C. A. S. Oliveira, P. M. Pardalos, and M. G. C.
Resende, ''Optimization problems in multicast tree construction,'' in
Handbook of Optimization in Telecommunications (Kluwer, 2005), pp.
701-733.

X.-D. Hu, T.-P. Shaui, X. Jia, and M.-H. Zhang,
''Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks with limited
drop-offs,'' in Twenty-Third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer
and Communications Societies, Hong Kong, March 2004 (IEEE,
2004).

J. Gu, X.-D. Hu, X. Jia, and M.-H. Zhang,
''Routing algorithm for multicast under multi-tree model in optical
networks,'' Theor. Comput. Sci. 314, 293-301 (2004).

B. Chen and J. Wang, ''Efficient routing and
wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas
Commun. 20, 97-109 (2002).

R. Hadas and R. Melhem, ''Multicast routing and
wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.
10, 621-629 (2002).

J. E. G. Coffman, J. Csirik, and G. Woeginger,
''Bin packing theory,'' in Handbook of Applied Optimization, P.Pardalos and
M.Resende, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 2002).

P. Manohar, D. Manjunath, and R. K. Shevgaonkar,
''Routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks from edge disjoint
paths algorithms,'' IEEE Commun. Lett. 6, 211-213 (2002).

X.-H. Jia, D.-Z. Du, X.-D. Hu, M.-K. Lee, and J.
Gu, ''Optimization of wavelength assignment for QoS multicast in WDM
networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 341-350 (2001).

T. Koch, A. Martin, and S. Vo�, ''Steinlib: an
updated library on Steiner tree problems in graphs'' (2001), available at
http://elib.zib.de/steinlib.

X.Cheng and D.-Z.Du, eds., Steiner Trees in
Industry (Kluwer, 2001).

M. Ali and J. S. Deogun, ''Power-efficient design
of multicast wavelength routed networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18,
1852-1862 (2000).

X. Zhang, J. Y. Wei, and C. Qiao, ''Constrained
multicast routing in WDM networks with sparse light splitting,'' J.
Lightwave Technol. 18, 1917-1927 (2000).

M. Ali and J. S. Deogun, ''Cost-effective
implementation of multicasting in wavelength-routed networks,'' J. Lightwave
Technol. 18, 1628-1638 (2000).

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, ''Light
trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength-routed
networks,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 67-73 (1999).

R. K. Pankaj, ''Wavelength requirements for
multicasting in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 414-424
(1999).

B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks
(McGraw-Hill, 1997).

M. Kovacevic and A. S. Acampora, ''Electronic
wavelength translation in optical networks,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 14,
1161-1169 (1996).

J. E. G. Coffman, R. Garey, and D. S. Johnson,
''Bin packing approximation algorithms: a survey,'' in Approximation
Algorithms for NP-Hard Problems, D.Hochbaum, ed. (PWS,
1996).

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, ''Lightpath
communications: an approach to high-bandwidth optical WANs,'' IEEE Trans.
Commun. 40, 1171-1182 (1992).

M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and
Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness (Freeman,
1979).

M. Kovacevic and A. S. Acampora, ''Electronic
wavelength translation in optical networks,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 14,
1161-1169 (1996).

B. Chen and J. Wang, ''Efficient routing and
wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas
Commun. 20, 97-109 (2002).

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, ''Lightpath
communications: an approach to high-bandwidth optical WANs,'' IEEE Trans.
Commun. 40, 1171-1182 (1992).

X. Chu and B. Li, ''Dynamic routing and
wavelength assignment in the presence of wavelength conversion for
all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 13, 704-715
(2005).

J. E. G. Coffman, J. Csirik, and G. Woeginger,
''Bin packing theory,'' in Handbook of Applied Optimization, P.Pardalos and
M.Resende, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 2002).

J. E. G. Coffman, R. Garey, and D. S. Johnson,
''Bin packing approximation algorithms: a survey,'' in Approximation
Algorithms for NP-Hard Problems, D.Hochbaum, ed. (PWS,
1996).

J. E. G. Coffman, J. Csirik, and G. Woeginger,
''Bin packing theory,'' in Handbook of Applied Optimization, P.Pardalos and
M.Resende, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 2002).

A. Ding and G.-S. Poo, ''A survey of optical
multicast over WDM networks,'' Comput. Commun. 26, 193-200
(2003).

X.-H. Jia, D.-Z. Du, X.-D. Hu, M.-K. Lee, and J.
Gu, ''Optimization of wavelength assignment for QoS multicast in WDM
networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 341-350 (2001).

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, ''Lightpath
communications: an approach to high-bandwidth optical WANs,'' IEEE Trans.
Commun. 40, 1171-1182 (1992).

M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and
Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness (Freeman,
1979).

J. E. G. Coffman, R. Garey, and D. S. Johnson,
''Bin packing approximation algorithms: a survey,'' in Approximation
Algorithms for NP-Hard Problems, D.Hochbaum, ed. (PWS,
1996).

J. Gu, X.-D. Hu, X. Jia, and M.-H. Zhang,
''Routing algorithm for multicast under multi-tree model in optical
networks,'' Theor. Comput. Sci. 314, 293-301 (2004).

X.-H. Jia, D.-Z. Du, X.-D. Hu, M.-K. Lee, and J.
Gu, ''Optimization of wavelength assignment for QoS multicast in WDM
networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 341-350 (2001).

R. Hadas and R. Melhem, ''Multicast routing and
wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.
10, 621-629 (2002).

X.-D. Hu, T.-P. Shaui, X. Jia, and M.-H. Zhang,
''Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks with limited
drop-offs,'' in Twenty-Third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer
and Communications Societies, Hong Kong, March 2004 (IEEE,
2004).

J. Gu, X.-D. Hu, X. Jia, and M.-H. Zhang,
''Routing algorithm for multicast under multi-tree model in optical
networks,'' Theor. Comput. Sci. 314, 293-301 (2004).

X.-H. Jia, D.-Z. Du, X.-D. Hu, M.-K. Lee, and J.
Gu, ''Optimization of wavelength assignment for QoS multicast in WDM
networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 341-350 (2001).

X.-D. Hu, T.-P. Shaui, X. Jia, and M.-H. Zhang,
''Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks with limited
drop-offs,'' in Twenty-Third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer
and Communications Societies, Hong Kong, March 2004 (IEEE,
2004).

J. Gu, X.-D. Hu, X. Jia, and M.-H. Zhang,
''Routing algorithm for multicast under multi-tree model in optical
networks,'' Theor. Comput. Sci. 314, 293-301 (2004).

X.-H. Jia, D.-Z. Du, X.-D. Hu, M.-K. Lee, and J.
Gu, ''Optimization of wavelength assignment for QoS multicast in WDM
networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 341-350 (2001).

J. E. G. Coffman, R. Garey, and D. S. Johnson,
''Bin packing approximation algorithms: a survey,'' in Approximation
Algorithms for NP-Hard Problems, D.Hochbaum, ed. (PWS,
1996).

M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and
Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness (Freeman,
1979).

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, ''Lightpath
communications: an approach to high-bandwidth optical WANs,'' IEEE Trans.
Commun. 40, 1171-1182 (1992).

T. Koch, A. Martin, and S. Vo�, ''Steinlib: an
updated library on Steiner tree problems in graphs'' (2001), available at
http://elib.zib.de/steinlib.

N. Skorin-Kapov and M. Kos, ''A GRASP heuristic
for the delay-constrained multicast routing problem,'' Telecommun. Sys. (to
be published).

M. Kovacevic and A. S. Acampora, ''Electronic
wavelength translation in optical networks,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 14,
1161-1169 (1996).

X.-H. Jia, D.-Z. Du, X.-D. Hu, M.-K. Lee, and J.
Gu, ''Optimization of wavelength assignment for QoS multicast in WDM
networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 341-350 (2001).

X. Chu and B. Li, ''Dynamic routing and
wavelength assignment in the presence of wavelength conversion for
all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 13, 704-715
(2005).

P. Manohar, D. Manjunath, and R. K. Shevgaonkar,
''Routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks from edge disjoint
paths algorithms,'' IEEE Commun. Lett. 6, 211-213 (2002).

P. Manohar, D. Manjunath, and R. K. Shevgaonkar,
''Routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks from edge disjoint
paths algorithms,'' IEEE Commun. Lett. 6, 211-213 (2002).

T. Koch, A. Martin, and S. Vo�, ''Steinlib: an
updated library on Steiner tree problems in graphs'' (2001), available at
http://elib.zib.de/steinlib.

R. Hadas and R. Melhem, ''Multicast routing and
wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.
10, 621-629 (2002).

C. A. S. Oliveira, P. M. Pardalos, and M. G. C.
Resende, ''Optimization problems in multicast tree construction,'' in
Handbook of Optimization in Telecommunications (Kluwer, 2005), pp.
701-733.

R. K. Pankaj, ''Wavelength requirements for
multicasting in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 414-424
(1999).

C. A. S. Oliveira, P. M. Pardalos, and M. G. C.
Resende, ''Optimization problems in multicast tree construction,'' in
Handbook of Optimization in Telecommunications (Kluwer, 2005), pp.
701-733.

A. Ding and G.-S. Poo, ''A survey of optical
multicast over WDM networks,'' Comput. Commun. 26, 193-200
(2003).

C. A. S. Oliveira, P. M. Pardalos, and M. G. C.
Resende, ''Optimization problems in multicast tree construction,'' in
Handbook of Optimization in Telecommunications (Kluwer, 2005), pp.
701-733.

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, ''Light
trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength-routed
networks,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 67-73 (1999).

X.-D. Hu, T.-P. Shaui, X. Jia, and M.-H. Zhang,
''Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks with limited
drop-offs,'' in Twenty-Third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer
and Communications Societies, Hong Kong, March 2004 (IEEE,
2004).

P. Manohar, D. Manjunath, and R. K. Shevgaonkar,
''Routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks from edge disjoint
paths algorithms,'' IEEE Commun. Lett. 6, 211-213 (2002).

N. Skorin-Kapov, ''Heuristic algorithms for the
routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands in optical
networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (to be published).

N. Skorin-Kapov, ''Routing and wavelength
assignment in optical networks using bin packing based algorithms,'' Eur. J.
Oper. Res. (to be published).

N. Skorin-Kapov and M. Kos, ''A GRASP heuristic
for the delay-constrained multicast routing problem,'' Telecommun. Sys. (to
be published).

T. Koch, A. Martin, and S. Vo�, ''Steinlib: an
updated library on Steiner tree problems in graphs'' (2001), available at
http://elib.zib.de/steinlib.

B. Chen and J. Wang, ''Efficient routing and
wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas
Commun. 20, 97-109 (2002).

J. E. G. Coffman, J. Csirik, and G. Woeginger,
''Bin packing theory,'' in Handbook of Applied Optimization, P.Pardalos and
M.Resende, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 2002).

J. Gu, X.-D. Hu, X. Jia, and M.-H. Zhang,
''Routing algorithm for multicast under multi-tree model in optical
networks,'' Theor. Comput. Sci. 314, 293-301 (2004).

X.-D. Hu, T.-P. Shaui, X. Jia, and M.-H. Zhang,
''Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks with limited
drop-offs,'' in Twenty-Third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer
and Communications Societies, Hong Kong, March 2004 (IEEE,
2004).

A. Ding and G.-S. Poo, ''A survey of optical
multicast over WDM networks,'' Comput. Commun. 26, 193-200
(2003).

N. Skorin-Kapov, ''Routing and wavelength
assignment in optical networks using bin packing based algorithms,'' Eur. J.
Oper. Res. (to be published).

P. Manohar, D. Manjunath, and R. K. Shevgaonkar,
''Routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks from edge disjoint
paths algorithms,'' IEEE Commun. Lett. 6, 211-213 (2002).

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, ''Light
trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength-routed
networks,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 67-73 (1999).

N. Skorin-Kapov, ''Heuristic algorithms for the
routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands in optical
networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (to be published).

M. Ali and J. S. Deogun, ''Power-efficient design
of multicast wavelength routed networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18,
1852-1862 (2000).

B. Chen and J. Wang, ''Efficient routing and
wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas
Commun. 20, 97-109 (2002).

X.-H. Jia, D.-Z. Du, X.-D. Hu, M.-K. Lee, and J.
Gu, ''Optimization of wavelength assignment for QoS multicast in WDM
networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 341-350 (2001).

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, ''Lightpath
communications: an approach to high-bandwidth optical WANs,'' IEEE Trans.
Commun. 40, 1171-1182 (1992).

X. Chu and B. Li, ''Dynamic routing and
wavelength assignment in the presence of wavelength conversion for
all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 13, 704-715
(2005).

R. Hadas and R. Melhem, ''Multicast routing and
wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.
10, 621-629 (2002).

R. K. Pankaj, ''Wavelength requirements for
multicasting in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 414-424
(1999).

X. Zhang, J. Y. Wei, and C. Qiao, ''Constrained
multicast routing in WDM networks with sparse light splitting,'' J.
Lightwave Technol. 18, 1917-1927 (2000).

M. Ali and J. S. Deogun, ''Cost-effective
implementation of multicasting in wavelength-routed networks,'' J. Lightwave
Technol. 18, 1628-1638 (2000).

N. K. Singhal and B. Mukherjee, ''Protecting
multicast sessions in WDM optical mesh networks,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 21,
884-892 (2003).

M. Kovacevic and A. S. Acampora, ''Electronic
wavelength translation in optical networks,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 14,
1161-1169 (1996).

N. Skorin-Kapov and M. Kos, ''A GRASP heuristic
for the delay-constrained multicast routing problem,'' Telecommun. Sys. (to
be published).

J. Gu, X.-D. Hu, X. Jia, and M.-H. Zhang,
''Routing algorithm for multicast under multi-tree model in optical
networks,'' Theor. Comput. Sci. 314, 293-301 (2004).

B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks
(McGraw-Hill, 1997).

J. E. G. Coffman, R. Garey, and D. S. Johnson,
''Bin packing approximation algorithms: a survey,'' in Approximation
Algorithms for NP-Hard Problems, D.Hochbaum, ed. (PWS,
1996).

J. E. G. Coffman, J. Csirik, and G. Woeginger,
''Bin packing theory,'' in Handbook of Applied Optimization, P.Pardalos and
M.Resende, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 2002).

T. Koch, A. Martin, and S. Vo�, ''Steinlib: an
updated library on Steiner tree problems in graphs'' (2001), available at
http://elib.zib.de/steinlib.

X.-D. Hu, T.-P. Shaui, X. Jia, and M.-H. Zhang,
''Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks with limited
drop-offs,'' in Twenty-Third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer
and Communications Societies, Hong Kong, March 2004 (IEEE,
2004).

M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and
Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness (Freeman,
1979).

C. A. S. Oliveira, P. M. Pardalos, and M. G. C.
Resende, ''Optimization problems in multicast tree construction,'' in
Handbook of Optimization in Telecommunications (Kluwer, 2005), pp.
701-733.

X.Cheng and D.-Z.Du, eds., Steiner Trees in
Industry (Kluwer, 2001).