Abstract

Wavelength converters reduce the connection blocking probability in wavelength-routed networks by eliminating the wavelength continuity constraint. We develop a method for deployment of wavelength converters in wavelength-routed networks with an overlay model. In these networks, most wavelength converters are deployed on edge nodes to cover the difference in the numbers of wavelengths multiplexed on access and core links. Therefore reduction of wavelength converter cost on edge nodes leads to minimizing the wavelength converter cost in the whole network. We propose an ingress edge node architecture with fixed wavelength converters that have limited wavelength convertibility but are more economical than full wavelength converters. In our architecture, each input access link of ingress edge nodes is equipped with fixed wavelength converters, and input wavelengths from the access links are evenly distributed on the output core link. As a result, competition for a free wavelength on an output core link is avoided. Simulation results show that our edge node architecture offers about 20% cost reduction compared with a node architecture that uses only full wavelength converters where networks are actually under operation and a full wavelength converter cost to fixed wavelength converter cost ratio is 3:1.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. 'OptIPuter,' retrieved November 21, 2005, http://www.optiputer.net/.
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  4. H. Harai and M. Murata, 'Establishing lightpaths of an optical ring for distributed computing environment,' presented at the Second IEEE/Create-Net International Workshop on Networks for Grid Applications (GRIDNETS 2005), Boston, Mass., 6-7 October 2005.
  5. H. Harai, M. Murata, and H. Miyahara, 'Heuristic algorithm for allocation of wavelength convertible nodes and routing coordination in all-optical networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 535-545 (1999).
  6. S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, 'On optimal converter placement in wavelength-routed networks,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 754-766 (1999).
  7. X. Chu, J. Liu, and Z. Zhang, 'Analysis of sparse-partial wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2004 (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1363-1371.
  8. B. Rajagopalan, D. Pendarakis, D. Saha, R. S. Ramamoorthy, and K. Bala, 'IP over optical networks: architectural aspects,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38(9), 94-102 (2000).
  9. I. Foster and C. Kesselman, The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastracture (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).
  10. E. Oki, D. Shimazaki, K. Shiomoto, N. Matsuura, and W. Imajuku, 'Performance of distributed-controlled dynamic wavelength-conversion GMPLS networks,' presented at the International Conference on Optical Communication and Networks, Singapore, November 2002.
  11. S. Yoo, 'Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,' J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).
  12. J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, 'Wavelength conversion of 40⁢ Gbit/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cm-long bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber,' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper PD6.
  13. K. Onohara, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and K. Kitayama, 'Agile and highly efficient wavelength conversion using highly nonlinear fiber for optical code-labeled packets,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 627-629 (2005).
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  17. K. Xi, S. Arakawa, and M. Murata, 'How many wavelength converters do we need?,' presented at the Ninth Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Milan, Italy, 7-9 February 2005).
  18. International Telecommunication Union, 'Network grade of service parameters and target values for circuit-switched services in the evolving ISDN,' Recommendation E.721 Telecommunication Standardization Sector of ITU, Geneva, Switzerland, May (1999).

2005

K. Onohara, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and K. Kitayama, 'Agile and highly efficient wavelength conversion using highly nonlinear fiber for optical code-labeled packets,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 627-629 (2005).

J. Yamawaku, E. Yamazaki, A. Takada, and T. Morioka, 'Field trial of virtual-grouped-wavelength-path switching with QPM-LN waveband converter and PLC matrix switch in JGN II test bed,' Electron. Lett. 41, 88-89 (2005).

2000

B. Rajagopalan, D. Pendarakis, D. Saha, R. S. Ramamoorthy, and K. Bala, 'IP over optical networks: architectural aspects,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38(9), 94-102 (2000).

1999

H. Harai, M. Murata, and H. Miyahara, 'Heuristic algorithm for allocation of wavelength convertible nodes and routing coordination in all-optical networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 535-545 (1999).

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, 'On optimal converter placement in wavelength-routed networks,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 754-766 (1999).

1996

S. Yoo, 'Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,' J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).

Arakawa, S.

K. Xi, S. Arakawa, and M. Murata, 'How many wavelength converters do we need?,' presented at the Ninth Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Milan, Italy, 7-9 February 2005).

Awaji, Y.

K. Onohara, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and K. Kitayama, 'Agile and highly efficient wavelength conversion using highly nonlinear fiber for optical code-labeled packets,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 627-629 (2005).

Y. Awaji and H. Harai, National Institute of Information and Communication Technology, Tokyo, Japan (personal communication, 2004).

Azizoglu, M.

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, 'On optimal converter placement in wavelength-routed networks,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 754-766 (1999).

Baba, K.

H. Nakamoto, K. Baba, and M. Murata, 'Proposal of a shared memory access method for lambda computing environment,' in Optical Networks and Technologies Conference (Springer, 2004), pp. 210-217.

Bala, K.

B. Rajagopalan, D. Pendarakis, D. Saha, R. S. Ramamoorthy, and K. Bala, 'IP over optical networks: architectural aspects,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38(9), 94-102 (2000).

Chu, X.

X. Chu, J. Liu, and Z. Zhang, 'Analysis of sparse-partial wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2004 (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1363-1371.

Foster, I.

I. Foster and C. Kesselman, The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastracture (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).

Harai, H.

H. Harai, M. Murata, and H. Miyahara, 'Heuristic algorithm for allocation of wavelength convertible nodes and routing coordination in all-optical networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 535-545 (1999).

Y. Awaji and H. Harai, National Institute of Information and Communication Technology, Tokyo, Japan (personal communication, 2004).

H. Harai and M. Murata, 'Establishing lightpaths of an optical ring for distributed computing environment,' presented at the Second IEEE/Create-Net International Workshop on Networks for Grid Applications (GRIDNETS 2005), Boston, Mass., 6-7 October 2005.

Hasegawa, T.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, 'Wavelength conversion of 40⁢ Gbit/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cm-long bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber,' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper PD6.

Imajuku, W.

E. Oki, D. Shimazaki, K. Shiomoto, N. Matsuura, and W. Imajuku, 'Performance of distributed-controlled dynamic wavelength-conversion GMPLS networks,' presented at the International Conference on Optical Communication and Networks, Singapore, November 2002.

Kesselman, C.

I. Foster and C. Kesselman, The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastracture (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).

Kikuchi, K.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, 'Wavelength conversion of 40⁢ Gbit/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cm-long bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber,' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper PD6.

Kitayama, K.

K. Onohara, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and K. Kitayama, 'Agile and highly efficient wavelength conversion using highly nonlinear fiber for optical code-labeled packets,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 627-629 (2005).

Kubota, F.

K. Onohara, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and K. Kitayama, 'Agile and highly efficient wavelength conversion using highly nonlinear fiber for optical code-labeled packets,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 627-629 (2005).

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, 'Wavelength conversion of 40⁢ Gbit/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cm-long bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber,' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper PD6.

Liu, J.

X. Chu, J. Liu, and Z. Zhang, 'Analysis of sparse-partial wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2004 (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1363-1371.

Matsuura, N.

E. Oki, D. Shimazaki, K. Shiomoto, N. Matsuura, and W. Imajuku, 'Performance of distributed-controlled dynamic wavelength-conversion GMPLS networks,' presented at the International Conference on Optical Communication and Networks, Singapore, November 2002.

Miyahara, H.

H. Harai, M. Murata, and H. Miyahara, 'Heuristic algorithm for allocation of wavelength convertible nodes and routing coordination in all-optical networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 535-545 (1999).

Morioka, T.

J. Yamawaku, E. Yamazaki, A. Takada, and T. Morioka, 'Field trial of virtual-grouped-wavelength-path switching with QPM-LN waveband converter and PLC matrix switch in JGN II test bed,' Electron. Lett. 41, 88-89 (2005).

Murata, M.

H. Harai, M. Murata, and H. Miyahara, 'Heuristic algorithm for allocation of wavelength convertible nodes and routing coordination in all-optical networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 535-545 (1999).

H. Nakamoto, K. Baba, and M. Murata, 'Proposal of a shared memory access method for lambda computing environment,' in Optical Networks and Technologies Conference (Springer, 2004), pp. 210-217.

H. Harai and M. Murata, 'Establishing lightpaths of an optical ring for distributed computing environment,' presented at the Second IEEE/Create-Net International Workshop on Networks for Grid Applications (GRIDNETS 2005), Boston, Mass., 6-7 October 2005.

K. Xi, S. Arakawa, and M. Murata, 'How many wavelength converters do we need?,' presented at the Ninth Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Milan, Italy, 7-9 February 2005).

Nagashima, T.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, 'Wavelength conversion of 40⁢ Gbit/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cm-long bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber,' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper PD6.

Nakamoto, H.

H. Nakamoto, K. Baba, and M. Murata, 'Proposal of a shared memory access method for lambda computing environment,' in Optical Networks and Technologies Conference (Springer, 2004), pp. 210-217.

Ohara, S.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, 'Wavelength conversion of 40⁢ Gbit/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cm-long bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber,' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper PD6.

Oki, E.

E. Oki, D. Shimazaki, K. Shiomoto, N. Matsuura, and W. Imajuku, 'Performance of distributed-controlled dynamic wavelength-conversion GMPLS networks,' presented at the International Conference on Optical Communication and Networks, Singapore, November 2002.

Onohara, K.

K. Onohara, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and K. Kitayama, 'Agile and highly efficient wavelength conversion using highly nonlinear fiber for optical code-labeled packets,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 627-629 (2005).

Pendarakis, D.

B. Rajagopalan, D. Pendarakis, D. Saha, R. S. Ramamoorthy, and K. Bala, 'IP over optical networks: architectural aspects,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38(9), 94-102 (2000).

Rajagopalan, B.

B. Rajagopalan, D. Pendarakis, D. Saha, R. S. Ramamoorthy, and K. Bala, 'IP over optical networks: architectural aspects,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38(9), 94-102 (2000).

Ramamoorthy, R. S.

B. Rajagopalan, D. Pendarakis, D. Saha, R. S. Ramamoorthy, and K. Bala, 'IP over optical networks: architectural aspects,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38(9), 94-102 (2000).

Saha, D.

B. Rajagopalan, D. Pendarakis, D. Saha, R. S. Ramamoorthy, and K. Bala, 'IP over optical networks: architectural aspects,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38(9), 94-102 (2000).

Shimazaki, D.

E. Oki, D. Shimazaki, K. Shiomoto, N. Matsuura, and W. Imajuku, 'Performance of distributed-controlled dynamic wavelength-conversion GMPLS networks,' presented at the International Conference on Optical Communication and Networks, Singapore, November 2002.

Shiomoto, K.

E. Oki, D. Shimazaki, K. Shiomoto, N. Matsuura, and W. Imajuku, 'Performance of distributed-controlled dynamic wavelength-conversion GMPLS networks,' presented at the International Conference on Optical Communication and Networks, Singapore, November 2002.

Somani, A. K.

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, 'On optimal converter placement in wavelength-routed networks,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 754-766 (1999).

Subramaniam, S.

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, 'On optimal converter placement in wavelength-routed networks,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 754-766 (1999).

Sugimoto, N.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, 'Wavelength conversion of 40⁢ Gbit/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cm-long bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber,' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper PD6.

Takada, A.

J. Yamawaku, E. Yamazaki, A. Takada, and T. Morioka, 'Field trial of virtual-grouped-wavelength-path switching with QPM-LN waveband converter and PLC matrix switch in JGN II test bed,' Electron. Lett. 41, 88-89 (2005).

Tanemura, T.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, 'Wavelength conversion of 40⁢ Gbit/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cm-long bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber,' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper PD6.

Wada, N.

K. Onohara, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and K. Kitayama, 'Agile and highly efficient wavelength conversion using highly nonlinear fiber for optical code-labeled packets,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 627-629 (2005).

Xi, K.

K. Xi, S. Arakawa, and M. Murata, 'How many wavelength converters do we need?,' presented at the Ninth Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Milan, Italy, 7-9 February 2005).

Yamawaku, J.

J. Yamawaku, E. Yamazaki, A. Takada, and T. Morioka, 'Field trial of virtual-grouped-wavelength-path switching with QPM-LN waveband converter and PLC matrix switch in JGN II test bed,' Electron. Lett. 41, 88-89 (2005).

Yamazaki, E.

J. Yamawaku, E. Yamazaki, A. Takada, and T. Morioka, 'Field trial of virtual-grouped-wavelength-path switching with QPM-LN waveband converter and PLC matrix switch in JGN II test bed,' Electron. Lett. 41, 88-89 (2005).

Yoo, S.

S. Yoo, 'Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,' J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).

Zhang, Z.

X. Chu, J. Liu, and Z. Zhang, 'Analysis of sparse-partial wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2004 (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1363-1371.

J. Lightwave Technol.

H. Harai, M. Murata, and H. Miyahara, 'Heuristic algorithm for allocation of wavelength convertible nodes and routing coordination in all-optical networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 535-545 (1999).

Electron. Lett.

J. Yamawaku, E. Yamazaki, A. Takada, and T. Morioka, 'Field trial of virtual-grouped-wavelength-path switching with QPM-LN waveband converter and PLC matrix switch in JGN II test bed,' Electron. Lett. 41, 88-89 (2005).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

B. Rajagopalan, D. Pendarakis, D. Saha, R. S. Ramamoorthy, and K. Bala, 'IP over optical networks: architectural aspects,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38(9), 94-102 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Onohara, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and K. Kitayama, 'Agile and highly efficient wavelength conversion using highly nonlinear fiber for optical code-labeled packets,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 627-629 (2005).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, 'On optimal converter placement in wavelength-routed networks,' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, 754-766 (1999).

J. Lightwave Technol.

S. Yoo, 'Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,' J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).

Other

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, 'Wavelength conversion of 40⁢ Gbit/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cm-long bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber,' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper PD6.

Y. Awaji and H. Harai, National Institute of Information and Communication Technology, Tokyo, Japan (personal communication, 2004).

http://www.furukawa.co.jp/jiho/fj109/fj109lowbar15.pdf (January 2002).

K. Xi, S. Arakawa, and M. Murata, 'How many wavelength converters do we need?,' presented at the Ninth Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Milan, Italy, 7-9 February 2005).

International Telecommunication Union, 'Network grade of service parameters and target values for circuit-switched services in the evolving ISDN,' Recommendation E.721 Telecommunication Standardization Sector of ITU, Geneva, Switzerland, May (1999).

X. Chu, J. Liu, and Z. Zhang, 'Analysis of sparse-partial wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2004 (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1363-1371.

I. Foster and C. Kesselman, The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastracture (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).

E. Oki, D. Shimazaki, K. Shiomoto, N. Matsuura, and W. Imajuku, 'Performance of distributed-controlled dynamic wavelength-conversion GMPLS networks,' presented at the International Conference on Optical Communication and Networks, Singapore, November 2002.

'OptIPuter,' retrieved November 21, 2005, http://www.optiputer.net/.

'CA*net4,' retrieved November 21, 2005, http://www.canarie.ca/canet4/.

H. Nakamoto, K. Baba, and M. Murata, 'Proposal of a shared memory access method for lambda computing environment,' in Optical Networks and Technologies Conference (Springer, 2004), pp. 210-217.

H. Harai and M. Murata, 'Establishing lightpaths of an optical ring for distributed computing environment,' presented at the Second IEEE/Create-Net International Workshop on Networks for Grid Applications (GRIDNETS 2005), Boston, Mass., 6-7 October 2005.

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