Abstract

<p><a href="http://www.osa-jon.org/virtual_issue.cfm?vid=22">Feature Issue on Waveband Switching, Routing, and Grooming</a></p>The rapid advances in WDM technology are expected to bring about tremendous growth in the size of optical cross connects (OXCs). In this context, multigranular OXCs (MG-OXCs) have been suggested as a means of reducing the amount of equipment required. Here we expand the concept of MG-OXCs to include optical packet granularity and review the key building blocks for the advent of MG-OXCs. A single-layer MG-OXC is suggested that offers enhanced flexibility with respect to other single-layer concepts, conversion capability, and good physical performance. Concatenation performance is analytically investigated.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, and C. A. S. Pomportsi, 'Optical switching: switch fabrics, techniques, and Architectures,' J. Lightwave Technology 21, 384-405 (2003).
  2. S. Yoo, 'Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,' J. Lightwave Technol. 14955-965 (1996).
  3. IST OPTIMIST consortium, 'Technology trend documents,' January 2004 (www.ist-optimist.org).
  4. X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, 'Waveband switching in optical networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(4), 105-112 (2003).
  5. G. WilfongB. Mikkelsen, Chris Doerr, and Martin Zirngibl, 'WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,' J. Lightwave Technology 17. 1732-1741 (1999).
  6. E. Iannone and R. Sabella, 'Optical path technologies: a comparison among different cross-connect architectures,' J. Lightwave Technology 14, 2184-2196 (1996).
  7. C. T. Politi and M. O'Mahony, 'Simultaneous processing and routing of packets in a synchronous optical packet switched network,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 1515-1524 (2003).
  8. L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, 'Impact of intermediate grouping on the dimensioning of multigranularity optical networks,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG3.
  9. P. De Dobbelaere, K. Falta, S. Gloekner, and S. Patra, 'Digital MEMS for optical switching,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(3), 88-95 (2002).
  10. A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, 'Optical add/drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,' in Transparent Optical Networks, 2003 (2003), Vol. 1, pp. 202.
  11. P. Torab, V. Hutcheon, D. Walters, and A. Battou, 'Waveband switching efficiency in WDM networks: analysis and case study,' presented at OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, California, March 5-10, 2006, paper OTuG3.
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  13. K. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. da, K., and H. Toba, 'Multichannel frequency conversion experiment using fibre four-wave mixing,' Electron. Lett. 29, 1708-1710 (1993).
  14. E. Yamazaki, A. Takata, J. Yamawaku, J. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, 'Widely tunable multichannel wavelength conversion using multiple wavelength quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide,' Electron. Lett. 40 , 492-493 (2004).
  15. S. J. B. Yoo, G. K. Chang, X. Wei, M. A. Koza, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, 'Simultaneous multi-channel conversion of analog and digital signals by polarization independent difference-frequency-generation,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 1999), Vol. 4, pp. 36-38.
  16. B. Chen and Chang-Qing Xu, 'Analysis of novel cascaded chi 2 (SFG+DFG) wavelength conversions in quasi-phase-matched waveguides,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 256-261 (2004).
  17. D. Klonidis, C. T. Politi, R. Nejabati, M. J. O'Mahony, and D. Simeonidou, 'OPSnet: design and demonstration of an asynchronous high speed optical packet switch,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23,2914-25 (2005).
  18. P. V. Mamyshev, 'All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect,' ECOC98.
  19. J. LeutholdG. Raybon, Y. Su, and R. Essiambre, 'All-optical transmission and wavelength conversion of 40 Gbit/s signals over ultra-long haul distances,' presented at IEEE/LEOS Summer Topicals 2002, Mont Tremblant, Quebec Canada, July 15-17, 2002, paper WB1.
  20. M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C.-H. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
  21. P. B. Chu, S.-S. Lee, and S. Park, 'MEMS: the path to large optical cross-connects,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(3), 80-87 (2002).
  22. C. T. Politi, D. Klonidis, Anna Tzanakaki, M. O'Mahony, and I. Tomkos, 'Waveband routed optical packet switch: implementation and performance evaluation,' Proc. SPIE 45, 050504 (2006).
  23. No direct comparison can be made for the number of switches or ports with the designs in Ref. . Here the converters must be considered as the switching elements to be minimized in a MG-OXC configuration.
  24. J. Yamawuku, E Yamazaki, A. Takada, and T. Morioka, 'Field demonstration of virtual grouped-wavelength-path switching with transparent waveband conversion in QPM-LN and PLC matrix switch in test bed of JGN II,' presented at ECOC, Stockholm, Sweden, 5-9 September, 2004, postdeadline paper Th4.5.3.
  25. C. T. Politi, D. Alexandropoulos, D. Klonidis, M. J. O'Mahony, and A. Stavdas, 'Concatenation performance of optical packet switches that incorporate wavelength converters based on FWM in SOAs,' IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (to be published).
  26. C. T. Politi, D. Klonidis, and M. J. O'Mahony, 'Waveband Conversion based on FWM in SOAs,' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1203-1217 (2006).

2006 (2)

C. T. Politi, D. Klonidis, Anna Tzanakaki, M. O'Mahony, and I. Tomkos, 'Waveband routed optical packet switch: implementation and performance evaluation,' Proc. SPIE 45, 050504 (2006).

C. T. Politi, D. Klonidis, and M. J. O'Mahony, 'Waveband Conversion based on FWM in SOAs,' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1203-1217 (2006).

2005 (2)

D. Klonidis, C. T. Politi, R. Nejabati, M. J. O'Mahony, and D. Simeonidou, 'OPSnet: design and demonstration of an asynchronous high speed optical packet switch,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23,2914-25 (2005).

C. T. Politi, D. Alexandropoulos, D. Klonidis, M. J. O'Mahony, and A. Stavdas, 'Optical cross-connect architecture using waveband conversion and a passive wavelength router,' IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 215-221 (2005).

2004 (2)

E. Yamazaki, A. Takata, J. Yamawaku, J. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, 'Widely tunable multichannel wavelength conversion using multiple wavelength quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide,' Electron. Lett. 40 , 492-493 (2004).

B. Chen and Chang-Qing Xu, 'Analysis of novel cascaded chi 2 (SFG+DFG) wavelength conversions in quasi-phase-matched waveguides,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 256-261 (2004).

2003 (3)

C. T. Politi and M. O'Mahony, 'Simultaneous processing and routing of packets in a synchronous optical packet switched network,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 1515-1524 (2003).

G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, and C. A. S. Pomportsi, 'Optical switching: switch fabrics, techniques, and Architectures,' J. Lightwave Technology 21, 384-405 (2003).

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, 'Waveband switching in optical networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(4), 105-112 (2003).

2002 (3)

P. De Dobbelaere, K. Falta, S. Gloekner, and S. Patra, 'Digital MEMS for optical switching,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(3), 88-95 (2002).

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C.-H. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).

P. B. Chu, S.-S. Lee, and S. Park, 'MEMS: the path to large optical cross-connects,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(3), 80-87 (2002).

1999 (1)

G. WilfongB. Mikkelsen, Chris Doerr, and Martin Zirngibl, 'WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,' J. Lightwave Technology 17. 1732-1741 (1999).

1996 (2)

E. Iannone and R. Sabella, 'Optical path technologies: a comparison among different cross-connect architectures,' J. Lightwave Technology 14, 2184-2196 (1996).

S. Yoo, 'Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,' J. Lightwave Technol. 14955-965 (1996).

1993 (1)

K. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. da, K., and H. Toba, 'Multichannel frequency conversion experiment using fibre four-wave mixing,' Electron. Lett. 29, 1708-1710 (1993).

Alexandropoulos, D.

C. T. Politi, D. Alexandropoulos, D. Klonidis, M. J. O'Mahony, and A. Stavdas, 'Optical cross-connect architecture using waveband conversion and a passive wavelength router,' IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 215-221 (2005).

C. T. Politi, D. Alexandropoulos, D. Klonidis, M. J. O'Mahony, and A. Stavdas, 'Concatenation performance of optical packet switches that incorporate wavelength converters based on FWM in SOAs,' IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (to be published).

Anand, V.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, 'Waveband switching in optical networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(4), 105-112 (2003).

Asobe, M.

E. Yamazaki, A. Takata, J. Yamawaku, J. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, 'Widely tunable multichannel wavelength conversion using multiple wavelength quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide,' Electron. Lett. 40 , 492-493 (2004).

Battou, A.

P. Torab, V. Hutcheon, D. Walters, and A. Battou, 'Waveband switching efficiency in WDM networks: analysis and case study,' presented at OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, California, March 5-10, 2006, paper OTuG3.

Bhat, R.

S. J. B. Yoo, G. K. Chang, X. Wei, M. A. Koza, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, 'Simultaneous multi-channel conversion of analog and digital signals by polarization independent difference-frequency-generation,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 1999), Vol. 4, pp. 36-38.

Caneau, C.

S. J. B. Yoo, G. K. Chang, X. Wei, M. A. Koza, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, 'Simultaneous multi-channel conversion of analog and digital signals by polarization independent difference-frequency-generation,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 1999), Vol. 4, pp. 36-38.

Cao, X.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, 'Waveband switching in optical networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(4), 105-112 (2003).

Chang, G. K.

S. J. B. Yoo, G. K. Chang, X. Wei, M. A. Koza, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, 'Simultaneous multi-channel conversion of analog and digital signals by polarization independent difference-frequency-generation,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 1999), Vol. 4, pp. 36-38.

Chen, B.

B. Chen and Chang-Qing Xu, 'Analysis of novel cascaded chi 2 (SFG+DFG) wavelength conversions in quasi-phase-matched waveguides,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 256-261 (2004).

Chu, P. B.

P. B. Chu, S.-S. Lee, and S. Park, 'MEMS: the path to large optical cross-connects,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(3), 80-87 (2002).

da, K.

K. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. da, K., and H. Toba, 'Multichannel frequency conversion experiment using fibre four-wave mixing,' Electron. Lett. 29, 1708-1710 (1993).

De Dobbelaere, P.

P. De Dobbelaere, K. Falta, S. Gloekner, and S. Patra, 'Digital MEMS for optical switching,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(3), 88-95 (2002).

Doerr, Chris

G. WilfongB. Mikkelsen, Chris Doerr, and Martin Zirngibl, 'WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,' J. Lightwave Technology 17. 1732-1741 (1999).

Dotaro, E.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, 'Impact of intermediate grouping on the dimensioning of multigranularity optical networks,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG3.

Essiambre, R.

J. LeutholdG. Raybon, Y. Su, and R. Essiambre, 'All-optical transmission and wavelength conversion of 40 Gbit/s signals over ultra-long haul distances,' presented at IEEE/LEOS Summer Topicals 2002, Mont Tremblant, Quebec Canada, July 15-17, 2002, paper WB1.

Falta, K.

P. De Dobbelaere, K. Falta, S. Gloekner, and S. Patra, 'Digital MEMS for optical switching,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(3), 88-95 (2002).

Gloekner, S.

P. De Dobbelaere, K. Falta, S. Gloekner, and S. Patra, 'Digital MEMS for optical switching,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(3), 88-95 (2002).

Hasegawa, T.

K. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. da, K., and H. Toba, 'Multichannel frequency conversion experiment using fibre four-wave mixing,' Electron. Lett. 29, 1708-1710 (1993).

Hutcheon, V.

P. Torab, V. Hutcheon, D. Walters, and A. Battou, 'Waveband switching efficiency in WDM networks: analysis and case study,' presented at OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, California, March 5-10, 2006, paper OTuG3.

Iannone, E.

E. Iannone and R. Sabella, 'Optical path technologies: a comparison among different cross-connect architectures,' J. Lightwave Technology 14, 2184-2196 (1996).

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. da, K., and H. Toba, 'Multichannel frequency conversion experiment using fibre four-wave mixing,' Electron. Lett. 29, 1708-1710 (1993).

Kang, C.-H.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C.-H. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).

Kim, Y.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C.-H. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).

Klonidis, D.

C. T. Politi, D. Klonidis, and M. J. O'Mahony, 'Waveband Conversion based on FWM in SOAs,' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1203-1217 (2006).

C. T. Politi, D. Klonidis, Anna Tzanakaki, M. O'Mahony, and I. Tomkos, 'Waveband routed optical packet switch: implementation and performance evaluation,' Proc. SPIE 45, 050504 (2006).

D. Klonidis, C. T. Politi, R. Nejabati, M. J. O'Mahony, and D. Simeonidou, 'OPSnet: design and demonstration of an asynchronous high speed optical packet switch,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23,2914-25 (2005).

C. T. Politi, D. Alexandropoulos, D. Klonidis, M. J. O'Mahony, and A. Stavdas, 'Optical cross-connect architecture using waveband conversion and a passive wavelength router,' IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 215-221 (2005).

C. T. Politi, D. Alexandropoulos, D. Klonidis, M. J. O'Mahony, and A. Stavdas, 'Concatenation performance of optical packet switches that incorporate wavelength converters based on FWM in SOAs,' IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (to be published).

Koza, M. A.

S. J. B. Yoo, G. K. Chang, X. Wei, M. A. Koza, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, 'Simultaneous multi-channel conversion of analog and digital signals by polarization independent difference-frequency-generation,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 1999), Vol. 4, pp. 36-38.

Lee, M.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C.-H. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).

Lee, S.-S.

P. B. Chu, S.-S. Lee, and S. Park, 'MEMS: the path to large optical cross-connects,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(3), 80-87 (2002).

Leuthold, J.

J. LeutholdG. Raybon, Y. Su, and R. Essiambre, 'All-optical transmission and wavelength conversion of 40 Gbit/s signals over ultra-long haul distances,' presented at IEEE/LEOS Summer Topicals 2002, Mont Tremblant, Quebec Canada, July 15-17, 2002, paper WB1.

Mamyshev, P. V.

P. V. Mamyshev, 'All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect,' ECOC98.

Mikkelsen, B.

G. WilfongB. Mikkelsen, Chris Doerr, and Martin Zirngibl, 'WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,' J. Lightwave Technology 17. 1732-1741 (1999).

Morioka, J.

E. Yamazaki, A. Takata, J. Yamawaku, J. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, 'Widely tunable multichannel wavelength conversion using multiple wavelength quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide,' Electron. Lett. 40 , 492-493 (2004).

Morioka, T.

J. Yamawuku, E Yamazaki, A. Takada, and T. Morioka, 'Field demonstration of virtual grouped-wavelength-path switching with transparent waveband conversion in QPM-LN and PLC matrix switch in test bed of JGN II,' presented at ECOC, Stockholm, Sweden, 5-9 September, 2004, postdeadline paper Th4.5.3.

Nejabati, R.

D. Klonidis, C. T. Politi, R. Nejabati, M. J. O'Mahony, and D. Simeonidou, 'OPSnet: design and demonstration of an asynchronous high speed optical packet switch,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23,2914-25 (2005).

Noirie, L.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, 'Impact of intermediate grouping on the dimensioning of multigranularity optical networks,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG3.

O'Mahony, M.

C. T. Politi, D. Klonidis, Anna Tzanakaki, M. O'Mahony, and I. Tomkos, 'Waveband routed optical packet switch: implementation and performance evaluation,' Proc. SPIE 45, 050504 (2006).

C. T. Politi and M. O'Mahony, 'Simultaneous processing and routing of packets in a synchronous optical packet switched network,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 1515-1524 (2003).

O'Mahony, M. J.

C. T. Politi, D. Klonidis, and M. J. O'Mahony, 'Waveband Conversion based on FWM in SOAs,' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1203-1217 (2006).

C. T. Politi, D. Alexandropoulos, D. Klonidis, M. J. O'Mahony, and A. Stavdas, 'Optical cross-connect architecture using waveband conversion and a passive wavelength router,' IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 215-221 (2005).

D. Klonidis, C. T. Politi, R. Nejabati, M. J. O'Mahony, and D. Simeonidou, 'OPSnet: design and demonstration of an asynchronous high speed optical packet switch,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23,2914-25 (2005).

C. T. Politi, D. Alexandropoulos, D. Klonidis, M. J. O'Mahony, and A. Stavdas, 'Concatenation performance of optical packet switches that incorporate wavelength converters based on FWM in SOAs,' IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (to be published).

Papadimitriou, G. I.

G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, and C. A. S. Pomportsi, 'Optical switching: switch fabrics, techniques, and Architectures,' J. Lightwave Technology 21, 384-405 (2003).

Papazoglou, C.

G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, and C. A. S. Pomportsi, 'Optical switching: switch fabrics, techniques, and Architectures,' J. Lightwave Technology 21, 384-405 (2003).

Park, J.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C.-H. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).

Park, S.

P. B. Chu, S.-S. Lee, and S. Park, 'MEMS: the path to large optical cross-connects,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(3), 80-87 (2002).

Patra, S.

P. De Dobbelaere, K. Falta, S. Gloekner, and S. Patra, 'Digital MEMS for optical switching,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(3), 88-95 (2002).

Politi, C. T.

C. T. Politi, D. Klonidis, Anna Tzanakaki, M. O'Mahony, and I. Tomkos, 'Waveband routed optical packet switch: implementation and performance evaluation,' Proc. SPIE 45, 050504 (2006).

C. T. Politi, D. Klonidis, and M. J. O'Mahony, 'Waveband Conversion based on FWM in SOAs,' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1203-1217 (2006).

D. Klonidis, C. T. Politi, R. Nejabati, M. J. O'Mahony, and D. Simeonidou, 'OPSnet: design and demonstration of an asynchronous high speed optical packet switch,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23,2914-25 (2005).

C. T. Politi, D. Alexandropoulos, D. Klonidis, M. J. O'Mahony, and A. Stavdas, 'Optical cross-connect architecture using waveband conversion and a passive wavelength router,' IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 215-221 (2005).

C. T. Politi and M. O'Mahony, 'Simultaneous processing and routing of packets in a synchronous optical packet switched network,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 1515-1524 (2003).

C. T. Politi, D. Alexandropoulos, D. Klonidis, M. J. O'Mahony, and A. Stavdas, 'Concatenation performance of optical packet switches that incorporate wavelength converters based on FWM in SOAs,' IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (to be published).

Pomportsi, C. A. S.

G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, and C. A. S. Pomportsi, 'Optical switching: switch fabrics, techniques, and Architectures,' J. Lightwave Technology 21, 384-405 (2003).

Qiao, C.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, 'Waveband switching in optical networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(4), 105-112 (2003).

Raybon, G.

J. LeutholdG. Raybon, Y. Su, and R. Essiambre, 'All-optical transmission and wavelength conversion of 40 Gbit/s signals over ultra-long haul distances,' presented at IEEE/LEOS Summer Topicals 2002, Mont Tremblant, Quebec Canada, July 15-17, 2002, paper WB1.

Sabella, R.

E. Iannone and R. Sabella, 'Optical path technologies: a comparison among different cross-connect architectures,' J. Lightwave Technology 14, 2184-2196 (1996).

Simeonidou, D.

D. Klonidis, C. T. Politi, R. Nejabati, M. J. O'Mahony, and D. Simeonidou, 'OPSnet: design and demonstration of an asynchronous high speed optical packet switch,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23,2914-25 (2005).

Stavdas, A.

C. T. Politi, D. Alexandropoulos, D. Klonidis, M. J. O'Mahony, and A. Stavdas, 'Optical cross-connect architecture using waveband conversion and a passive wavelength router,' IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 215-221 (2005).

C. T. Politi, D. Alexandropoulos, D. Klonidis, M. J. O'Mahony, and A. Stavdas, 'Concatenation performance of optical packet switches that incorporate wavelength converters based on FWM in SOAs,' IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (to be published).

Su, Y.

J. LeutholdG. Raybon, Y. Su, and R. Essiambre, 'All-optical transmission and wavelength conversion of 40 Gbit/s signals over ultra-long haul distances,' presented at IEEE/LEOS Summer Topicals 2002, Mont Tremblant, Quebec Canada, July 15-17, 2002, paper WB1.

Tadanaga, O.

E. Yamazaki, A. Takata, J. Yamawaku, J. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, 'Widely tunable multichannel wavelength conversion using multiple wavelength quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide,' Electron. Lett. 40 , 492-493 (2004).

Takada, A.

J. Yamawuku, E Yamazaki, A. Takada, and T. Morioka, 'Field demonstration of virtual grouped-wavelength-path switching with transparent waveband conversion in QPM-LN and PLC matrix switch in test bed of JGN II,' presented at ECOC, Stockholm, Sweden, 5-9 September, 2004, postdeadline paper Th4.5.3.

Takata, A.

E. Yamazaki, A. Takata, J. Yamawaku, J. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, 'Widely tunable multichannel wavelength conversion using multiple wavelength quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide,' Electron. Lett. 40 , 492-493 (2004).

Toba, H.

K. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. da, K., and H. Toba, 'Multichannel frequency conversion experiment using fibre four-wave mixing,' Electron. Lett. 29, 1708-1710 (1993).

Tomkos, I.

C. T. Politi, D. Klonidis, Anna Tzanakaki, M. O'Mahony, and I. Tomkos, 'Waveband routed optical packet switch: implementation and performance evaluation,' Proc. SPIE 45, 050504 (2006).

A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, 'Optical add/drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,' in Transparent Optical Networks, 2003 (2003), Vol. 1, pp. 202.

Torab, P.

P. Torab, V. Hutcheon, D. Walters, and A. Battou, 'Waveband switching efficiency in WDM networks: analysis and case study,' presented at OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, California, March 5-10, 2006, paper OTuG3.

Tzanakaki, A.

A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, 'Optical add/drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,' in Transparent Optical Networks, 2003 (2003), Vol. 1, pp. 202.

Tzanakaki, Anna

C. T. Politi, D. Klonidis, Anna Tzanakaki, M. O'Mahony, and I. Tomkos, 'Waveband routed optical packet switch: implementation and performance evaluation,' Proc. SPIE 45, 050504 (2006).

Vigoureux, M.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, 'Impact of intermediate grouping on the dimensioning of multigranularity optical networks,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG3.

Walters, D.

P. Torab, V. Hutcheon, D. Walters, and A. Battou, 'Waveband switching efficiency in WDM networks: analysis and case study,' presented at OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, California, March 5-10, 2006, paper OTuG3.

Wei, X.

S. J. B. Yoo, G. K. Chang, X. Wei, M. A. Koza, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, 'Simultaneous multi-channel conversion of analog and digital signals by polarization independent difference-frequency-generation,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 1999), Vol. 4, pp. 36-38.

Wilfong, G.

G. WilfongB. Mikkelsen, Chris Doerr, and Martin Zirngibl, 'WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,' J. Lightwave Technology 17. 1732-1741 (1999).

Xu, Chang-Qing

B. Chen and Chang-Qing Xu, 'Analysis of novel cascaded chi 2 (SFG+DFG) wavelength conversions in quasi-phase-matched waveguides,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 256-261 (2004).

Yamawaku, J.

E. Yamazaki, A. Takata, J. Yamawaku, J. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, 'Widely tunable multichannel wavelength conversion using multiple wavelength quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide,' Electron. Lett. 40 , 492-493 (2004).

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IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

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M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C.-H. Kang, and J. Park, 'Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,' IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).

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Other (10)

No direct comparison can be made for the number of switches or ports with the designs in Ref. . Here the converters must be considered as the switching elements to be minimized in a MG-OXC configuration.

J. Yamawuku, E Yamazaki, A. Takada, and T. Morioka, 'Field demonstration of virtual grouped-wavelength-path switching with transparent waveband conversion in QPM-LN and PLC matrix switch in test bed of JGN II,' presented at ECOC, Stockholm, Sweden, 5-9 September, 2004, postdeadline paper Th4.5.3.

C. T. Politi, D. Alexandropoulos, D. Klonidis, M. J. O'Mahony, and A. Stavdas, 'Concatenation performance of optical packet switches that incorporate wavelength converters based on FWM in SOAs,' IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (to be published).

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A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, 'Optical add/drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,' in Transparent Optical Networks, 2003 (2003), Vol. 1, pp. 202.

P. Torab, V. Hutcheon, D. Walters, and A. Battou, 'Waveband switching efficiency in WDM networks: analysis and case study,' presented at OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, California, March 5-10, 2006, paper OTuG3.

S. J. B. Yoo, G. K. Chang, X. Wei, M. A. Koza, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, 'Simultaneous multi-channel conversion of analog and digital signals by polarization independent difference-frequency-generation,' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 1999), Vol. 4, pp. 36-38.

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J. LeutholdG. Raybon, Y. Su, and R. Essiambre, 'All-optical transmission and wavelength conversion of 40 Gbit/s signals over ultra-long haul distances,' presented at IEEE/LEOS Summer Topicals 2002, Mont Tremblant, Quebec Canada, July 15-17, 2002, paper WB1.

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