H. S. Hamza and J. S. Deogun, ''Wavelength
exchanging cross-connect (WEX)--a new class of photonic cross-connect architectures,'' J.
Lightwave Technol. 24, 1101-1111 (2006).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Cost-effective designs of WDM optical interconnects,'' IEEE
Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 16, 51-66 (2005).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang,
''Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength
converters,'' in Proceedings of the 24th Conference of the
IEEE Communications Society (INFOCOM 2005) (IEEE, 2005).

A. Pattavina,
''Architectures and performance of optical packet switching nodes for
IP networks,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1023-1032 (2005).

H. S. Hamza and J. S. Deogun, ''On
the design of a new Clos optical interconnect,'' Tech. Rep. TR-06-01-05 (University
of Nebraska, 2005), manuscript under review.

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao,
''Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited
wavelength conversion,'' in Proceedings of the 23rd Conference
of the IEEE Communications Society (INFOCOM 2004) (IEEE, 2004).

D. Pan, V. Anand, and H. Q. Ngo,
''Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching
networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference
on Communications 2004 (IEEE, 2004),
pp. 1801-1805.

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Designing WDM optical interconnects with full connectivity
by using limited wavelength conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 1547-1556 (2004).

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester,
''Clos lives on in optical packet switching,'' IEEE Commun.
Mag. 42, 114-121 (2003).

K. Zhu, H. Zang, and B. Mukherjee,
''A comprehensive study on next-generation optical grooming switches,'' IEEE
J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1173-1186 (2003).

F. K. Hwang,
''A survey of nonblocking multicast three-stage Clos networks,'' IEEE
Commun. Mag. 41, 34-37 (2003).

H. J.Chao, K.-L. Deng, and Z. Jing,
''PetaStar: A petabit photonic packet switch,'' IEEE
J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1096-1112 (2003).

H. J.Chao, Z. Jing, and S. Y. Liew,
''Matching algorithms for three-stage bufferless Clos network switches,'' IEEE
Commun. Mag. 41, 46-54 (2003).

X. Qin and Y. Yang, ''Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength
conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032-2041 (2002).

A. C. Dasylva, D. Y. Montuno, and P. Kodaypak,
''Nonblocking space-wavelength networks with wave-mixing frequency conversion,'' J.
Opt. Netw. 1, 206-216 (2002).

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic,
and L. G. Kazovsky,
''Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber:
theory and experiments,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).

T. T. Lee and S. Y. Liew, ''Parallel
routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

A. Chowdhury, S. C. Hagness, and L. McCaughan,
''Simultaneous optical wavelength interchange with a two-dimensional
second-order nonlinear photonic crystal,'' Opt. Lett. 25, 832-834 (2000).

N. P. Torrington-Smith, H. T. Mouftah,
and M. H. Rahman,
''An evaluation of optical switch architectures utilizing wavelength
converters,'' in Proceedings of Canadian Conference on Electrical
and Computer Engineering (CCECE 2000) (IEEE, 2000),
pp. 1008-1013.

A. Rasala and G. Wilfong, ''Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects,'' in Proceedings
of the Eleventh Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA'02)
(Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2000),
pp. 606-615.

Y. Yang, J. Wang, and C. Qiao, ''Nonblocking
WDM multicast switching networks,'' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib.
Syst. 11, 1274-1287 (2000).

N. Antoniades, S. J.
B. Yoo, K. Bala, G. Ellinas, and T. E. Stern,
''An architecture for a wavelength-interchanging cross-connect utilizing
parametric wavelength converters,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1113-1125 (1999).

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr,
and M. Zirngibl, ''WDM
cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,'' J. Lightwave
Technol. 17, 1732-1741 (1999).

T. E. Stern and K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks:
a Layered Approach (Addison-Wesley, 1999).

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, ''WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,'' IEEE
Commun. Mag. 37, 120-129 (1999).

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari,
''Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,'' Electron.
Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).

K.-C. Lee and V. O.
K. Li, ''A wavelength-convertible
optical network,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 962-970 (1993).

J. Y. Hui,
''Switching and traffic theory for integrated broadband network,'' in Point-to-Point
Multistage Circuit Switching (Kluwer, 1990),
pp.53-83.

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, ''On
a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm,'' Bell
Syst. Tech. J. 5, 1579-1600 (1971).

C. Clos,
''A study of non-blocking switching networks,'' Bell
System Tech. J. 32, 407-424 (1958).

D. Pan, V. Anand, and H. Q. Ngo,
''Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching
networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference
on Communications 2004 (IEEE, 2004),
pp. 1801-1805.

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, ''WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,'' IEEE
Commun. Mag. 37, 120-129 (1999).

H. J.Chao, Z. Jing, and S. Y. Liew,
''Matching algorithms for three-stage bufferless Clos network switches,'' IEEE
Commun. Mag. 41, 46-54 (2003).

H. J.Chao, K.-L. Deng, and Z. Jing,
''PetaStar: A petabit photonic packet switch,'' IEEE
J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1096-1112 (2003).

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester,
''Clos lives on in optical packet switching,'' IEEE Commun.
Mag. 42, 114-121 (2003).

C. Clos,
''A study of non-blocking switching networks,'' Bell
System Tech. J. 32, 407-424 (1958).

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester,
''Clos lives on in optical packet switching,'' IEEE Commun.
Mag. 42, 114-121 (2003).

A. C. Dasylva, D. Y. Montuno, and P. Kodaypak,
''Nonblocking space-wavelength networks with wave-mixing frequency conversion,'' J.
Opt. Netw. 1, 206-216 (2002).

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester,
''Clos lives on in optical packet switching,'' IEEE Commun.
Mag. 42, 114-121 (2003).

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester,
''Clos lives on in optical packet switching,'' IEEE Commun.
Mag. 42, 114-121 (2003).

H. J.Chao, K.-L. Deng, and Z. Jing,
''PetaStar: A petabit photonic packet switch,'' IEEE
J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1096-1112 (2003).

H. S. Hamza and J. S. Deogun, ''Wavelength
exchanging cross-connect (WEX)--a new class of photonic cross-connect architectures,'' J.
Lightwave Technol. 24, 1101-1111 (2006).

H. S. Hamza and J. S. Deogun, ''On
the design of a new Clos optical interconnect,'' Tech. Rep. TR-06-01-05 (University
of Nebraska, 2005), manuscript under review.

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester,
''Clos lives on in optical packet switching,'' IEEE Commun.
Mag. 42, 114-121 (2003).

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr,
and M. Zirngibl, ''WDM
cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,'' J. Lightwave
Technol. 17, 1732-1741 (1999).

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, ''WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,'' IEEE
Commun. Mag. 37, 120-129 (1999).

H. S. Hamza and J. S. Deogun, ''Wavelength
exchanging cross-connect (WEX)--a new class of photonic cross-connect architectures,'' J.
Lightwave Technol. 24, 1101-1111 (2006).

H. S. Hamza and J. S. Deogun, ''On
the design of a new Clos optical interconnect,'' Tech. Rep. TR-06-01-05 (University
of Nebraska, 2005), manuscript under review.

J. Y. Hui,
''Switching and traffic theory for integrated broadband network,'' in Point-to-Point
Multistage Circuit Switching (Kluwer, 1990),
pp.53-83.

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, ''WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,'' IEEE
Commun. Mag. 37, 120-129 (1999).

F. K. Hwang,
''A survey of nonblocking multicast three-stage Clos networks,'' IEEE
Commun. Mag. 41, 34-37 (2003).

H. J.Chao, K.-L. Deng, and Z. Jing,
''PetaStar: A petabit photonic packet switch,'' IEEE
J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1096-1112 (2003).

H. J.Chao, Z. Jing, and S. Y. Liew,
''Matching algorithms for three-stage bufferless Clos network switches,'' IEEE
Commun. Mag. 41, 46-54 (2003).

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic,
and L. G. Kazovsky,
''Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber:
theory and experiments,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).

A. C. Dasylva, D. Y. Montuno, and P. Kodaypak,
''Nonblocking space-wavelength networks with wave-mixing frequency conversion,'' J.
Opt. Netw. 1, 206-216 (2002).

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester,
''Clos lives on in optical packet switching,'' IEEE Commun.
Mag. 42, 114-121 (2003).

K.-C. Lee and V. O.
K. Li, ''A wavelength-convertible
optical network,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 962-970 (1993).

T. T. Lee and S. Y. Liew, ''Parallel
routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

K.-C. Lee and V. O.
K. Li, ''A wavelength-convertible
optical network,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 962-970 (1993).

H. J.Chao, Z. Jing, and S. Y. Liew,
''Matching algorithms for three-stage bufferless Clos network switches,'' IEEE
Commun. Mag. 41, 46-54 (2003).

T. T. Lee and S. Y. Liew, ''Parallel
routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic,
and L. G. Kazovsky,
''Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber:
theory and experiments,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr,
and M. Zirngibl, ''WDM
cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,'' J. Lightwave
Technol. 17, 1732-1741 (1999).

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari,
''Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,'' Electron.
Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).

A. C. Dasylva, D. Y. Montuno, and P. Kodaypak,
''Nonblocking space-wavelength networks with wave-mixing frequency conversion,'' J.
Opt. Netw. 1, 206-216 (2002).

N. P. Torrington-Smith, H. T. Mouftah,
and M. H. Rahman,
''An evaluation of optical switch architectures utilizing wavelength
converters,'' in Proceedings of Canadian Conference on Electrical
and Computer Engineering (CCECE 2000) (IEEE, 2000),
pp. 1008-1013.

K. Zhu, H. Zang, and B. Mukherjee,
''A comprehensive study on next-generation optical grooming switches,'' IEEE
J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1173-1186 (2003).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang,
''Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength
converters,'' in Proceedings of the 24th Conference of the
IEEE Communications Society (INFOCOM 2005) (IEEE, 2005).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao,
''Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited
wavelength conversion,'' in Proceedings of the 23rd Conference
of the IEEE Communications Society (INFOCOM 2004) (IEEE, 2004).

D. Pan, V. Anand, and H. Q. Ngo,
''Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching
networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference
on Communications 2004 (IEEE, 2004),
pp. 1801-1805.

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, ''On
a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm,'' Bell
Syst. Tech. J. 5, 1579-1600 (1971).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang,
''Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength
converters,'' in Proceedings of the 24th Conference of the
IEEE Communications Society (INFOCOM 2005) (IEEE, 2005).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao,
''Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited
wavelength conversion,'' in Proceedings of the 23rd Conference
of the IEEE Communications Society (INFOCOM 2004) (IEEE, 2004).

D. Pan, V. Anand, and H. Q. Ngo,
''Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching
networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference
on Communications 2004 (IEEE, 2004),
pp. 1801-1805.

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester,
''Clos lives on in optical packet switching,'' IEEE Commun.
Mag. 42, 114-121 (2003).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao,
''Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited
wavelength conversion,'' in Proceedings of the 23rd Conference
of the IEEE Communications Society (INFOCOM 2004) (IEEE, 2004).

Y. Yang, J. Wang, and C. Qiao, ''Nonblocking
WDM multicast switching networks,'' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib.
Syst. 11, 1274-1287 (2000).

X. Qin and Y. Yang, ''Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength
conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032-2041 (2002).

N. P. Torrington-Smith, H. T. Mouftah,
and M. H. Rahman,
''An evaluation of optical switch architectures utilizing wavelength
converters,'' in Proceedings of Canadian Conference on Electrical
and Computer Engineering (CCECE 2000) (IEEE, 2000),
pp. 1008-1013.

A. Rasala and G. Wilfong, ''Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects,'' in Proceedings
of the Eleventh Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA'02)
(Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2000),
pp. 606-615.

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari,
''Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,'' Electron.
Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari,
''Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,'' Electron.
Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).

N. P. Torrington-Smith, H. T. Mouftah,
and M. H. Rahman,
''An evaluation of optical switch architectures utilizing wavelength
converters,'' in Proceedings of Canadian Conference on Electrical
and Computer Engineering (CCECE 2000) (IEEE, 2000),
pp. 1008-1013.

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, ''On
a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm,'' Bell
Syst. Tech. J. 5, 1579-1600 (1971).

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic,
and L. G. Kazovsky,
''Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber:
theory and experiments,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester,
''Clos lives on in optical packet switching,'' IEEE Commun.
Mag. 42, 114-121 (2003).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Cost-effective designs of WDM optical interconnects,'' IEEE
Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 16, 51-66 (2005).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Designing WDM optical interconnects with full connectivity
by using limited wavelength conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 1547-1556 (2004).

Y. Yang, J. Wang, and C. Qiao, ''Nonblocking
WDM multicast switching networks,'' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib.
Syst. 11, 1274-1287 (2000).

A. Rasala and G. Wilfong, ''Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects,'' in Proceedings
of the Eleventh Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA'02)
(Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2000),
pp. 606-615.

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr,
and M. Zirngibl, ''WDM
cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,'' J. Lightwave
Technol. 17, 1732-1741 (1999).

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic,
and L. G. Kazovsky,
''Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber:
theory and experiments,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Cost-effective designs of WDM optical interconnects,'' IEEE
Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 16, 51-66 (2005).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang,
''Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength
converters,'' in Proceedings of the 24th Conference of the
IEEE Communications Society (INFOCOM 2005) (IEEE, 2005).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Designing WDM optical interconnects with full connectivity
by using limited wavelength conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 1547-1556 (2004).

X. Qin and Y. Yang, ''Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength
conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032-2041 (2002).

Y. Yang, J. Wang, and C. Qiao, ''Nonblocking
WDM multicast switching networks,'' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib.
Syst. 11, 1274-1287 (2000).

K. Zhu, H. Zang, and B. Mukherjee,
''A comprehensive study on next-generation optical grooming switches,'' IEEE
J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1173-1186 (2003).

K. Zhu, H. Zang, and B. Mukherjee,
''A comprehensive study on next-generation optical grooming switches,'' IEEE
J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1173-1186 (2003).

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr,
and M. Zirngibl, ''WDM
cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,'' J. Lightwave
Technol. 17, 1732-1741 (1999).

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, ''On
a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm,'' Bell
Syst. Tech. J. 5, 1579-1600 (1971).

C. Clos,
''A study of non-blocking switching networks,'' Bell
System Tech. J. 32, 407-424 (1958).

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari,
''Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,'' Electron.
Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, ''WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,'' IEEE
Commun. Mag. 37, 120-129 (1999).

F. K. Hwang,
''A survey of nonblocking multicast three-stage Clos networks,'' IEEE
Commun. Mag. 41, 34-37 (2003).

H. J.Chao, Z. Jing, and S. Y. Liew,
''Matching algorithms for three-stage bufferless Clos network switches,'' IEEE
Commun. Mag. 41, 46-54 (2003).

H. J.Chao, K.-L. Deng, and Z. Jing,
''PetaStar: A petabit photonic packet switch,'' IEEE
J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1096-1112 (2003).

K. Zhu, H. Zang, and B. Mukherjee,
''A comprehensive study on next-generation optical grooming switches,'' IEEE
J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1173-1186 (2003).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Cost-effective designs of WDM optical interconnects,'' IEEE
Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 16, 51-66 (2005).

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester,
''Clos lives on in optical packet switching,'' IEEE Commun.
Mag. 42, 114-121 (2003).

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic,
and L. G. Kazovsky,
''Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber:
theory and experiments,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).

T. T. Lee and S. Y. Liew, ''Parallel
routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

X. Qin and Y. Yang, ''Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength
conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032-2041 (2002).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Designing WDM optical interconnects with full connectivity
by using limited wavelength conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 1547-1556 (2004).

Y. Yang, J. Wang, and C. Qiao, ''Nonblocking
WDM multicast switching networks,'' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib.
Syst. 11, 1274-1287 (2000).

H. S. Hamza and J. S. Deogun, ''Wavelength
exchanging cross-connect (WEX)--a new class of photonic cross-connect architectures,'' J.
Lightwave Technol. 24, 1101-1111 (2006).

A. C. Dasylva, D. Y. Montuno, and P. Kodaypak,
''Nonblocking space-wavelength networks with wave-mixing frequency conversion,'' J.
Opt. Netw. 1, 206-216 (2002).

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr,
and M. Zirngibl, ''WDM
cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,'' J. Lightwave
Technol. 17, 1732-1741 (1999).

K.-C. Lee and V. O.
K. Li, ''A wavelength-convertible
optical network,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 962-970 (1993).

N. Antoniades, S. J.
B. Yoo, K. Bala, G. Ellinas, and T. E. Stern,
''An architecture for a wavelength-interchanging cross-connect utilizing
parametric wavelength converters,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1113-1125 (1999).

A. Pattavina,
''Architectures and performance of optical packet switching nodes for
IP networks,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1023-1032 (2005).

A. Carena, M. D. Vaughn, R. Gaudino, M. Shell, and D. J. Blumenthal,
''An optical packet experimental routing architecture with label swapping
capability,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2135-2145 (1998).

H. S. Hamza and J. S. Deogun, ''On
the design of a new Clos optical interconnect,'' Tech. Rep. TR-06-01-05 (University
of Nebraska, 2005), manuscript under review.

N. P. Torrington-Smith, H. T. Mouftah,
and M. H. Rahman,
''An evaluation of optical switch architectures utilizing wavelength
converters,'' in Proceedings of Canadian Conference on Electrical
and Computer Engineering (CCECE 2000) (IEEE, 2000),
pp. 1008-1013.

D. Pan, V. Anand, and H. Q. Ngo,
''Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching
networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference
on Communications 2004 (IEEE, 2004),
pp. 1801-1805.

J. Y. Hui,
''Switching and traffic theory for integrated broadband network,'' in Point-to-Point
Multistage Circuit Switching (Kluwer, 1990),
pp.53-83.

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao,
''Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited
wavelength conversion,'' in Proceedings of the 23rd Conference
of the IEEE Communications Society (INFOCOM 2004) (IEEE, 2004).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang,
''Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength
converters,'' in Proceedings of the 24th Conference of the
IEEE Communications Society (INFOCOM 2005) (IEEE, 2005).

T. E. Stern and K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks:
a Layered Approach (Addison-Wesley, 1999).

A. Rasala and G. Wilfong, ''Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects,'' in Proceedings
of the Eleventh Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA'02)
(Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2000),
pp. 606-615.