Abstract

Feature Issue on High Availability in Optical Networks

The availability requirements for today's networks are very high. Higher availability often comes with a higher cost. We describe several steps required for estimating the costs of realistic network scenarios. Capital expenditures (CapEx) and operational expenditures (OpEx) are classified. An activity-based approach is used to quantify the cost of the event-driven operational processes such as repair and service provisioning. We discuss activity duration and availability parameters as required input data, which are necessary for calculating the processes' costs for realistic network scenarios. The relevant availability measures for an IP-over-Optical network are described using a triplet representation with optimistic, nominal, and conservative values. The model is applied to a reference German network scenario.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F.-J. Westphal, M. J�ger, A. Iselt, A. Kirst�dter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Operational Expenditures for Telecom Operators,'' in Proceedings of 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 455-466.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. J�ger, R. Huelsermann, F.-J. Westphal, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Impact of Resilience Strategies on Capital and Operational Expenditures,'' in Proceedings of ITG Tagung Photonical Networks 2005 (Leipzig, Germany, 2005), pp. 109-116.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, ''General availability model for multilayer transport networks,'' in Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN2005) (Ischia, 2005), pp. 85-92.

S. Pasqualini, S. Verbrugge, A. Kirst�dter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Influence of GMPLS on network providers' operational expenditures--a quantitative study,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(7), 28-34 (2005).

2004 (7)

R. H�lsermannA. B. C. Gerlach, M. Jaeger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, C. M. Gauger, and M. Koehn, ''A set of typical transport network scenarios for network modelling,'' in Proceedings of 5th ITG Workshop on Photonic Networks (ITG, 2004).

R. S. Kaplan, and S. Anderson, ''Time-driven activity-based costing,'' Harvard Bus. Rev. 82(11), 131-138 (2004).

W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks (Prentice Hall, 2004).

C. R. Johnson, Y. Kogan, Y. Levy, F. Saheban, and P. Tarapore, ''VoIP reliability: a service provider's perspective,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(7), 48-54 (2004).

A. Markopoulou, G. Iannaccone, S. Bhattacharyya, C. Chuah, and C. Diot, ''Characterization of failures in an IP backbone,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2004) (IEEE, 2004).

J.-P. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS (Morgan Kauffman, 2004).

B. Van Steen, ''Service Provider Study: Operating Expenditures,'' Metro Ethernet Forum, 2004.

2003 (3)

M. Barton and J. Walker, ''Building a business plan for DSpace, MIT Libraries' digital institutional repository,'' J. Digital Inf. 4(2), 173 (2003).

Wavium white paper, ''Reduction of operational expenses in backbone networks with optical crossconnects,'' (Wavium, November 2003).

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, ''Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,'' Photon. Network Commun. 5, 203-225 (2003).

2002 (4)

S. A. Ross, R. W. Westerfield, J. F. Jaffe, Corporate Finance (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

J. Derkacz, M. Leszczuk, K. Wajda, R. Leone, G. Monari, I. Lievens, S. De Maesschalck, S. Verbrugge, and D. Colle, ''IP/OTN cost model and photonic equipment forecast--IST Lion Project,'' in Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Telecommunications Techno-Economic (IST-TONIC, 2002), pp. 126-138.

E. Goldsmith, ''Interactive cost models compare installed first costs of copper and fiber cabling'' (Fiber Optics LAN Section FOLS, press release, June 2002).

O. Soto, ''Network planning--business planning,'' presented at ITU/BDT-COE Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, October 2002.

2001 (2)

L. Wosinska, L. Thylen, and R. P. Holmstrom''Large capacity strictly nonblocking optical cross-connects based on microelectrooptomechanical systems (MEOMS) switch matrices: reliability performance analysis,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1065-1075 (2001).

Alcoa Fujikura Ltd., ''Reliability of fiber optic cable: buried fiber optic cable, optical groundwire cable, all dielectric, self supporting cable,'' May 2001, http://www.southern-telecom.com/afl%20reliability.pdf.

2000 (1)

Eurescom, Investment analysis modelling, Project P901-PF, ''Extended investment analysis of telecommunication operator strategies,'' Deliverable 2, Vol. 2 of 4, Annex A (Eurescom, 2000).

1999 (1)

CIENA white paper, ''The new economics of optical core networks'' (CIENA Corp., September 1999).

1996 (1)

J. M. Simons and D. E. Jamison, ''Operational and development cost modeling of NASA's earth observing system formation system,'' presented at SpaceOps'96, Munich, Germany, September 1996.

1991 (1)

R. Cooper and R. S. Kaplan, ''Profit priorities from activity-based costing,'' Harvard Business Review 69(3), 130-136 (1991).

Anderson, S.

R. S. Kaplan, and S. Anderson, ''Time-driven activity-based costing,'' Harvard Bus. Rev. 82(11), 131-138 (2004).

Barry, M.

R. H�lsermannA. B. C. Gerlach, M. Jaeger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, C. M. Gauger, and M. Koehn, ''A set of typical transport network scenarios for network modelling,'' in Proceedings of 5th ITG Workshop on Photonic Networks (ITG, 2004).

Barton, M.

M. Barton and J. Walker, ''Building a business plan for DSpace, MIT Libraries' digital institutional repository,'' J. Digital Inf. 4(2), 173 (2003).

Bhattacharyya, S.

A. Markopoulou, G. Iannaccone, S. Bhattacharyya, C. Chuah, and C. Diot, ''Characterization of failures in an IP backbone,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2004) (IEEE, 2004).

Bodamer, S.

R. H�lsermannA. B. C. Gerlach, M. Jaeger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, C. M. Gauger, and M. Koehn, ''A set of typical transport network scenarios for network modelling,'' in Proceedings of 5th ITG Workshop on Photonic Networks (ITG, 2004).

Chahine, R.

S. Pasqualini, S. Verbrugge, A. Kirst�dter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Influence of GMPLS on network providers' operational expenditures--a quantitative study,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(7), 28-34 (2005).

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F.-J. Westphal, M. J�ger, A. Iselt, A. Kirst�dter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Operational Expenditures for Telecom Operators,'' in Proceedings of 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 455-466.

Chuah, C.

A. Markopoulou, G. Iannaccone, S. Bhattacharyya, C. Chuah, and C. Diot, ''Characterization of failures in an IP backbone,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2004) (IEEE, 2004).

Colle, D.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, ''General availability model for multilayer transport networks,'' in Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN2005) (Ischia, 2005), pp. 85-92.

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F.-J. Westphal, M. J�ger, A. Iselt, A. Kirst�dter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Operational Expenditures for Telecom Operators,'' in Proceedings of 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 455-466.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. J�ger, R. Huelsermann, F.-J. Westphal, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Impact of Resilience Strategies on Capital and Operational Expenditures,'' in Proceedings of ITG Tagung Photonical Networks 2005 (Leipzig, Germany, 2005), pp. 109-116.

S. Pasqualini, S. Verbrugge, A. Kirst�dter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Influence of GMPLS on network providers' operational expenditures--a quantitative study,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(7), 28-34 (2005).

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, ''Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,'' Photon. Network Commun. 5, 203-225 (2003).

J. Derkacz, M. Leszczuk, K. Wajda, R. Leone, G. Monari, I. Lievens, S. De Maesschalck, S. Verbrugge, and D. Colle, ''IP/OTN cost model and photonic equipment forecast--IST Lion Project,'' in Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Telecommunications Techno-Economic (IST-TONIC, 2002), pp. 126-138.

Cooper, R.

R. Cooper and R. S. Kaplan, ''Profit priorities from activity-based costing,'' Harvard Business Review 69(3), 130-136 (1991).

De Maesschalck, S.

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, ''Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,'' Photon. Network Commun. 5, 203-225 (2003).

J. Derkacz, M. Leszczuk, K. Wajda, R. Leone, G. Monari, I. Lievens, S. De Maesschalck, S. Verbrugge, and D. Colle, ''IP/OTN cost model and photonic equipment forecast--IST Lion Project,'' in Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Telecommunications Techno-Economic (IST-TONIC, 2002), pp. 126-138.

Demeester, P.

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F.-J. Westphal, M. J�ger, A. Iselt, A. Kirst�dter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Operational Expenditures for Telecom Operators,'' in Proceedings of 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 455-466.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, ''General availability model for multilayer transport networks,'' in Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN2005) (Ischia, 2005), pp. 85-92.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. J�ger, R. Huelsermann, F.-J. Westphal, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Impact of Resilience Strategies on Capital and Operational Expenditures,'' in Proceedings of ITG Tagung Photonical Networks 2005 (Leipzig, Germany, 2005), pp. 109-116.

S. Pasqualini, S. Verbrugge, A. Kirst�dter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Influence of GMPLS on network providers' operational expenditures--a quantitative study,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(7), 28-34 (2005).

J.-P. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS (Morgan Kauffman, 2004).

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, ''Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,'' Photon. Network Commun. 5, 203-225 (2003).

Derkacz, J.

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, ''Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,'' Photon. Network Commun. 5, 203-225 (2003).

J. Derkacz, M. Leszczuk, K. Wajda, R. Leone, G. Monari, I. Lievens, S. De Maesschalck, S. Verbrugge, and D. Colle, ''IP/OTN cost model and photonic equipment forecast--IST Lion Project,'' in Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Telecommunications Techno-Economic (IST-TONIC, 2002), pp. 126-138.

Diot, C.

A. Markopoulou, G. Iannaccone, S. Bhattacharyya, C. Chuah, and C. Diot, ''Characterization of failures in an IP backbone,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2004) (IEEE, 2004).

Gauger, C. M.

R. H�lsermannA. B. C. Gerlach, M. Jaeger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, C. M. Gauger, and M. Koehn, ''A set of typical transport network scenarios for network modelling,'' in Proceedings of 5th ITG Workshop on Photonic Networks (ITG, 2004).

Gerlach, A. B. C.

R. H�lsermannA. B. C. Gerlach, M. Jaeger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, C. M. Gauger, and M. Koehn, ''A set of typical transport network scenarios for network modelling,'' in Proceedings of 5th ITG Workshop on Photonic Networks (ITG, 2004).

Goldsmith, E.

E. Goldsmith, ''Interactive cost models compare installed first costs of copper and fiber cabling'' (Fiber Optics LAN Section FOLS, press release, June 2002).

Grover, W. D.

W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks (Prentice Hall, 2004).

H?lsermann, R.

R. H�lsermannA. B. C. Gerlach, M. Jaeger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, C. M. Gauger, and M. Koehn, ''A set of typical transport network scenarios for network modelling,'' in Proceedings of 5th ITG Workshop on Photonic Networks (ITG, 2004).

Holmstrom, R. P.

L. Wosinska, L. Thylen, and R. P. Holmstrom''Large capacity strictly nonblocking optical cross-connects based on microelectrooptomechanical systems (MEOMS) switch matrices: reliability performance analysis,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1065-1075 (2001).

Huelsermann, R.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, ''General availability model for multilayer transport networks,'' in Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN2005) (Ischia, 2005), pp. 85-92.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. J�ger, R. Huelsermann, F.-J. Westphal, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Impact of Resilience Strategies on Capital and Operational Expenditures,'' in Proceedings of ITG Tagung Photonical Networks 2005 (Leipzig, Germany, 2005), pp. 109-116.

Iannaccone, G.

A. Markopoulou, G. Iannaccone, S. Bhattacharyya, C. Chuah, and C. Diot, ''Characterization of failures in an IP backbone,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2004) (IEEE, 2004).

Inkret, R.

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, ''Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,'' Photon. Network Commun. 5, 203-225 (2003).

Iselt, A.

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F.-J. Westphal, M. J�ger, A. Iselt, A. Kirst�dter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Operational Expenditures for Telecom Operators,'' in Proceedings of 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 455-466.

S. Pasqualini, S. Verbrugge, A. Kirst�dter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Influence of GMPLS on network providers' operational expenditures--a quantitative study,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(7), 28-34 (2005).

J?ger, M.

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F.-J. Westphal, M. J�ger, A. Iselt, A. Kirst�dter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Operational Expenditures for Telecom Operators,'' in Proceedings of 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 455-466.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. J�ger, R. Huelsermann, F.-J. Westphal, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Impact of Resilience Strategies on Capital and Operational Expenditures,'' in Proceedings of ITG Tagung Photonical Networks 2005 (Leipzig, Germany, 2005), pp. 109-116.

Jaeger, M.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, ''General availability model for multilayer transport networks,'' in Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN2005) (Ischia, 2005), pp. 85-92.

R. H�lsermannA. B. C. Gerlach, M. Jaeger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, C. M. Gauger, and M. Koehn, ''A set of typical transport network scenarios for network modelling,'' in Proceedings of 5th ITG Workshop on Photonic Networks (ITG, 2004).

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, ''Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,'' Photon. Network Commun. 5, 203-225 (2003).

Jaffe, J. F.

S. A. Ross, R. W. Westerfield, J. F. Jaffe, Corporate Finance (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

Jamison, D. E.

J. M. Simons and D. E. Jamison, ''Operational and development cost modeling of NASA's earth observing system formation system,'' presented at SpaceOps'96, Munich, Germany, September 1996.

Johnson, C. R.

C. R. Johnson, Y. Kogan, Y. Levy, F. Saheban, and P. Tarapore, ''VoIP reliability: a service provider's perspective,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(7), 48-54 (2004).

Kaplan, R. S.

R. S. Kaplan, and S. Anderson, ''Time-driven activity-based costing,'' Harvard Bus. Rev. 82(11), 131-138 (2004).

R. Cooper and R. S. Kaplan, ''Profit priorities from activity-based costing,'' Harvard Business Review 69(3), 130-136 (1991).

Kirst?dter, A.

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F.-J. Westphal, M. J�ger, A. Iselt, A. Kirst�dter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Operational Expenditures for Telecom Operators,'' in Proceedings of 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 455-466.

S. Pasqualini, S. Verbrugge, A. Kirst�dter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Influence of GMPLS on network providers' operational expenditures--a quantitative study,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(7), 28-34 (2005).

Koehn, M.

R. H�lsermannA. B. C. Gerlach, M. Jaeger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, C. M. Gauger, and M. Koehn, ''A set of typical transport network scenarios for network modelling,'' in Proceedings of 5th ITG Workshop on Photonic Networks (ITG, 2004).

Kogan, Y.

C. R. Johnson, Y. Kogan, Y. Levy, F. Saheban, and P. Tarapore, ''VoIP reliability: a service provider's perspective,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(7), 48-54 (2004).

Leone, R.

J. Derkacz, M. Leszczuk, K. Wajda, R. Leone, G. Monari, I. Lievens, S. De Maesschalck, S. Verbrugge, and D. Colle, ''IP/OTN cost model and photonic equipment forecast--IST Lion Project,'' in Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Telecommunications Techno-Economic (IST-TONIC, 2002), pp. 126-138.

Leszczuk, M.

J. Derkacz, M. Leszczuk, K. Wajda, R. Leone, G. Monari, I. Lievens, S. De Maesschalck, S. Verbrugge, and D. Colle, ''IP/OTN cost model and photonic equipment forecast--IST Lion Project,'' in Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Telecommunications Techno-Economic (IST-TONIC, 2002), pp. 126-138.

Levy, Y.

C. R. Johnson, Y. Kogan, Y. Levy, F. Saheban, and P. Tarapore, ''VoIP reliability: a service provider's perspective,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(7), 48-54 (2004).

Lievens, I.

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, ''Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,'' Photon. Network Commun. 5, 203-225 (2003).

J. Derkacz, M. Leszczuk, K. Wajda, R. Leone, G. Monari, I. Lievens, S. De Maesschalck, S. Verbrugge, and D. Colle, ''IP/OTN cost model and photonic equipment forecast--IST Lion Project,'' in Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Telecommunications Techno-Economic (IST-TONIC, 2002), pp. 126-138.

Markopoulou, A.

A. Markopoulou, G. Iannaccone, S. Bhattacharyya, C. Chuah, and C. Diot, ''Characterization of failures in an IP backbone,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2004) (IEEE, 2004).

Mauz, C.

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, ''Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,'' Photon. Network Commun. 5, 203-225 (2003).

Mikac, B.

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, ''Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,'' Photon. Network Commun. 5, 203-225 (2003).

Monari, G.

J. Derkacz, M. Leszczuk, K. Wajda, R. Leone, G. Monari, I. Lievens, S. De Maesschalck, S. Verbrugge, and D. Colle, ''IP/OTN cost model and photonic equipment forecast--IST Lion Project,'' in Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Telecommunications Techno-Economic (IST-TONIC, 2002), pp. 126-138.

Pasqualini, S.

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F.-J. Westphal, M. J�ger, A. Iselt, A. Kirst�dter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Operational Expenditures for Telecom Operators,'' in Proceedings of 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 455-466.

S. Pasqualini, S. Verbrugge, A. Kirst�dter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Influence of GMPLS on network providers' operational expenditures--a quantitative study,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(7), 28-34 (2005).

Pickavet, M.

S. Pasqualini, S. Verbrugge, A. Kirst�dter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Influence of GMPLS on network providers' operational expenditures--a quantitative study,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(7), 28-34 (2005).

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F.-J. Westphal, M. J�ger, A. Iselt, A. Kirst�dter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Operational Expenditures for Telecom Operators,'' in Proceedings of 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 455-466.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. J�ger, R. Huelsermann, F.-J. Westphal, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Impact of Resilience Strategies on Capital and Operational Expenditures,'' in Proceedings of ITG Tagung Photonical Networks 2005 (Leipzig, Germany, 2005), pp. 109-116.

J.-P. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS (Morgan Kauffman, 2004).

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, ''Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,'' Photon. Network Commun. 5, 203-225 (2003).

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S. A. Ross, R. W. Westerfield, J. F. Jaffe, Corporate Finance (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

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Spaeth, J.

R. H�lsermannA. B. C. Gerlach, M. Jaeger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, C. M. Gauger, and M. Koehn, ''A set of typical transport network scenarios for network modelling,'' in Proceedings of 5th ITG Workshop on Photonic Networks (ITG, 2004).

Tarapore, P.

C. R. Johnson, Y. Kogan, Y. Levy, F. Saheban, and P. Tarapore, ''VoIP reliability: a service provider's perspective,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(7), 48-54 (2004).

Thylen, L.

L. Wosinska, L. Thylen, and R. P. Holmstrom''Large capacity strictly nonblocking optical cross-connects based on microelectrooptomechanical systems (MEOMS) switch matrices: reliability performance analysis,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1065-1075 (2001).

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B. Van Steen, ''Service Provider Study: Operating Expenditures,'' Metro Ethernet Forum, 2004.

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J.-P. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS (Morgan Kauffman, 2004).

Verbrugge, S.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, ''General availability model for multilayer transport networks,'' in Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN2005) (Ischia, 2005), pp. 85-92.

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F.-J. Westphal, M. J�ger, A. Iselt, A. Kirst�dter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Operational Expenditures for Telecom Operators,'' in Proceedings of 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 455-466.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. J�ger, R. Huelsermann, F.-J. Westphal, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Impact of Resilience Strategies on Capital and Operational Expenditures,'' in Proceedings of ITG Tagung Photonical Networks 2005 (Leipzig, Germany, 2005), pp. 109-116.

S. Pasqualini, S. Verbrugge, A. Kirst�dter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Influence of GMPLS on network providers' operational expenditures--a quantitative study,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(7), 28-34 (2005).

J. Derkacz, M. Leszczuk, K. Wajda, R. Leone, G. Monari, I. Lievens, S. De Maesschalck, S. Verbrugge, and D. Colle, ''IP/OTN cost model and photonic equipment forecast--IST Lion Project,'' in Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Telecommunications Techno-Economic (IST-TONIC, 2002), pp. 126-138.

Wajda, K.

J. Derkacz, M. Leszczuk, K. Wajda, R. Leone, G. Monari, I. Lievens, S. De Maesschalck, S. Verbrugge, and D. Colle, ''IP/OTN cost model and photonic equipment forecast--IST Lion Project,'' in Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Telecommunications Techno-Economic (IST-TONIC, 2002), pp. 126-138.

Walker, J.

M. Barton and J. Walker, ''Building a business plan for DSpace, MIT Libraries' digital institutional repository,'' J. Digital Inf. 4(2), 173 (2003).

Westerfield, R. W.

S. A. Ross, R. W. Westerfield, J. F. Jaffe, Corporate Finance (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

Westphal, F.-J.

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F.-J. Westphal, M. J�ger, A. Iselt, A. Kirst�dter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Operational Expenditures for Telecom Operators,'' in Proceedings of 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 455-466.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. J�ger, R. Huelsermann, F.-J. Westphal, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Impact of Resilience Strategies on Capital and Operational Expenditures,'' in Proceedings of ITG Tagung Photonical Networks 2005 (Leipzig, Germany, 2005), pp. 109-116.

Wosinska, L.

L. Wosinska, L. Thylen, and R. P. Holmstrom''Large capacity strictly nonblocking optical cross-connects based on microelectrooptomechanical systems (MEOMS) switch matrices: reliability performance analysis,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1065-1075 (2001).

'Profit priorities from activity-based costing,' Harvard Business Review (1)

R. Cooper and R. S. Kaplan, ''Profit priorities from activity-based costing,'' Harvard Business Review 69(3), 130-136 (1991).

Harvard Bus. Rev. (1)

R. S. Kaplan, and S. Anderson, ''Time-driven activity-based costing,'' Harvard Bus. Rev. 82(11), 131-138 (2004).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

C. R. Johnson, Y. Kogan, Y. Levy, F. Saheban, and P. Tarapore, ''VoIP reliability: a service provider's perspective,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(7), 48-54 (2004).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

S. Pasqualini, S. Verbrugge, A. Kirst�dter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Influence of GMPLS on network providers' operational expenditures--a quantitative study,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(7), 28-34 (2005).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. Wosinska, L. Thylen, and R. P. Holmstrom''Large capacity strictly nonblocking optical cross-connects based on microelectrooptomechanical systems (MEOMS) switch matrices: reliability performance analysis,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1065-1075 (2001).

J. Digital Inf. (1)

M. Barton and J. Walker, ''Building a business plan for DSpace, MIT Libraries' digital institutional repository,'' J. Digital Inf. 4(2), 173 (2003).

Photon. Network Commun. (1)

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, ''Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,'' Photon. Network Commun. 5, 203-225 (2003).

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S. A. Ross, R. W. Westerfield, J. F. Jaffe, Corporate Finance (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

R. H�lsermannA. B. C. Gerlach, M. Jaeger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, C. M. Gauger, and M. Koehn, ''A set of typical transport network scenarios for network modelling,'' in Proceedings of 5th ITG Workshop on Photonic Networks (ITG, 2004).

B. Van Steen, ''Service Provider Study: Operating Expenditures,'' Metro Ethernet Forum, 2004.

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F.-J. Westphal, M. J�ger, A. Iselt, A. Kirst�dter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Operational Expenditures for Telecom Operators,'' in Proceedings of 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 455-466.

ACLVB, http://www.aclvb.be/index.

O. Soto, ''Network planning--business planning,'' presented at ITU/BDT-COE Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, October 2002.

Eurescom, Investment analysis modelling, Project P901-PF, ''Extended investment analysis of telecommunication operator strategies,'' Deliverable 2, Vol. 2 of 4, Annex A (Eurescom, 2000).

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Wavium white paper, ''Reduction of operational expenses in backbone networks with optical crossconnects,'' (Wavium, November 2003).

J. Derkacz, M. Leszczuk, K. Wajda, R. Leone, G. Monari, I. Lievens, S. De Maesschalck, S. Verbrugge, and D. Colle, ''IP/OTN cost model and photonic equipment forecast--IST Lion Project,'' in Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Telecommunications Techno-Economic (IST-TONIC, 2002), pp. 126-138.

E. Goldsmith, ''Interactive cost models compare installed first costs of copper and fiber cabling'' (Fiber Optics LAN Section FOLS, press release, June 2002).

J. M. Simons and D. E. Jamison, ''Operational and development cost modeling of NASA's earth observing system formation system,'' presented at SpaceOps'96, Munich, Germany, September 1996.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, ''General availability model for multilayer transport networks,'' in Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN2005) (Ischia, 2005), pp. 85-92.

A. Markopoulou, G. Iannaccone, S. Bhattacharyya, C. Chuah, and C. Diot, ''Characterization of failures in an IP backbone,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2004) (IEEE, 2004).

J.-P. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS (Morgan Kauffman, 2004).

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. J�ger, R. Huelsermann, F.-J. Westphal, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, ''Impact of Resilience Strategies on Capital and Operational Expenditures,'' in Proceedings of ITG Tagung Photonical Networks 2005 (Leipzig, Germany, 2005), pp. 109-116.

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