Abstract

Feature Issue on Convergence

In recent years there have been rapid advances in the techniques to generate and transport radio signals over optical fiber, but very little has been done to date to develop the concept of a full duplex, multiwavelength, radio-over-fiber network architecture that intrinsically supports and facilitates the dynamic reconfiguration of the wireless network. Recently the development of suitable architectures has received attention, with some approaches concentrating on the fiber radio link layer [Fiber Integr. Opt.19, 167 (2000)] and others focusing on the optical wavelength division multiplexing layer [L. Lim , in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics: MWP'99 (IEEE, 1999), p. 127; also Fiber Opt. Business (15 November 2000)]. Here we present, for the first time to our knowledge, an approach that aims to vertically integrate the cellular radio layer, the fiber radio layer, the optical networking layer, and the physical layer to achieve a network architecture that enables the dynamic reconfiguration of the cellular wireless network layer.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Kitayama, ''Architectural considerations of fiber radio millimeter wave wireless access systems,'' Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 167-186 (2000).
  2. C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and G. Yoffe, ''A WDM architecture for millimeter-wave fiber radio systems incorporating baseband transmission,'' in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics: MWP'99, R.Esman, ed. (IEEE, 1999), pp. 127-130.
  3. ''Allen Telecom's radio-over-fiber technology powers mobile communications at Sydney 2000 Olympics,'' Fiber Opt. Business (15 November 2000) .
  4. H. Al-Raweshidy, K. M. Glaubitt, and P. Faccin, ''Radio over fiber for UMTS in building coverage,'' presented at the 5th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, Honolulu, Hawaii, 27-30 October 2002.
  5. A. T. Koonen, K. Steenbergen, F. Janssen, and J. Wellen, ''Flexibly reconfigurable fiber-wireless network using wavelength routing techniques: the ACTS project AC349 PRISMA,'' Photonic Netw. Commun. 3(3), 297-306 (2001).
  6. D. Wake and K. Beacham, ''A novel switched radio over fiber architecture for distributed antenna systems,'' presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, 7-11 November 2004.
  7. T. Ismail, C.-P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, A. J. Seeds, X. Qian, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, ''Transmission of 37.6-GHz QPSK wireless data over 12.8-km fiber with remote millimeter-wave local oscillator delivery using a bi-directional SOA in a full-duplex system with 2.2-km CWDM fiber ring architecture,'' IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1989-1991 (2005).
  8. T. Ismail, C. P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, and A. J. Seeds, ''Interchannel distortion suppression for broadband wireless over fiber transmission using feed-forward linearized DFB laser,'' presented at the IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Ogunquit, Maine, 4-6 October 2004.
  9. ''ITU-T Recommendation G983'' (International Telecommunication Union, 1998).
  10. T. Kamisaka, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, ''Simultaneous modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 10-Gb/s baseband and 60-GHz-band radio signals on a single wavelength,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2013-2017 (2001).
  11. A. Martinez, V. Polo, and J. Marti, ''Simultaneous baseband and RF optical modulation scheme for feeding wireless and wireline heterogeneous access networks,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2018-2024 (2001).
  12. T. E. Darcie and G. E. Bodeep, ''Lightwave subcarrier CATV transmission systems,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 524-533 (1990).
  13. S. D. Walker, M. Li, A. C. Boucouvalas, D. G. Cunningham, and A. N. Coles, ''Design techniques for subcarrier multiplexed broadcast optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1276-1284 (1990).
  14. B. H. Wang and W. I. Way, ''New frequency management algorithm minimizing intermodulation products for mobile cellular systems,'' Int. J. Wireless Inf. Netw. 2, 55-59 (1995).

2005 (1)

T. Ismail, C.-P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, A. J. Seeds, X. Qian, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, ''Transmission of 37.6-GHz QPSK wireless data over 12.8-km fiber with remote millimeter-wave local oscillator delivery using a bi-directional SOA in a full-duplex system with 2.2-km CWDM fiber ring architecture,'' IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1989-1991 (2005).

2001 (3)

T. Kamisaka, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, ''Simultaneous modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 10-Gb/s baseband and 60-GHz-band radio signals on a single wavelength,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2013-2017 (2001).

A. Martinez, V. Polo, and J. Marti, ''Simultaneous baseband and RF optical modulation scheme for feeding wireless and wireline heterogeneous access networks,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2018-2024 (2001).

A. T. Koonen, K. Steenbergen, F. Janssen, and J. Wellen, ''Flexibly reconfigurable fiber-wireless network using wavelength routing techniques: the ACTS project AC349 PRISMA,'' Photonic Netw. Commun. 3(3), 297-306 (2001).

2000 (1)

K. Kitayama, ''Architectural considerations of fiber radio millimeter wave wireless access systems,'' Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 167-186 (2000).

1999 (1)

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and G. Yoffe, ''A WDM architecture for millimeter-wave fiber radio systems incorporating baseband transmission,'' in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics: MWP'99, R.Esman, ed. (IEEE, 1999), pp. 127-130.

1998 (1)

''ITU-T Recommendation G983'' (International Telecommunication Union, 1998).

1995 (1)

B. H. Wang and W. I. Way, ''New frequency management algorithm minimizing intermodulation products for mobile cellular systems,'' Int. J. Wireless Inf. Netw. 2, 55-59 (1995).

1990 (2)

T. E. Darcie and G. E. Bodeep, ''Lightwave subcarrier CATV transmission systems,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 524-533 (1990).

S. D. Walker, M. Li, A. C. Boucouvalas, D. G. Cunningham, and A. N. Coles, ''Design techniques for subcarrier multiplexed broadcast optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1276-1284 (1990).

Al-Raweshidy, H.

H. Al-Raweshidy, K. M. Glaubitt, and P. Faccin, ''Radio over fiber for UMTS in building coverage,'' presented at the 5th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, Honolulu, Hawaii, 27-30 October 2002.

Beacham, K.

D. Wake and K. Beacham, ''A novel switched radio over fiber architecture for distributed antenna systems,'' presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, 7-11 November 2004.

Bodeep, G. E.

T. E. Darcie and G. E. Bodeep, ''Lightwave subcarrier CATV transmission systems,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 524-533 (1990).

Boucouvalas, A. C.

S. D. Walker, M. Li, A. C. Boucouvalas, D. G. Cunningham, and A. N. Coles, ''Design techniques for subcarrier multiplexed broadcast optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1276-1284 (1990).

Coles, A. N.

S. D. Walker, M. Li, A. C. Boucouvalas, D. G. Cunningham, and A. N. Coles, ''Design techniques for subcarrier multiplexed broadcast optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1276-1284 (1990).

Cunningham, D. G.

S. D. Walker, M. Li, A. C. Boucouvalas, D. G. Cunningham, and A. N. Coles, ''Design techniques for subcarrier multiplexed broadcast optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1276-1284 (1990).

Darcie, T. E.

T. E. Darcie and G. E. Bodeep, ''Lightwave subcarrier CATV transmission systems,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 524-533 (1990).

Faccin, P.

H. Al-Raweshidy, K. M. Glaubitt, and P. Faccin, ''Radio over fiber for UMTS in building coverage,'' presented at the 5th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, Honolulu, Hawaii, 27-30 October 2002.

Glaubitt, K. M.

H. Al-Raweshidy, K. M. Glaubitt, and P. Faccin, ''Radio over fiber for UMTS in building coverage,'' presented at the 5th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, Honolulu, Hawaii, 27-30 October 2002.

Ismail, T.

T. Ismail, C. P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, and A. J. Seeds, ''Interchannel distortion suppression for broadband wireless over fiber transmission using feed-forward linearized DFB laser,'' presented at the IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Ogunquit, Maine, 4-6 October 2004.

T. Ismail, C.-P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, A. J. Seeds, X. Qian, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, ''Transmission of 37.6-GHz QPSK wireless data over 12.8-km fiber with remote millimeter-wave local oscillator delivery using a bi-directional SOA in a full-duplex system with 2.2-km CWDM fiber ring architecture,'' IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1989-1991 (2005).

Janssen, F.

A. T. Koonen, K. Steenbergen, F. Janssen, and J. Wellen, ''Flexibly reconfigurable fiber-wireless network using wavelength routing techniques: the ACTS project AC349 PRISMA,'' Photonic Netw. Commun. 3(3), 297-306 (2001).

Kamisaka, T.

T. Kamisaka, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, ''Simultaneous modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 10-Gb/s baseband and 60-GHz-band radio signals on a single wavelength,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2013-2017 (2001).

Kitayama, K.

T. Kamisaka, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, ''Simultaneous modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 10-Gb/s baseband and 60-GHz-band radio signals on a single wavelength,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2013-2017 (2001).

K. Kitayama, ''Architectural considerations of fiber radio millimeter wave wireless access systems,'' Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 167-186 (2000).

Koonen, A. T.

A. T. Koonen, K. Steenbergen, F. Janssen, and J. Wellen, ''Flexibly reconfigurable fiber-wireless network using wavelength routing techniques: the ACTS project AC349 PRISMA,'' Photonic Netw. Commun. 3(3), 297-306 (2001).

Kuri, T.

T. Kamisaka, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, ''Simultaneous modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 10-Gb/s baseband and 60-GHz-band radio signals on a single wavelength,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2013-2017 (2001).

Li, M.

S. D. Walker, M. Li, A. C. Boucouvalas, D. G. Cunningham, and A. N. Coles, ''Design techniques for subcarrier multiplexed broadcast optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1276-1284 (1990).

Lim, C.

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and G. Yoffe, ''A WDM architecture for millimeter-wave fiber radio systems incorporating baseband transmission,'' in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics: MWP'99, R.Esman, ed. (IEEE, 1999), pp. 127-130.

Liu, C. P.

T. Ismail, C. P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, and A. J. Seeds, ''Interchannel distortion suppression for broadband wireless over fiber transmission using feed-forward linearized DFB laser,'' presented at the IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Ogunquit, Maine, 4-6 October 2004.

Liu, C.-P.

T. Ismail, C.-P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, A. J. Seeds, X. Qian, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, ''Transmission of 37.6-GHz QPSK wireless data over 12.8-km fiber with remote millimeter-wave local oscillator delivery using a bi-directional SOA in a full-duplex system with 2.2-km CWDM fiber ring architecture,'' IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1989-1991 (2005).

Marti, J.

A. Martinez, V. Polo, and J. Marti, ''Simultaneous baseband and RF optical modulation scheme for feeding wireless and wireline heterogeneous access networks,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2018-2024 (2001).

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, V. Polo, and J. Marti, ''Simultaneous baseband and RF optical modulation scheme for feeding wireless and wireline heterogeneous access networks,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2018-2024 (2001).

Mitchell, J. E.

T. Ismail, C. P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, and A. J. Seeds, ''Interchannel distortion suppression for broadband wireless over fiber transmission using feed-forward linearized DFB laser,'' presented at the IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Ogunquit, Maine, 4-6 October 2004.

T. Ismail, C.-P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, A. J. Seeds, X. Qian, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, ''Transmission of 37.6-GHz QPSK wireless data over 12.8-km fiber with remote millimeter-wave local oscillator delivery using a bi-directional SOA in a full-duplex system with 2.2-km CWDM fiber ring architecture,'' IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1989-1991 (2005).

Nirmalathas, A.

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and G. Yoffe, ''A WDM architecture for millimeter-wave fiber radio systems incorporating baseband transmission,'' in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics: MWP'99, R.Esman, ed. (IEEE, 1999), pp. 127-130.

Novak, D.

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and G. Yoffe, ''A WDM architecture for millimeter-wave fiber radio systems incorporating baseband transmission,'' in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics: MWP'99, R.Esman, ed. (IEEE, 1999), pp. 127-130.

Penty, R. V.

T. Ismail, C.-P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, A. J. Seeds, X. Qian, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, ''Transmission of 37.6-GHz QPSK wireless data over 12.8-km fiber with remote millimeter-wave local oscillator delivery using a bi-directional SOA in a full-duplex system with 2.2-km CWDM fiber ring architecture,'' IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1989-1991 (2005).

Polo, V.

A. Martinez, V. Polo, and J. Marti, ''Simultaneous baseband and RF optical modulation scheme for feeding wireless and wireline heterogeneous access networks,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2018-2024 (2001).

Qian, X.

T. Ismail, C.-P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, A. J. Seeds, X. Qian, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, ''Transmission of 37.6-GHz QPSK wireless data over 12.8-km fiber with remote millimeter-wave local oscillator delivery using a bi-directional SOA in a full-duplex system with 2.2-km CWDM fiber ring architecture,'' IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1989-1991 (2005).

Seeds, A. J.

T. Ismail, C. P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, and A. J. Seeds, ''Interchannel distortion suppression for broadband wireless over fiber transmission using feed-forward linearized DFB laser,'' presented at the IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Ogunquit, Maine, 4-6 October 2004.

T. Ismail, C.-P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, A. J. Seeds, X. Qian, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, ''Transmission of 37.6-GHz QPSK wireless data over 12.8-km fiber with remote millimeter-wave local oscillator delivery using a bi-directional SOA in a full-duplex system with 2.2-km CWDM fiber ring architecture,'' IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1989-1991 (2005).

Steenbergen, K.

A. T. Koonen, K. Steenbergen, F. Janssen, and J. Wellen, ''Flexibly reconfigurable fiber-wireless network using wavelength routing techniques: the ACTS project AC349 PRISMA,'' Photonic Netw. Commun. 3(3), 297-306 (2001).

Wake, D.

D. Wake and K. Beacham, ''A novel switched radio over fiber architecture for distributed antenna systems,'' presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, 7-11 November 2004.

Walker, S. D.

S. D. Walker, M. Li, A. C. Boucouvalas, D. G. Cunningham, and A. N. Coles, ''Design techniques for subcarrier multiplexed broadcast optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1276-1284 (1990).

Wang, B. H.

B. H. Wang and W. I. Way, ''New frequency management algorithm minimizing intermodulation products for mobile cellular systems,'' Int. J. Wireless Inf. Netw. 2, 55-59 (1995).

Waterhouse, R.

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and G. Yoffe, ''A WDM architecture for millimeter-wave fiber radio systems incorporating baseband transmission,'' in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics: MWP'99, R.Esman, ed. (IEEE, 1999), pp. 127-130.

Way, W. I.

B. H. Wang and W. I. Way, ''New frequency management algorithm minimizing intermodulation products for mobile cellular systems,'' Int. J. Wireless Inf. Netw. 2, 55-59 (1995).

Wellen, J.

A. T. Koonen, K. Steenbergen, F. Janssen, and J. Wellen, ''Flexibly reconfigurable fiber-wireless network using wavelength routing techniques: the ACTS project AC349 PRISMA,'' Photonic Netw. Commun. 3(3), 297-306 (2001).

White, I. H.

T. Ismail, C.-P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, A. J. Seeds, X. Qian, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, ''Transmission of 37.6-GHz QPSK wireless data over 12.8-km fiber with remote millimeter-wave local oscillator delivery using a bi-directional SOA in a full-duplex system with 2.2-km CWDM fiber ring architecture,'' IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1989-1991 (2005).

Wonfor, A.

T. Ismail, C.-P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, A. J. Seeds, X. Qian, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, ''Transmission of 37.6-GHz QPSK wireless data over 12.8-km fiber with remote millimeter-wave local oscillator delivery using a bi-directional SOA in a full-duplex system with 2.2-km CWDM fiber ring architecture,'' IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1989-1991 (2005).

Yoffe, G.

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and G. Yoffe, ''A WDM architecture for millimeter-wave fiber radio systems incorporating baseband transmission,'' in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics: MWP'99, R.Esman, ed. (IEEE, 1999), pp. 127-130.

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

K. Kitayama, ''Architectural considerations of fiber radio millimeter wave wireless access systems,'' Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 167-186 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

S. D. Walker, M. Li, A. C. Boucouvalas, D. G. Cunningham, and A. N. Coles, ''Design techniques for subcarrier multiplexed broadcast optical networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1276-1284 (1990).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

T. Kamisaka, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, ''Simultaneous modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 10-Gb/s baseband and 60-GHz-band radio signals on a single wavelength,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2013-2017 (2001).

A. Martinez, V. Polo, and J. Marti, ''Simultaneous baseband and RF optical modulation scheme for feeding wireless and wireline heterogeneous access networks,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2018-2024 (2001).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Ismail, C.-P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, A. J. Seeds, X. Qian, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, ''Transmission of 37.6-GHz QPSK wireless data over 12.8-km fiber with remote millimeter-wave local oscillator delivery using a bi-directional SOA in a full-duplex system with 2.2-km CWDM fiber ring architecture,'' IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1989-1991 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

T. E. Darcie and G. E. Bodeep, ''Lightwave subcarrier CATV transmission systems,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 524-533 (1990).

Int. J. Wireless Inf. Netw. (1)

B. H. Wang and W. I. Way, ''New frequency management algorithm minimizing intermodulation products for mobile cellular systems,'' Int. J. Wireless Inf. Netw. 2, 55-59 (1995).

Photonic Netw. Commun. (1)

A. T. Koonen, K. Steenbergen, F. Janssen, and J. Wellen, ''Flexibly reconfigurable fiber-wireless network using wavelength routing techniques: the ACTS project AC349 PRISMA,'' Photonic Netw. Commun. 3(3), 297-306 (2001).

Other (6)

D. Wake and K. Beacham, ''A novel switched radio over fiber architecture for distributed antenna systems,'' presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, 7-11 November 2004.

T. Ismail, C. P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, and A. J. Seeds, ''Interchannel distortion suppression for broadband wireless over fiber transmission using feed-forward linearized DFB laser,'' presented at the IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Ogunquit, Maine, 4-6 October 2004.

''ITU-T Recommendation G983'' (International Telecommunication Union, 1998).

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and G. Yoffe, ''A WDM architecture for millimeter-wave fiber radio systems incorporating baseband transmission,'' in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics: MWP'99, R.Esman, ed. (IEEE, 1999), pp. 127-130.

''Allen Telecom's radio-over-fiber technology powers mobile communications at Sydney 2000 Olympics,'' Fiber Opt. Business (15 November 2000) .

H. Al-Raweshidy, K. M. Glaubitt, and P. Faccin, ''Radio over fiber for UMTS in building coverage,'' presented at the 5th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, Honolulu, Hawaii, 27-30 October 2002.

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