G. Ibanez, A. Garcia, and A. Azcorra, "Alternative
multiple spanning tree protocols (AMSTP) for optical Ethernet backbones," in 29th
Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (IEEE, 2004), pp.
744-751.

S. Sharma, K. Gopalan, S. Nanda, and T. C. Chiueh,
"Viking: a multi-spanning-tree Ethernet architecture for metropolitan area and
cluster networks," in Twenty-third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer
and Communications Society (IEEE, 2004), pp. 2283-2294.

A. Myers, T. Ng, and H. Zhang, "Rethinking the service
model: scaling Ethernet to a million nodes," in Proceedings of HotNets III (ACM
Press, 2004).

F. de Pellegrini, D. Starobinski, M. Karpovsky, and L.
Levitin, "Scalable cycle-breaking algorithms for gigabit Ethernet backbones," in
29th Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (IEEE, 2004),
pp.2175-2184.

J. Echague, M. Prieto, J. Villadangos, and V. Cholvi,
"A distributed algorithm to provide QoS by avoiding cycles in routes," Lect. Notes
Comput. Sci. 3266, 224-236 (2004).

M. Fidler and G. Einhoff, "Routing in turn-prohibition
based feed-forward networks," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3042, 1168-1179
(2004).

D. Starobinski, M. Karpovsky, and L. Zakrevski,
"Application of network calculus to general topologies using turn-prohibition,"
IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 411-421 (2003).

L. Levitin and M. Karpovsky, "Deadlock prevention in
networks modeled as weighted graphs," in Proceedings of Eighth International
Conference on Information Networks, Systems and Technologies, ICINSAT 2002 (2002),
pp. 482-487.

K. Lui, W. C. Lee, and K. Nahrstedt, "STAR: a
transparent spanning tree bridge protocol with alternate routing," ACM SIGCOMM
Comput. Commun. Rev. 32(3), 33-46 (2002).

T. L. Rodeheffer, C. Thekkath, and D. Anderson,
"SmartBridge: a scalable bridge architecture," in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2000
(ACM Press, 2000), pp. 205-216.

R. Perlman, Interconnections (Addison-Wesley,
2000).

M. Karol, S. Golestani, and D. Lee, "Prevention of
deadlocks and livelocks in lossless backpressured packet networks," in Nineteenth
Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE,
2000), pp. 1333-1342.

W. Noureddine and F. Tobagi, "Selective backpressure
in switched Ethernet LANs," in Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 1999),
pp. 1256-1263.

H. Frazier and H. Johnson, "Gigabit Ethernet: from
100to1,000 Mbps," IEEE Inter. Comput. 3(1), 24-31 (1999).

A.-L. Barab�si and R. Albert, "Emergence of scaling in
random networks," Science 286, 509-512 (1999).

H. Frazier, "The 802.3z gigabit Ethernet standard,"
IEEE Netw. 12(3), 6-7 (1998).

D. Clark, "Are ATM, gigabit Ethernet ready for prime
time?" IEEE Comput. 31(5), 11-13 (1998).

J. Duato, "A necessary and sufficient condition for
deadlock-free routing in cut-through and store-and-forward networks," IEEE Trans.
Parallel Distrib. Syst. 7, 841-854 (1996).

C. Glass and L. Ni, "The turn model for adaptive
routing," J. ACM 41, 874-902 (1994).

R. Perlman, W. Hawe, and A. Lauck, "Utilization of
redundant links in bridged networks," U.S. patent 5,150,360 (22 September
1992).

M. D. Schroeder, A. D. Birrell, M. Burrows, H. Murray,
R. M. Needham, and T. L. Rodeheffer, "Autonet: a high-speed, self-configuring
local area network using point-to-point links," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9,
1318-1335 (1991).

T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, and R. Rivest, Introduction
to Algorithms (McGraw-Hill, 1990).

M. Soha and R. Perlman, "Comparison of two LAN bridge
approaches," IEEE Netw. 2(1), 37-48 (1988).

L. Bosack and C. Hedrick, "Problems in large LANs,"
IEEE Netw. 2(1), 52-56 (1988).

J. Hart, "Extending the IEEE 802.1 MAC bridge standard
to remote bridges," IEEE Netw. 2(1), 10-15 (1988).

R. Perlman, "An algorithm for distributed computation
of a spanning tree in an extended LAN," in Proceedings of Ninth ACM Data
Communications Symposium (ACM Press, 1985), pp. 44-53 .

A.-L. Barab�si and R. Albert, "Emergence of scaling in
random networks," Science 286, 509-512 (1999).

T. L. Rodeheffer, C. Thekkath, and D. Anderson,
"SmartBridge: a scalable bridge architecture," in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2000
(ACM Press, 2000), pp. 205-216.

G. Ibanez, A. Garcia, and A. Azcorra, "Alternative
multiple spanning tree protocols (AMSTP) for optical Ethernet backbones," in 29th
Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (IEEE, 2004), pp.
744-751.

A.-L. Barab�si and R. Albert, "Emergence of scaling in
random networks," Science 286, 509-512 (1999).

M. D. Schroeder, A. D. Birrell, M. Burrows, H. Murray,
R. M. Needham, and T. L. Rodeheffer, "Autonet: a high-speed, self-configuring
local area network using point-to-point links," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9,
1318-1335 (1991).

L. Bosack and C. Hedrick, "Problems in large LANs,"
IEEE Netw. 2(1), 52-56 (1988).

M. D. Schroeder, A. D. Birrell, M. Burrows, H. Murray,
R. M. Needham, and T. L. Rodeheffer, "Autonet: a high-speed, self-configuring
local area network using point-to-point links," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9,
1318-1335 (1991).

S. Sharma, K. Gopalan, S. Nanda, and T. C. Chiueh,
"Viking: a multi-spanning-tree Ethernet architecture for metropolitan area and
cluster networks," in Twenty-third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer
and Communications Society (IEEE, 2004), pp. 2283-2294.

J. Echague, M. Prieto, J. Villadangos, and V. Cholvi,
"A distributed algorithm to provide QoS by avoiding cycles in routes," Lect. Notes
Comput. Sci. 3266, 224-236 (2004).

D. Clark, "Are ATM, gigabit Ethernet ready for prime
time?" IEEE Comput. 31(5), 11-13 (1998).

T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, and R. Rivest, Introduction
to Algorithms (McGraw-Hill, 1990).

F. de Pellegrini, D. Starobinski, M. Karpovsky, and L.
Levitin, "Scalable cycle-breaking algorithms for gigabit Ethernet backbones," in
29th Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (IEEE, 2004),
pp.2175-2184.

J. Duato, "A necessary and sufficient condition for
deadlock-free routing in cut-through and store-and-forward networks," IEEE Trans.
Parallel Distrib. Syst. 7, 841-854 (1996).

J. Echague, M. Prieto, J. Villadangos, and V. Cholvi,
"A distributed algorithm to provide QoS by avoiding cycles in routes," Lect. Notes
Comput. Sci. 3266, 224-236 (2004).

M. Fidler and G. Einhoff, "Routing in turn-prohibition
based feed-forward networks," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3042, 1168-1179
(2004).

M. Fidler and G. Einhoff, "Routing in turn-prohibition
based feed-forward networks," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3042, 1168-1179
(2004).

H. Frazier and H. Johnson, "Gigabit Ethernet: from
100to1,000 Mbps," IEEE Inter. Comput. 3(1), 24-31 (1999).

H. Frazier, "The 802.3z gigabit Ethernet standard,"
IEEE Netw. 12(3), 6-7 (1998).

G. Ibanez, A. Garcia, and A. Azcorra, "Alternative
multiple spanning tree protocols (AMSTP) for optical Ethernet backbones," in 29th
Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (IEEE, 2004), pp.
744-751.

C. Glass and L. Ni, "The turn model for adaptive
routing," J. ACM 41, 874-902 (1994).

M. Karol, S. Golestani, and D. Lee, "Prevention of
deadlocks and livelocks in lossless backpressured packet networks," in Nineteenth
Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE,
2000), pp. 1333-1342.

S. Sharma, K. Gopalan, S. Nanda, and T. C. Chiueh,
"Viking: a multi-spanning-tree Ethernet architecture for metropolitan area and
cluster networks," in Twenty-third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer
and Communications Society (IEEE, 2004), pp. 2283-2294.

J. Hart, "Extending the IEEE 802.1 MAC bridge standard
to remote bridges," IEEE Netw. 2(1), 10-15 (1988).

R. Perlman, W. Hawe, and A. Lauck, "Utilization of
redundant links in bridged networks," U.S. patent 5,150,360 (22 September
1992).

L. Bosack and C. Hedrick, "Problems in large LANs,"
IEEE Netw. 2(1), 52-56 (1988).

G. Ibanez, A. Garcia, and A. Azcorra, "Alternative
multiple spanning tree protocols (AMSTP) for optical Ethernet backbones," in 29th
Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (IEEE, 2004), pp.
744-751.

H. Frazier and H. Johnson, "Gigabit Ethernet: from
100to1,000 Mbps," IEEE Inter. Comput. 3(1), 24-31 (1999).

M. Karol, S. Golestani, and D. Lee, "Prevention of
deadlocks and livelocks in lossless backpressured packet networks," in Nineteenth
Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE,
2000), pp. 1333-1342.

F. de Pellegrini, D. Starobinski, M. Karpovsky, and L.
Levitin, "Scalable cycle-breaking algorithms for gigabit Ethernet backbones," in
29th Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (IEEE, 2004),
pp.2175-2184.

D. Starobinski, M. Karpovsky, and L. Zakrevski,
"Application of network calculus to general topologies using turn-prohibition,"
IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 411-421 (2003).

L. Levitin and M. Karpovsky, "Deadlock prevention in
networks modeled as weighted graphs," in Proceedings of Eighth International
Conference on Information Networks, Systems and Technologies, ICINSAT 2002 (2002),
pp. 482-487.

R. Perlman, W. Hawe, and A. Lauck, "Utilization of
redundant links in bridged networks," U.S. patent 5,150,360 (22 September
1992).

M. Karol, S. Golestani, and D. Lee, "Prevention of
deadlocks and livelocks in lossless backpressured packet networks," in Nineteenth
Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE,
2000), pp. 1333-1342.

K. Lui, W. C. Lee, and K. Nahrstedt, "STAR: a
transparent spanning tree bridge protocol with alternate routing," ACM SIGCOMM
Comput. Commun. Rev. 32(3), 33-46 (2002).

T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, and R. Rivest, Introduction
to Algorithms (McGraw-Hill, 1990).

F. de Pellegrini, D. Starobinski, M. Karpovsky, and L.
Levitin, "Scalable cycle-breaking algorithms for gigabit Ethernet backbones," in
29th Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (IEEE, 2004),
pp.2175-2184.

L. Levitin and M. Karpovsky, "Deadlock prevention in
networks modeled as weighted graphs," in Proceedings of Eighth International
Conference on Information Networks, Systems and Technologies, ICINSAT 2002 (2002),
pp. 482-487.

K. Lui, W. C. Lee, and K. Nahrstedt, "STAR: a
transparent spanning tree bridge protocol with alternate routing," ACM SIGCOMM
Comput. Commun. Rev. 32(3), 33-46 (2002).

M. D. Schroeder, A. D. Birrell, M. Burrows, H. Murray,
R. M. Needham, and T. L. Rodeheffer, "Autonet: a high-speed, self-configuring
local area network using point-to-point links," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9,
1318-1335 (1991).

A. Myers, T. Ng, and H. Zhang, "Rethinking the service
model: scaling Ethernet to a million nodes," in Proceedings of HotNets III (ACM
Press, 2004).

K. Lui, W. C. Lee, and K. Nahrstedt, "STAR: a
transparent spanning tree bridge protocol with alternate routing," ACM SIGCOMM
Comput. Commun. Rev. 32(3), 33-46 (2002).

S. Sharma, K. Gopalan, S. Nanda, and T. C. Chiueh,
"Viking: a multi-spanning-tree Ethernet architecture for metropolitan area and
cluster networks," in Twenty-third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer
and Communications Society (IEEE, 2004), pp. 2283-2294.

M. D. Schroeder, A. D. Birrell, M. Burrows, H. Murray,
R. M. Needham, and T. L. Rodeheffer, "Autonet: a high-speed, self-configuring
local area network using point-to-point links," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9,
1318-1335 (1991).

A. Myers, T. Ng, and H. Zhang, "Rethinking the service
model: scaling Ethernet to a million nodes," in Proceedings of HotNets III (ACM
Press, 2004).

C. Glass and L. Ni, "The turn model for adaptive
routing," J. ACM 41, 874-902 (1994).

W. Noureddine and F. Tobagi, "Selective backpressure
in switched Ethernet LANs," in Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 1999),
pp. 1256-1263.

R. Perlman, Interconnections (Addison-Wesley,
2000).

R. Perlman, W. Hawe, and A. Lauck, "Utilization of
redundant links in bridged networks," U.S. patent 5,150,360 (22 September
1992).

M. Soha and R. Perlman, "Comparison of two LAN bridge
approaches," IEEE Netw. 2(1), 37-48 (1988).

R. Perlman, "An algorithm for distributed computation
of a spanning tree in an extended LAN," in Proceedings of Ninth ACM Data
Communications Symposium (ACM Press, 1985), pp. 44-53 .

J. Echague, M. Prieto, J. Villadangos, and V. Cholvi,
"A distributed algorithm to provide QoS by avoiding cycles in routes," Lect. Notes
Comput. Sci. 3266, 224-236 (2004).

T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, and R. Rivest, Introduction
to Algorithms (McGraw-Hill, 1990).

T. L. Rodeheffer, C. Thekkath, and D. Anderson,
"SmartBridge: a scalable bridge architecture," in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2000
(ACM Press, 2000), pp. 205-216.

M. D. Schroeder, A. D. Birrell, M. Burrows, H. Murray,
R. M. Needham, and T. L. Rodeheffer, "Autonet: a high-speed, self-configuring
local area network using point-to-point links," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9,
1318-1335 (1991).

M. D. Schroeder, A. D. Birrell, M. Burrows, H. Murray,
R. M. Needham, and T. L. Rodeheffer, "Autonet: a high-speed, self-configuring
local area network using point-to-point links," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9,
1318-1335 (1991).

S. Sharma, K. Gopalan, S. Nanda, and T. C. Chiueh,
"Viking: a multi-spanning-tree Ethernet architecture for metropolitan area and
cluster networks," in Twenty-third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer
and Communications Society (IEEE, 2004), pp. 2283-2294.

M. Soha and R. Perlman, "Comparison of two LAN bridge
approaches," IEEE Netw. 2(1), 37-48 (1988).

F. de Pellegrini, D. Starobinski, M. Karpovsky, and L.
Levitin, "Scalable cycle-breaking algorithms for gigabit Ethernet backbones," in
29th Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (IEEE, 2004),
pp.2175-2184.

D. Starobinski, M. Karpovsky, and L. Zakrevski,
"Application of network calculus to general topologies using turn-prohibition,"
IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 411-421 (2003).

T. L. Rodeheffer, C. Thekkath, and D. Anderson,
"SmartBridge: a scalable bridge architecture," in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2000
(ACM Press, 2000), pp. 205-216.

W. Noureddine and F. Tobagi, "Selective backpressure
in switched Ethernet LANs," in Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 1999),
pp. 1256-1263.

J. Echague, M. Prieto, J. Villadangos, and V. Cholvi,
"A distributed algorithm to provide QoS by avoiding cycles in routes," Lect. Notes
Comput. Sci. 3266, 224-236 (2004).

D. Starobinski, M. Karpovsky, and L. Zakrevski,
"Application of network calculus to general topologies using turn-prohibition,"
IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 411-421 (2003).

A. Myers, T. Ng, and H. Zhang, "Rethinking the service
model: scaling Ethernet to a million nodes," in Proceedings of HotNets III (ACM
Press, 2004).

K. Lui, W. C. Lee, and K. Nahrstedt, "STAR: a
transparent spanning tree bridge protocol with alternate routing," ACM SIGCOMM
Comput. Commun. Rev. 32(3), 33-46 (2002).

D. Clark, "Are ATM, gigabit Ethernet ready for prime
time?" IEEE Comput. 31(5), 11-13 (1998).

H. Frazier and H. Johnson, "Gigabit Ethernet: from
100to1,000 Mbps," IEEE Inter. Comput. 3(1), 24-31 (1999).

M. D. Schroeder, A. D. Birrell, M. Burrows, H. Murray,
R. M. Needham, and T. L. Rodeheffer, "Autonet: a high-speed, self-configuring
local area network using point-to-point links," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9,
1318-1335 (1991).

L. Bosack and C. Hedrick, "Problems in large LANs,"
IEEE Netw. 2(1), 52-56 (1988).

H. Frazier, "The 802.3z gigabit Ethernet standard,"
IEEE Netw. 12(3), 6-7 (1998).

M. Soha and R. Perlman, "Comparison of two LAN bridge
approaches," IEEE Netw. 2(1), 37-48 (1988).

J. Hart, "Extending the IEEE 802.1 MAC bridge standard
to remote bridges," IEEE Netw. 2(1), 10-15 (1988).

J. Duato, "A necessary and sufficient condition for
deadlock-free routing in cut-through and store-and-forward networks," IEEE Trans.
Parallel Distrib. Syst. 7, 841-854 (1996).

D. Starobinski, M. Karpovsky, and L. Zakrevski,
"Application of network calculus to general topologies using turn-prohibition,"
IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 411-421 (2003).

C. Glass and L. Ni, "The turn model for adaptive
routing," J. ACM 41, 874-902 (1994).

J. Echague, M. Prieto, J. Villadangos, and V. Cholvi,
"A distributed algorithm to provide QoS by avoiding cycles in routes," Lect. Notes
Comput. Sci. 3266, 224-236 (2004).

M. Fidler and G. Einhoff, "Routing in turn-prohibition
based feed-forward networks," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3042, 1168-1179
(2004).

A.-L. Barab�si and R. Albert, "Emergence of scaling in
random networks," Science 286, 509-512 (1999).

The Network Simulator-ns-2 is available online at
http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.

Boston University Representative Topology
Generator-BRITE is available online at
http://www.cs.bu.edu/brite/.

T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, and R. Rivest, Introduction
to Algorithms (McGraw-Hill, 1990).

R. Perlman, W. Hawe, and A. Lauck, "Utilization of
redundant links in bridged networks," U.S. patent 5,150,360 (22 September
1992).

T. L. Rodeheffer, C. Thekkath, and D. Anderson,
"SmartBridge: a scalable bridge architecture," in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2000
(ACM Press, 2000), pp. 205-216.

F. de Pellegrini, D. Starobinski, M. Karpovsky, and L.
Levitin, "Scalable cycle-breaking algorithms for gigabit Ethernet backbones," in
29th Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (IEEE, 2004),
pp.2175-2184.

R. Perlman, "An algorithm for distributed computation
of a spanning tree in an extended LAN," in Proceedings of Ninth ACM Data
Communications Symposium (ACM Press, 1985), pp. 44-53 .

A. Myers, T. Ng, and H. Zhang, "Rethinking the service
model: scaling Ethernet to a million nodes," in Proceedings of HotNets III (ACM
Press, 2004).

L. Levitin and M. Karpovsky, "Deadlock prevention in
networks modeled as weighted graphs," in Proceedings of Eighth International
Conference on Information Networks, Systems and Technologies, ICINSAT 2002 (2002),
pp. 482-487.

G. Ibanez, A. Garcia, and A. Azcorra, "Alternative
multiple spanning tree protocols (AMSTP) for optical Ethernet backbones," in 29th
Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (IEEE, 2004), pp.
744-751.

S. Sharma, K. Gopalan, S. Nanda, and T. C. Chiueh,
"Viking: a multi-spanning-tree Ethernet architecture for metropolitan area and
cluster networks," in Twenty-third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer
and Communications Society (IEEE, 2004), pp. 2283-2294.

"Metro Ethernet networks--a technical overview," Metro
Ethernet Forum White Paper, 2002-2004. Available online at
http://www.metroethernetforum.org/.

W. Noureddine and F. Tobagi, "Selective backpressure
in switched Ethernet LANs," in Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 1999),
pp. 1256-1263.

R. Perlman, Interconnections (Addison-Wesley,
2000).

M. Karol, S. Golestani, and D. Lee, "Prevention of
deadlocks and livelocks in lossless backpressured packet networks," in Nineteenth
Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE,
2000), pp. 1333-1342.