple layers of silicon-on-insulator islands fabrication by selective epitaxial growth,'' IEEE Electron. Devices. Lett. 20, 194-196 (1999).

1998

D. M. Baney and W. V. Sorin, in Fiber Optic Test and Measurement, D.Derickson, ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1998), pp. 169-219.

L. S. Huang, S. S. Lee, E. Motamedi, M. C. Wu, and C. J. Kim, ''MEMS packaging for micro mirror switches,'' in 48th Electronic Components and Technology Conference 1998 (IEEE, 1998), pp. 592-597.

1996

L. Wooten, L. Russell, L. Stone, W. Miles, and E. M. Bradley, ''Rapidly tunable narrowband wavelength filter using LiNbO3 unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2530-2536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1995).

J. D. Joannopolous, R. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals--Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

1994

M. Kuznetsov, ''Cascaded coupler Mach-Zehnder channel dropping filters for wavelength-division-multiplexed optical systems,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 226-230 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. A. Soref, ''Silicon based optoelectronics,'' Proc. IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, ''Photonic band-gap structures,'' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 283-296 (1993).

1973

G. L. McVay and A. R. DuCharme, ''The diffusion of germanium in silicon,'' J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1409-1410 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970

J. M. Ralston and R. K. Chang, ''Spontaneous-Raman-scattering efficiency and stimulated scattering in silicon,'' Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858-1862 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1965

J. P. Russell, ''Raman scattering in silicon,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 223-224 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

L. Liao, D. Lim, A. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. Lee, and L. Kimerling, ''Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,'' J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000).

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1995).

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, ''High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,'' Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V.

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, ''High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,'' Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aytur, O.

I. Kimukin, N. Biyikli, B. Butun, O. Aytur, M. S. Ünlü, and E. Ozbay, ''InGaAs-based high-performance p-i-n photodiodes,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 366-368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, ''Fabrication of photonic crystals in silicon-on-insulator using 248-nm deep UV lithography,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 928-935 (2002).

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, ''An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baney, D. M.

D. M. Baney and W. V. Sorin, in Fiber Optic Test and Measurement, D.Derickson, ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1998), pp. 169-219.

Barnett, B. C.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, ''On chip optical interconnects,'' Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, ''Fabrication of photonic crystals in silicon-on-insulator using 248-nm deep UV lithography,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 928-935 (2002).

Berroth, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, ''Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39GHz bandwidth,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510-1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, ''An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''An all-silicon Raman laser,'' Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, ''Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,'' Opt. Express 12, 4261-4267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurement in a low loss silicon waveguide,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurement in a low loss silicon waveguide,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, ''A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,'' Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
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W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, ''Fabrication of photonic crystals in silicon-on-insulator using 248-nm deep UV lithography,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 928-935 (2002).

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M. Uekawa, D. Shimura, K. Kotani, Y. Maeno, H. Sasaki, and T. Takamori, ''Expanded application of silicon V-groove platform with silicon microlens,'' in Optical Fiber Communications Conference 2003 (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 75-76.

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J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, ''High Performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501-103503 (2005).
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L. Wooten, L. Russell, L. Stone, W. Miles, and E. M. Bradley, ''Rapidly tunable narrowband wavelength filter using LiNbO3 unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2530-2536 (1996).
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Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, ''An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
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Yu. A. Vlasov, N. Moll, and S. J. McNab, ''Mode mixing in asymmetric double-trench photonic crystal waveguides,'' J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4538-4544 (2004).
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L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, ''High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,'' Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005).
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H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''An all-silicon Raman laser,'' Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''An all-silicon Raman laser,'' Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurement in a low loss silicon waveguide,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurement in a low loss silicon waveguide,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, ''A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,'' Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, ''Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,'' Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, ''Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39GHz bandwidth,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510-1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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I. Kimukin, N. Biyikli, B. Butun, O. Aytur, M. S. Ünlü, and E. Ozbay, ''InGaAs-based high-performance p-i-n photodiodes,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 366-368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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S. Pae, T. Su, J. P. Denton, and G. W. Neudeck, ''Multiple layers of silicon-on-insulator islands fabrication by selective epitaxial growth,'' IEEE Electron. Devices. Lett. 20, 194-196 (1999).

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J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, ''High Performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501-103503 (2005).
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H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and O. Raday, ''Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser,'' Opt. Express 14, 6705-6712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,'' Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, R. Jones, D. Rubin, D. Samara-Rubio, O. Cohen, M. Salib, and M. Paniccia, ''Phase modulation efficiency and transmission loss of silicon optical phase shifters,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 250-257 (2005).

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. W. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, ''Net continuous-wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,'' Opt. Express , 13, 519-525 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,'' Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''An all-silicon Raman laser,'' Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''An all-silicon Raman laser,'' Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, ''Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurement in a low loss silicon waveguide,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,'' Opt. Express 12, 4261-4267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Paniccia, M. Morse, and M. Salib, ''Integrated photonics,'' in Silicon Photonics, L.Pavesi and D.J.Lockwood, eds. (Springer, 2004), pp. 51-88.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurement in a low loss silicon waveguide,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, ''A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,'' Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Räisänen, J.

P. Laitinen, G. Tiourine, V. Touboltsev, and J. Räisänen, ''Detection system for depth profiling of radiotracers,'' Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 190, 183-187 (2002).
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[CrossRef]

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W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, ''Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, ''On chip optical interconnects,'' Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

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H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and O. Raday, ''Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser,'' Opt. Express 14, 6705-6712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,'' Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. W. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, ''Net continuous-wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,'' Opt. Express , 13, 519-525 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''An all-silicon Raman laser,'' Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''An all-silicon Raman laser,'' Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, ''A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,'' Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurement in a low loss silicon waveguide,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,'' Opt. Express 12, 4261-4267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, ''Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurement in a low loss silicon waveguide,'' Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
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L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, ''High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,'' Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005).
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L. Liao, A. Liu, R. Jones, D. Rubin, D. Samara-Rubio, O. Cohen, M. Salib, and M. Paniccia, ''Phase modulation efficiency and transmission loss of silicon optical phase shifters,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 250-257 (2005).

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, ''A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,'' Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
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M. Settle, M. Salib, A. Michaeli, and T. F. Krauss, ''Low loss silicon on insulator photonic crystal waveguides made by 193nm optical lithography,'' Opt. Express 14, 2441-2445 (2006).

L. Liao, A. Liu, R. Jones, D. Rubin, D. Samara-Rubio, O. Cohen, M. Salib, and M. Paniccia, ''Phase modulation efficiency and transmission loss of silicon optical phase shifters,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 250-257 (2005).

M. Paniccia, M. Morse, and M. Salib, ''Integrated photonics,'' in Silicon Photonics, L.Pavesi and D.J.Lockwood, eds. (Springer, 2004), pp. 51-88.

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L. Liao, A. Liu, R. Jones, D. Rubin, D. Samara-Rubio, O. Cohen, M. Salib, and M. Paniccia, ''Phase modulation efficiency and transmission loss of silicon optical phase shifters,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 250-257 (2005).

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, ''High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,'' Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005).
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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, ''A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,'' Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
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M. Uekawa, D. Shimura, K. Kotani, Y. Maeno, H. Sasaki, and T. Takamori, ''Expanded application of silicon V-groove platform with silicon microlens,'' in Optical Fiber Communications Conference 2003 (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 75-76.

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E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, ''Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,'' Phys. Rev. B 72, 161318-4 (2005).
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S. Pae, T. Su, J. P. Denton, and G. W. Neudeck, ''Multiple layers of silicon-on-insulator islands fabrication by selective epitaxial growth,'' IEEE Electron. Devices. Lett. 20, 194-196 (1999).

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W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, ''Fabrication of photonic crystals in silicon-on-insulator using 248-nm deep UV lithography,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 928-935 (2002).

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, ''An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
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I. Kimukin, N. Biyikli, B. Butun, O. Aytur, M. S. Ünlü, and E. Ozbay, ''InGaAs-based high-performance p-i-n photodiodes,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 366-368 (2002).
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D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, ''An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
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D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, ''An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
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W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, ''Fabrication of photonic crystals in silicon-on-insulator using 248-nm deep UV lithography,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 928-935 (2002).

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