Abstract

<p><a href="http://www.osa-jon.org/virtual_issue.cfm?vid=22">Feature Issue on Waveband Switching, Routing, and Grooming</a></p>In traditional lambda-based multigranularity optical networks, a lambda is always treated as the basic routing unit, resulting in low wavelength utilization. On the basis of optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) technology, a novel OCDM-based multigranularity optical cross-connect (MG-OXC) is proposed. Compared with the traditional lambda-based MG-OXC, its switching capability has been extended to support fiber switching, waveband switching, lambda switching, and OCDM switching. In a network composed of OCDM-based MG-OXCs, a single wavelength can be shared by distinct label switched paths (LSPs) called OCDM-LSPs, and OCDM-LSP switching can be implemented in the optical domain. To improve the network flexibility for an OCDM-LSP provisioning, two kinds of switches enabling hybrid optical code (OC)-wavelength conversion are designed. Simulation results indicate that a blocking probability reduction of 2 orders can be obtained by deploying only five OCs to a single wavelength. Furthermore, compared with time-division-multiplexing LSP (TDM-LSP), owing to the asynchronous accessibility and the OC conversion, OCDM-LSPs have been shown to permit a simpler switch architecture and achieve better blocking performance than TDM-LSPs.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  2. Internet Engineering Task Force, Request for Comments: RFC 2026, http://www.ietf.org.
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2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

K. Kitayama and M. Murata, 'Versatile optical code-based MPLS for circuit-, burst-, and packet-switchings,' J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2753-2764 (2003).

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, 'A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1081-1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, 'A scalable design of multigranularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical Internet,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1133-1142 (2003).

2002 (2)

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Ho and H. T. Mouftah, 'Routing and wavelength assignment with multigranularity traffic in optical networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1292-1303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

1998 (1)

K. Kitayama, 'Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1309-1319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akella, V.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

Anand, V.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, 'A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1081-1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baba, K.

Bansal, Y.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

Blaizot, C.

C. Blaizot, E. Dotaro, L. Noirie, and A. Jourdan, 'Multi-granularity optical networks,' in Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM 2000) (IFIP, 2001), pp. 1-20.

Cao, J.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

Cao, X.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, 'A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1081-1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ciavaglia, L.

E. Dotara, D. Paradimitriou, L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and L. Ciavaglia, Optical multi-granularity architecture framework, Internet draft (July, 2001), http://quimby.gnus.org/internet-drafts/draft-dotaro-ipo-multi-granularity-00.txt.

Dotara, E.

E. Dotara, D. Paradimitriou, L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and L. Ciavaglia, Optical multi-granularity architecture framework, Internet draft (July, 2001), http://quimby.gnus.org/internet-drafts/draft-dotaro-ipo-multi-granularity-00.txt.

Dotaro, E.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, 'Impact of intermediate traffic grouping on the dimensioning of multi-granularity optical networks,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG3-3.

C. Blaizot, E. Dotaro, L. Noirie, and A. Jourdan, 'Multi-granularity optical networks,' in Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM 2000) (IFIP, 2001), pp. 1-20.

Eramo, V.

Everitt, D.

J. Yates, D. Everitt, and J. Lacey, 'Blocking in shared-wavelength TDM Networks,' in Proceedings of the Australian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC'95) (1995), pp. 705-710.

Fong, S. K. H.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

Force, Internet Engineering Task

Internet Engineering Task Force, Request for Comments: RFC 3471-3473, http://www.ietf.org.

Internet Engineering Task Force, Request for Comments: RFC 2026, http://www.ietf.org.

Hamanaka, T.

X. Wang, T. Hamanaka, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, 'Dispersion-flattened-fiber based optical thresholder for multiple-access-interference suppression in OCDMA system,' Opt. Express 13, 5499-5455 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Hamanaka, A. Nishiki, and K. Kitayama, '10-user asynchrnous OCDMA transmission experiment with 511-chip SSFBG and SC-based optical thresholder,' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PD-33.

Ho, P. H.

P. H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, 'A scalable design of multigranularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical Internet,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1133-1142 (2003).

P. H. Ho and H. T. Mouftah, 'Routing and wavelength assignment with multigranularity traffic in optical networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1292-1303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Ho and H. T. Mouftah, 'Path selection with tunnel allocation in the optical Internet based on generalized MPLS architecture,' in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2002), pp. 235-240.

Huang, N.-F.

N.-F. Huang, G.-H. Liaw, and C.-P. Wang, 'A novel all-optical transport network with time-shared wavelength channels,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1863-1875 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

Jeon, M.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

Jourdan, A.

C. Blaizot, E. Dotaro, L. Noirie, and A. Jourdan, 'Multi-granularity optical networks,' in Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM 2000) (IFIP, 2001), pp. 1-20.

Kamei, S.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

Kang, C.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

Kurose, J. F.

J. F. Kurose and K. W. Ross, A Top-Down Approach Featuring the Internet (Addison Wesley, 2004).

Lacey, J.

J. Yates, D. Everitt, and J. Lacey, 'Blocking in shared-wavelength TDM Networks,' in Proceedings of the Australian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC'95) (1995), pp. 705-710.

Lee, H. J.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

Lee, M.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, G.-H.

N.-F. Huang, G.-H. Liaw, and C.-P. Wang, 'A novel all-optical transport network with time-shared wavelength channels,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1863-1875 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Listanti, M.

Matsushima, K.

Mouftah, H. T.

P. H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, 'A scalable design of multigranularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical Internet,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1133-1142 (2003).

P. H. Ho and H. T. Mouftah, 'Routing and wavelength assignment with multigranularity traffic in optical networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1292-1303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Ho and H. T. Mouftah, 'Path selection with tunnel allocation in the optical Internet based on generalized MPLS architecture,' in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2002), pp. 235-240.

Murata, M.

Nishiki, A.

X. Wang, K. Matsushima, A. Nishiki, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, 'High reflectivity superstructured FBG for coherent optical code generation and recognition,' Opt. Express 12, 5457-5468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Hamanaka, A. Nishiki, and K. Kitayama, '10-user asynchrnous OCDMA transmission experiment with 511-chip SSFBG and SC-based optical thresholder,' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PD-33.

Noirie, L.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, 'Impact of intermediate traffic grouping on the dimensioning of multi-granularity optical networks,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG3-3.

E. Dotara, D. Paradimitriou, L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and L. Ciavaglia, Optical multi-granularity architecture framework, Internet draft (July, 2001), http://quimby.gnus.org/internet-drafts/draft-dotaro-ipo-multi-granularity-00.txt.

C. Blaizot, E. Dotaro, L. Noirie, and A. Jourdan, 'Multi-granularity optical networks,' in Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM 2000) (IFIP, 2001), pp. 1-20.

Okamoto, K.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

Paradimitriou, D.

E. Dotara, D. Paradimitriou, L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and L. Ciavaglia, Optical multi-granularity architecture framework, Internet draft (July, 2001), http://quimby.gnus.org/internet-drafts/draft-dotaro-ipo-multi-granularity-00.txt.

Park, J.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, C.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, 'A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1081-1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ross, K. W.

J. F. Kurose and K. W. Ross, A Top-Down Approach Featuring the Internet (Addison Wesley, 2004).

Sivalingam, K.

B. Wen and K. Sivalingam, 'Routing, wavelength and time-slot assignment in time division multiplexed wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2002: Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002) pp. 1442-1450.

Sotobayashi, H.

Taylor, J.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

Tsui, V. K.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

Vigoureux, M.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, 'Impact of intermediate traffic grouping on the dimensioning of multi-granularity optical networks,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG3-3.

E. Dotara, D. Paradimitriou, L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and L. Ciavaglia, Optical multi-granularity architecture framework, Internet draft (July, 2001), http://quimby.gnus.org/internet-drafts/draft-dotaro-ipo-multi-granularity-00.txt.

Wada, N.

Wang, C.-P.

N.-F. Huang, G.-H. Liaw, and C.-P. Wang, 'A novel all-optical transport network with time-shared wavelength channels,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1863-1875 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, T. Hamanaka, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, 'Dispersion-flattened-fiber based optical thresholder for multiple-access-interference suppression in OCDMA system,' Opt. Express 13, 5499-5455 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, K. Matsushima, A. Nishiki, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, 'High reflectivity superstructured FBG for coherent optical code generation and recognition,' Opt. Express 12, 5457-5468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Hamanaka, A. Nishiki, and K. Kitayama, '10-user asynchrnous OCDMA transmission experiment with 511-chip SSFBG and SC-based optical thresholder,' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PD-33.

Wen, B.

B. Wen and K. Sivalingam, 'Routing, wavelength and time-slot assignment in time division multiplexed wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2002: Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002) pp. 1442-1450.

Wu, J.

P. H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, 'A scalable design of multigranularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical Internet,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1133-1142 (2003).

Xiong, Y.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, 'A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1081-1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yates, J.

J. Yates, D. Everitt, and J. Lacey, 'Blocking in shared-wavelength TDM Networks,' in Proceedings of the Australian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC'95) (1995), pp. 705-710.

Yoo, S. J. B.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

Yu, J.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (5)

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, 'A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1081-1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, 'A scalable design of multigranularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical Internet,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1133-1142 (2003).

K. Kitayama, 'Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1309-1319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N.-F. Huang, G.-H. Liaw, and C.-P. Wang, 'A novel all-optical transport network with time-shared wavelength channels,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1863-1875 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (2)

Other (11)

E. Dotara, D. Paradimitriou, L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and L. Ciavaglia, Optical multi-granularity architecture framework, Internet draft (July, 2001), http://quimby.gnus.org/internet-drafts/draft-dotaro-ipo-multi-granularity-00.txt.

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Hamanaka, A. Nishiki, and K. Kitayama, '10-user asynchrnous OCDMA transmission experiment with 511-chip SSFBG and SC-based optical thresholder,' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PD-33.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, 'All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 267-268.

J. F. Kurose and K. W. Ross, A Top-Down Approach Featuring the Internet (Addison Wesley, 2004).

J. Yates, D. Everitt, and J. Lacey, 'Blocking in shared-wavelength TDM Networks,' in Proceedings of the Australian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC'95) (1995), pp. 705-710.

P. H. Ho and H. T. Mouftah, 'Path selection with tunnel allocation in the optical Internet based on generalized MPLS architecture,' in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2002), pp. 235-240.

Internet Engineering Task Force, Request for Comments: RFC 3471-3473, http://www.ietf.org.

Internet Engineering Task Force, Request for Comments: RFC 2026, http://www.ietf.org.

C. Blaizot, E. Dotaro, L. Noirie, and A. Jourdan, 'Multi-granularity optical networks,' in Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM 2000) (IFIP, 2001), pp. 1-20.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, 'Impact of intermediate traffic grouping on the dimensioning of multi-granularity optical networks,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG3-3.

B. Wen and K. Sivalingam, 'Routing, wavelength and time-slot assignment in time division multiplexed wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2002: Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002) pp. 1442-1450.

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