Abstract

<p><a href="http://www.osa-jon.org/virtual_issue.cfm?vid=22">Feature Issue on Waveband Switching, Routing, and Grooming</a></p>Adopting waveband switching (WBS) in backbone wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks is promising since it can reduce the network operational cost and the call blocking probability. However, upgrading the existing optical switching architecture requires time and money. Thus heterogeneous waveband switching (HeteroWBS) architecture would be desirable in such a system, where some nodes can support WBS functions and some cannot. We study the performance of HeteroWBS networks in terms of call blocking probability and cost savings under dynamically arriving traffic requests. We first investigate the effects of optical component developments on waveband switching in WDM networks. Various connection managements are then listed and analyzed. Next, to assist in the designing of efficient WBS algorithms, an autonomous clustering-based HeteroWBS (AS-HeteroWBS) architecture is proposed. The AS-HeteroWBS architecture clusters the network into multiple autonomous systems (ASs). An AS may contain some specific nodes that provide WBS functions for all the nodes in the AS. Based on the architecture, three HeteroWBS algorithms are proposed, namely, the autonomous heterogeneous WBS algorithm (AS-WBS), the autonomous source-limited heterogeneous WBS algorithm (AS-S-WBS), and the shortest-path-based heterogeneous WBS algorithm (SH-WBS). Our simulation results show that the HeteroWBS algorithms can achieve optimal cost savings while maintaining the same network throughput compared with the algorithm without WBS.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, 'Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs, and a reconfiguration study,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 598-607 (2000).
  2. S. Kaneda, T. Uyematsu, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, 'Network design and cost optimization for label switched multilayer photonic IP networks,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1612-1619 (2005).
  3. Y. Suemura, I. Nishioka, Y. Maeno, S. Araki, R. Izmailov, and S. Ganguly, 'Hierarchical routing in layered ring and mesh optical networks,' in IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 5, pp. 2727-2733.
  4. L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, 'Impact of intermediate traffic grouping on the dimensioning of multigranularity optical networks,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG3.
  5. I. Rauf, G. Samrar, K. Viktor, and C. Aikaterini, 'Nonuniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks,' in Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 2003 (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1344-1354.
  6. X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, 'Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching,' in Twenty-Third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1830-1840.
  7. A. Kolarov and B. Sengupta, 'An algorithm for waveband routing and wavelength assignment in hierarchical WDM mesh networks,' presented at the IEEE Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, Torino, Italy, June 2003.
  8. S. Ganguly, N. Tu, R. Izmailov, and H. Mouftah, 'Waveband routing and merging in hybrid optical networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE ICC'04 (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1615-1621.
  9. G. J. Ockenfuss, N. A. OBrien, and E. Williams, 'Ultra-low stress coating process: an enabling technology for extreme performance thin film interference filters,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FA8.
  10. C. X. Yu, D. T. Neilson, C. R. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, 'Dispersion-free De(Mux) with record figure-of-merit,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1300-1302 (2002).
  11. Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, E. J. Laskowski, H. H. Yaffe, and R. L. Sweatt, 'Monolithic optical waveguide 1.31/1.55 μm WDM with −50 dB crosstalk over 100 nm bandwidth,' Electron. Lett. 31, 2100-2101 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Inoue, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, M. Ishii, T. Shibata, and Y. Hibino, 'Low-crosstalk 4-channel coarse WDM filter using silica-based planar-lightwave-circuit,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuK6.
  13. C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, and L. W. Stulz, 'Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1088-1090 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Lenz, 'Introduction to all optical switching technologies,' http://www.2cool4u.ch/wdmlowbardwdm/introlowbarallopticalswitching/introlowbarallopticalswitching.htm.
  15. S. Chandrasekher, C. R. Doerr, and L. L. Buhl, 'Flexible waveband optical networking without guard bands using novel 8-skip-0 banding filters,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 579-581 (2005).
  16. L. Xinwan, C. Jianping, W. Guiling, L. Jialin, and Y. Ailun, 'A novel waveband selective router based on DWDM thin-film filters,' Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 45, 79-81 (2005).
  17. M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, 'Dynamic waveband switching in WDM mesh networks based on a generic auxiliary graph model,' Kluwer J. Photon. Netw. Commun. 10, 309-331 (2005).
  18. M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, 'A novel intermediate waveband switching scheme in WDM mesh networks,' in Gobal Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 4, doi:10.1109/GLOCOM.2005.1578020.
  19. S. Ramasubramanian and A. K. Somani, 'Analysis of optical networks with heterogeneous grooming architectures,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 12, 931-943 (2004).
  20. P. Bullock, C. Ward, and Q. Wang, 'Optimizing wavelength grouping granularity for optical add-drop network architecture,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 355-357.
  21. H. Zang, C. Ou, and B. Mukherjee, 'Path-protection routing and wavelength assignment RWA in WDM mesh networks under duct-layer constraints,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 248-258 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005

S. Kaneda, T. Uyematsu, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, 'Network design and cost optimization for label switched multilayer photonic IP networks,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1612-1619 (2005).

S. Chandrasekher, C. R. Doerr, and L. L. Buhl, 'Flexible waveband optical networking without guard bands using novel 8-skip-0 banding filters,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 579-581 (2005).

L. Xinwan, C. Jianping, W. Guiling, L. Jialin, and Y. Ailun, 'A novel waveband selective router based on DWDM thin-film filters,' Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 45, 79-81 (2005).

2004

S. Ramasubramanian and A. K. Somani, 'Analysis of optical networks with heterogeneous grooming architectures,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 12, 931-943 (2004).

2003

H. Zang, C. Ou, and B. Mukherjee, 'Path-protection routing and wavelength assignment RWA in WDM mesh networks under duct-layer constraints,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 248-258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, and L. W. Stulz, 'Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1088-1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. X. Yu, D. T. Neilson, C. R. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, 'Dispersion-free De(Mux) with record figure-of-merit,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1300-1302 (2002).

2000

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, 'Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs, and a reconfiguration study,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 598-607 (2000).

1995

Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, E. J. Laskowski, H. H. Yaffe, and R. L. Sweatt, 'Monolithic optical waveguide 1.31/1.55 μm WDM with −50 dB crosstalk over 100 nm bandwidth,' Electron. Lett. 31, 2100-2101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aikaterini, C.

I. Rauf, G. Samrar, K. Viktor, and C. Aikaterini, 'Nonuniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks,' in Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 2003 (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1344-1354.

Ailun, Y.

L. Xinwan, C. Jianping, W. Guiling, L. Jialin, and Y. Ailun, 'A novel waveband selective router based on DWDM thin-film filters,' Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 45, 79-81 (2005).

Anand, V.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, 'Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching,' in Twenty-Third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1830-1840.

Araki, S.

Y. Suemura, I. Nishioka, Y. Maeno, S. Araki, R. Izmailov, and S. Ganguly, 'Hierarchical routing in layered ring and mesh optical networks,' in IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 5, pp. 2727-2733.

Banerjee, D.

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, 'Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs, and a reconfiguration study,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 598-607 (2000).

Buhl, L. L.

S. Chandrasekher, C. R. Doerr, and L. L. Buhl, 'Flexible waveband optical networking without guard bands using novel 8-skip-0 banding filters,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 579-581 (2005).

Bullock, P.

P. Bullock, C. Ward, and Q. Wang, 'Optimizing wavelength grouping granularity for optical add-drop network architecture,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 355-357.

Cao, X.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, 'Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching,' in Twenty-Third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1830-1840.

Chandrasekher, S.

S. Chandrasekher, C. R. Doerr, and L. L. Buhl, 'Flexible waveband optical networking without guard bands using novel 8-skip-0 banding filters,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 579-581 (2005).

Doerr, C. R.

S. Chandrasekher, C. R. Doerr, and L. L. Buhl, 'Flexible waveband optical networking without guard bands using novel 8-skip-0 banding filters,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 579-581 (2005).

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, and L. W. Stulz, 'Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1088-1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. X. Yu, D. T. Neilson, C. R. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, 'Dispersion-free De(Mux) with record figure-of-merit,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1300-1302 (2002).

Dotaro, E.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, 'Impact of intermediate traffic grouping on the dimensioning of multigranularity optical networks,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG3.

Ganguly, S.

S. Ganguly, N. Tu, R. Izmailov, and H. Mouftah, 'Waveband routing and merging in hybrid optical networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE ICC'04 (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1615-1621.

Y. Suemura, I. Nishioka, Y. Maeno, S. Araki, R. Izmailov, and S. Ganguly, 'Hierarchical routing in layered ring and mesh optical networks,' in IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 5, pp. 2727-2733.

Guiling, W.

L. Xinwan, C. Jianping, W. Guiling, L. Jialin, and Y. Ailun, 'A novel waveband selective router based on DWDM thin-film filters,' Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 45, 79-81 (2005).

Henry, C. H.

Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, E. J. Laskowski, H. H. Yaffe, and R. L. Sweatt, 'Monolithic optical waveguide 1.31/1.55 μm WDM with −50 dB crosstalk over 100 nm bandwidth,' Electron. Lett. 31, 2100-2101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

R. Inoue, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, M. Ishii, T. Shibata, and Y. Hibino, 'Low-crosstalk 4-channel coarse WDM filter using silica-based planar-lightwave-circuit,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuK6.

Inoue, R.

R. Inoue, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, M. Ishii, T. Shibata, and Y. Hibino, 'Low-crosstalk 4-channel coarse WDM filter using silica-based planar-lightwave-circuit,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuK6.

Ishii, M.

R. Inoue, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, M. Ishii, T. Shibata, and Y. Hibino, 'Low-crosstalk 4-channel coarse WDM filter using silica-based planar-lightwave-circuit,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuK6.

Izmailov, R.

Y. Suemura, I. Nishioka, Y. Maeno, S. Araki, R. Izmailov, and S. Ganguly, 'Hierarchical routing in layered ring and mesh optical networks,' in IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 5, pp. 2727-2733.

S. Ganguly, N. Tu, R. Izmailov, and H. Mouftah, 'Waveband routing and merging in hybrid optical networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE ICC'04 (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1615-1621.

Jialin, L.

L. Xinwan, C. Jianping, W. Guiling, L. Jialin, and Y. Ailun, 'A novel waveband selective router based on DWDM thin-film filters,' Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 45, 79-81 (2005).

Jianping, C.

L. Xinwan, C. Jianping, W. Guiling, L. Jialin, and Y. Ailun, 'A novel waveband selective router based on DWDM thin-film filters,' Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 45, 79-81 (2005).

Kaneda, S.

S. Kaneda, T. Uyematsu, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, 'Network design and cost optimization for label switched multilayer photonic IP networks,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1612-1619 (2005).

Kitoh, T.

R. Inoue, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, M. Ishii, T. Shibata, and Y. Hibino, 'Low-crosstalk 4-channel coarse WDM filter using silica-based planar-lightwave-circuit,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuK6.

Kolarov, A.

A. Kolarov and B. Sengupta, 'An algorithm for waveband routing and wavelength assignment in hierarchical WDM mesh networks,' presented at the IEEE Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, Torino, Italy, June 2003.

Laskowski, E. J.

Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, E. J. Laskowski, H. H. Yaffe, and R. L. Sweatt, 'Monolithic optical waveguide 1.31/1.55 μm WDM with −50 dB crosstalk over 100 nm bandwidth,' Electron. Lett. 31, 2100-2101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, R.

R. Lenz, 'Introduction to all optical switching technologies,' http://www.2cool4u.ch/wdmlowbardwdm/introlowbarallopticalswitching/introlowbarallopticalswitching.htm.

Li, M.

M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, 'A novel intermediate waveband switching scheme in WDM mesh networks,' in Gobal Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 4, doi:10.1109/GLOCOM.2005.1578020.

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, 'Dynamic waveband switching in WDM mesh networks based on a generic auxiliary graph model,' Kluwer J. Photon. Netw. Commun. 10, 309-331 (2005).

Li, Y. P.

Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, E. J. Laskowski, H. H. Yaffe, and R. L. Sweatt, 'Monolithic optical waveguide 1.31/1.55 μm WDM with −50 dB crosstalk over 100 nm bandwidth,' Electron. Lett. 31, 2100-2101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maeno, Y.

Y. Suemura, I. Nishioka, Y. Maeno, S. Araki, R. Izmailov, and S. Ganguly, 'Hierarchical routing in layered ring and mesh optical networks,' in IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 5, pp. 2727-2733.

Mouftah, H.

S. Ganguly, N. Tu, R. Izmailov, and H. Mouftah, 'Waveband routing and merging in hybrid optical networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE ICC'04 (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1615-1621.

Mukherjee, B.

H. Zang, C. Ou, and B. Mukherjee, 'Path-protection routing and wavelength assignment RWA in WDM mesh networks under duct-layer constraints,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 248-258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, 'Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs, and a reconfiguration study,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 598-607 (2000).

Nagatsu, N.

S. Kaneda, T. Uyematsu, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, 'Network design and cost optimization for label switched multilayer photonic IP networks,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1612-1619 (2005).

Neilson, D. T.

C. X. Yu, D. T. Neilson, C. R. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, 'Dispersion-free De(Mux) with record figure-of-merit,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1300-1302 (2002).

Nishioka, I.

Y. Suemura, I. Nishioka, Y. Maeno, S. Araki, R. Izmailov, and S. Ganguly, 'Hierarchical routing in layered ring and mesh optical networks,' in IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 5, pp. 2727-2733.

Noirie, L.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, 'Impact of intermediate traffic grouping on the dimensioning of multigranularity optical networks,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG3.

OBrien, N. A.

G. J. Ockenfuss, N. A. OBrien, and E. Williams, 'Ultra-low stress coating process: an enabling technology for extreme performance thin film interference filters,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FA8.

Ockenfuss, G. J.

G. J. Ockenfuss, N. A. OBrien, and E. Williams, 'Ultra-low stress coating process: an enabling technology for extreme performance thin film interference filters,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FA8.

Oguma, M.

R. Inoue, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, M. Ishii, T. Shibata, and Y. Hibino, 'Low-crosstalk 4-channel coarse WDM filter using silica-based planar-lightwave-circuit,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuK6.

Ou, C.

H. Zang, C. Ou, and B. Mukherjee, 'Path-protection routing and wavelength assignment RWA in WDM mesh networks under duct-layer constraints,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 248-258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pafchek, R.

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, and L. W. Stulz, 'Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1088-1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, C.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, 'Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching,' in Twenty-Third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1830-1840.

Ramamurthy, B.

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, 'Dynamic waveband switching in WDM mesh networks based on a generic auxiliary graph model,' Kluwer J. Photon. Netw. Commun. 10, 309-331 (2005).

M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, 'A novel intermediate waveband switching scheme in WDM mesh networks,' in Gobal Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 4, doi:10.1109/GLOCOM.2005.1578020.

Ramasubramanian, S.

S. Ramasubramanian and A. K. Somani, 'Analysis of optical networks with heterogeneous grooming architectures,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 12, 931-943 (2004).

Rauf, I.

I. Rauf, G. Samrar, K. Viktor, and C. Aikaterini, 'Nonuniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks,' in Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 2003 (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1344-1354.

Samrar, G.

I. Rauf, G. Samrar, K. Viktor, and C. Aikaterini, 'Nonuniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks,' in Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 2003 (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1344-1354.

Sato, K.

S. Kaneda, T. Uyematsu, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, 'Network design and cost optimization for label switched multilayer photonic IP networks,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1612-1619 (2005).

Sengupta, B.

A. Kolarov and B. Sengupta, 'An algorithm for waveband routing and wavelength assignment in hierarchical WDM mesh networks,' presented at the IEEE Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, Torino, Italy, June 2003.

Shibata, T.

R. Inoue, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, M. Ishii, T. Shibata, and Y. Hibino, 'Low-crosstalk 4-channel coarse WDM filter using silica-based planar-lightwave-circuit,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuK6.

Somani, A. K.

S. Ramasubramanian and A. K. Somani, 'Analysis of optical networks with heterogeneous grooming architectures,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 12, 931-943 (2004).

Stulz, L. W.

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, and L. W. Stulz, 'Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1088-1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suemura, Y.

Y. Suemura, I. Nishioka, Y. Maeno, S. Araki, R. Izmailov, and S. Ganguly, 'Hierarchical routing in layered ring and mesh optical networks,' in IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 5, pp. 2727-2733.

Sweatt, R. L.

Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, E. J. Laskowski, H. H. Yaffe, and R. L. Sweatt, 'Monolithic optical waveguide 1.31/1.55 μm WDM with −50 dB crosstalk over 100 nm bandwidth,' Electron. Lett. 31, 2100-2101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tu, N.

S. Ganguly, N. Tu, R. Izmailov, and H. Mouftah, 'Waveband routing and merging in hybrid optical networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE ICC'04 (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1615-1621.

Uyematsu, T.

S. Kaneda, T. Uyematsu, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, 'Network design and cost optimization for label switched multilayer photonic IP networks,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1612-1619 (2005).

Vigoureux, M.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, 'Impact of intermediate traffic grouping on the dimensioning of multigranularity optical networks,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG3.

Viktor, K.

I. Rauf, G. Samrar, K. Viktor, and C. Aikaterini, 'Nonuniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks,' in Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 2003 (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1344-1354.

Wang, Q.

P. Bullock, C. Ward, and Q. Wang, 'Optimizing wavelength grouping granularity for optical add-drop network architecture,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 355-357.

Ward, C.

P. Bullock, C. Ward, and Q. Wang, 'Optimizing wavelength grouping granularity for optical add-drop network architecture,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 355-357.

Williams, E.

G. J. Ockenfuss, N. A. OBrien, and E. Williams, 'Ultra-low stress coating process: an enabling technology for extreme performance thin film interference filters,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FA8.

Xinwan, L.

L. Xinwan, C. Jianping, W. Guiling, L. Jialin, and Y. Ailun, 'A novel waveband selective router based on DWDM thin-film filters,' Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 45, 79-81 (2005).

Yaffe, H. H.

Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, E. J. Laskowski, H. H. Yaffe, and R. L. Sweatt, 'Monolithic optical waveguide 1.31/1.55 μm WDM with −50 dB crosstalk over 100 nm bandwidth,' Electron. Lett. 31, 2100-2101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yao, W.

M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, 'A novel intermediate waveband switching scheme in WDM mesh networks,' in Gobal Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 4, doi:10.1109/GLOCOM.2005.1578020.

Yu, C. X.

C. X. Yu, D. T. Neilson, C. R. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, 'Dispersion-free De(Mux) with record figure-of-merit,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1300-1302 (2002).

Zang, H.

H. Zang, C. Ou, and B. Mukherjee, 'Path-protection routing and wavelength assignment RWA in WDM mesh networks under duct-layer constraints,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 248-258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zirngibl, M.

C. X. Yu, D. T. Neilson, C. R. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, 'Dispersion-free De(Mux) with record figure-of-merit,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1300-1302 (2002).

Electron. Lett.

Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, E. J. Laskowski, H. H. Yaffe, and R. L. Sweatt, 'Monolithic optical waveguide 1.31/1.55 μm WDM with −50 dB crosstalk over 100 nm bandwidth,' Electron. Lett. 31, 2100-2101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

S. Kaneda, T. Uyematsu, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, 'Network design and cost optimization for label switched multilayer photonic IP networks,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1612-1619 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. X. Yu, D. T. Neilson, C. R. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, 'Dispersion-free De(Mux) with record figure-of-merit,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1300-1302 (2002).

S. Chandrasekher, C. R. Doerr, and L. L. Buhl, 'Flexible waveband optical networking without guard bands using novel 8-skip-0 banding filters,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 579-581 (2005).

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, and L. W. Stulz, 'Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1088-1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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