Abstract

<p><a href="http://www.osa-jon.org/features/OWC_2005.html">Feature Issue on Optical Wireless Communications (OWC)</a></p> It is commonly agreed that the next generation of wireless communication systems, usually referred to as fourth-generation (4G) systems, will not be based on a single access technique but will encompass a number of different complementary access technologies. We outline some of the radio frequency (RF) standards that will be used and assess where optical wireless (OW) communications may play a role. Further, we outline some future research challenges and opportunities.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. D. Porcino and W. Hirt, "Ultra-wideband radio technology: potential and challenges ahead," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 66-74 (2003).
  2. <refitem order="2">WiFi Alliance,<a href="http://www.wi-fi.org">http://www.wi-fi.org</a>.</refitem>
  3. WiMAX Forum
  4. <refitem order="4">Zigbee Alliance,<a href="http://www.zigbee.org">http://www.zigbee.org</a>.</refitem>
  5. <refitem order="5">3gpp,<a href="http://www.3gpp.org">http://www.3gpp.org</a>.</refitem>
  6. http://www.3gpp2.org
  7. <refitem order="7">Worldwide Wireless Research Forum,<a href="http://www.wireless-world-research.org">http://www.wireless-world-research.org</a>.</refitem>
  8. S. G. Glisic, Advanced Wireless Communications: 4G Technologies (Wiley, Hoboken, 2004).
  9. J. Roberto, B. de Marca, R. Rahim Tafazolli, and M. A. Uusitalo, "WWRF visions and research challenges for future wireless world," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42 (2004).
  10. <refitem order="10">Beyond 3G Forum,<a href="http://www.b3g.org">http://www.b3g.org</a>.</refitem>
  11. <refitem order="11">Freescale Corporation (XS110 UWB datasheet 2005)<a href="http://www.freescale.com">http://www.freescale.com</a>.</refitem>
  12. <refitem order="12">Connexionbyboeing,<a href="http://www.connexionbyboeing.com">http://www.connexionbyboeing.com</a>.</refitem>
  13. <refitem order="13">Infrared Data Association (Irda)<a href="http://www.irda.org">http://www.irda.org</a>.</refitem>
  14. M. Wolf and D. Kress, "Short-range wireless infrared transmission: the link budget compared to RF," IEEE Wireless Commun. 10, 8-14 (2003).
  15. UltraLab database,<a href="http:∕∕impulse.usc.edu∕uwbloss1.html">http:∕∕impulse.usc.edu∕uwbloss1.html</a>.
  16. D. Cheung and C. Prettie, "A Path Loss Comparison Between the 5 GHz UNII Band (802.11a) and the 2.4 GHz ISM Band (802.11b)," 2002,<a href="http://impulse.usc.edu/resources/802_11a-vs-b_report.pdf">http://impulse.usc.edu/resources/802_11a-vs-b_report.pdf</a>.
  17. D. Lu and D. Rutledge, "Investigation of indoor radio channels from 2.4 GHz to 24 GHz," in IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation: URSI North American Radio Science Meeting (IEEE, 2003), pp. 134-137.
  18. A. C. Boucouvalas, "Indoor ambient light noise and its effect on wireless optical links," IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics 143, 334-338 (1996).
  19. Maxim Semiconductor Corporation,<a href="http://www.maxim-ic.com">http://www.maxim-ic.com</a>.
  20. DLink Corporation (DLINK 802.11(g) PCMIA card),<a href="http://www.dlink.com">http://www.dlink.com</a>.
  21. Cambridge Silicon Radio (CSR Bluecore2 datasheet),<a href="http://www.csr.com">http://www.csr.com</a>.
  22. D. J. T. Heatley, D. R. Wisely, I. Neild, and P. Cochrane, "Optical wireless: The story so far," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 72-82 (1998).
  23. J. Hou and D. C. O'Brien, "Vertical handover decision-making algorithm using fuzzy logic for the integrated radio and OW system," IEEE Trans. on Wireless Commun. (to be published).
  24. D. C. O'Brien, G. E. Faulkner, E. B. Zyambo, K. Jim, D. J. Edwards, P. Stavrinou, G. Parry, J. Bellon, M. J. Sibley, V. A. Lalithambika, V. M. Joyner, R. J. Samsudin, D. M. Holburn, and R. J. Mears, "Integrated transceivers for optical wireless communications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 173-83 (2005).
  25. J. M. Kahn, R. You, P. Djahani, A. G. Weisbin, B. K. Teik, and A. Tang, "Imaging diversity receivers for high-speed infrared wireless communication," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 88-94 (1998).
  26. P. Djahani and J. M. Kahn, "Analysis of infrared wireless links employing multibeam transmitters and imaging diversity receivers," IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 2077-2088 (2000).
  27. K. Liang, H. Shi, S. J. Sheard, and D. C. O'Brien, "Transparent Optical Wireless Hubs Using Wavelength Space Division Multiplexing," in Free space laser communications IV, J.C.Ricklin and D.G.Voelz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 80-87 (2004).
  28. T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, "Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 50, 100-107 (2004).
  29. Y. Tanaka, T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, "Indoor visible light data transmission system utilizing white LED lights," IEICE Trans. on Commun. E86-B, 2440-2454 (2003).
  30. Visible Light Communications Consortium,<a href="http://www.vlcc.net">http://www.vlcc.net</a>.
  31. M. Progler, "SAMBA: a mobile broadband enabler," in Proceedings of 29th European Microwave Conference (Microwave Eng. Eur., London, UK, 1999), pp. 5-7.
  32. Broadway Project website, "<a href="http:∕∕www.ist-broadway.org">http:∕∕www.ist-broadway.org</a>.
  33. P. F. M. Smulders, "60 GHz radio: prospects and future directions," in Proceedings of IEEE Benelux Chapter Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology (IEEE, Eindhoven, 2003).
  34. K. Sato and T. Manabe, "Estimation of propagation-path visibility for indoor wireless LAN systems under shadowing condition by human bodies," in Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE, New York, 1998), pp. 18-21.
  35. M. Flament and M. Unbehaun, "Impact of shadow fading in a MM-wave band wireless network," in Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPCS'00), pp. 427-432.
  36. M. Kavehrad and S. Jivkova, "Indoor broadband optical wireless communications: optical subsystems designs and their impact on channel characteristics," IEEE Wireless Commun. 10, 30-35 (2003).
  37. S. T. Jivkova and M. Kavehrad, "Multispot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access," IEEE Trans. on Commun. 48, 970-978 (2000).
  38. A. G. Al-Ghamdi and J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Line strip spot-diffusing transmitter configuration for optical wireless systems influenced by background noise and multipath dispersion," IEEE Trans. on Commun. 52, 37-45 (2004).
  39. M. Jafar, D. C. O'Brien, C. J. Stevens, and D. J. Edwards are preparing a manuscript to be called "Evaluation of coverage area for a wide line-of-sight indoor optical free-space communication system employing coherent detection."
  40. T. Kimura, S. Bjorlin, H.-F. Chou, Qi Chen, S.-M. Wu, and J. E. Bowers, "Optically preamplified receiver at 10, 20, and 40 Gb∕s using a 1550 nm vertical-cavity SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 456-458 (2005).
  41. S. M. Idrus and R. J. Green, "Photoparametric amplifier for optical wireless communication system," presented at the 6th IEEE High Frequency Postgraduate Colloquium, Cardiff, UK, 9-10 Sept. 2001.
  42. M. J. McCullagh and D. R. Wisely, "155 Mbit∕s optical wireless link using a bootstrapped silicon APD receiver," Electron. Lett. 30, 430-432 (1994).

29th European Microwave Conference

M. Progler, "SAMBA: a mobile broadband enabler," in Proceedings of 29th European Microwave Conference (Microwave Eng. Eur., London, UK, 1999), pp. 5-7.

48th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf.

K. Sato and T. Manabe, "Estimation of propagation-path visibility for indoor wireless LAN systems under shadowing condition by human bodies," in Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE, New York, 1998), pp. 18-21.

6th IEEE High Frequency Postgraduate Col

S. M. Idrus and R. J. Green, "Photoparametric amplifier for optical wireless communication system," presented at the 6th IEEE High Frequency Postgraduate Colloquium, Cardiff, UK, 9-10 Sept. 2001.

Communications and Vehicular Technology

P. F. M. Smulders, "60 GHz radio: prospects and future directions," in Proceedings of IEEE Benelux Chapter Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology (IEEE, Eindhoven, 2003).

Electron. Lett.

M. J. McCullagh and D. R. Wisely, "155 Mbit∕s optical wireless link using a bootstrapped silicon APD receiver," Electron. Lett. 30, 430-432 (1994).

IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics

A. C. Boucouvalas, "Indoor ambient light noise and its effect on wireless optical links," IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics 143, 334-338 (1996).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

J. Roberto, B. de Marca, R. Rahim Tafazolli, and M. A. Uusitalo, "WWRF visions and research challenges for future wireless world," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42 (2004).

D. Porcino and W. Hirt, "Ultra-wideband radio technology: potential and challenges ahead," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 66-74 (2003).

D. J. T. Heatley, D. R. Wisely, I. Neild, and P. Cochrane, "Optical wireless: The story so far," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 72-82 (1998).

J. M. Kahn, R. You, P. Djahani, A. G. Weisbin, B. K. Teik, and A. Tang, "Imaging diversity receivers for high-speed infrared wireless communication," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 88-94 (1998).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. C. O'Brien, G. E. Faulkner, E. B. Zyambo, K. Jim, D. J. Edwards, P. Stavrinou, G. Parry, J. Bellon, M. J. Sibley, V. A. Lalithambika, V. M. Joyner, R. J. Samsudin, D. M. Holburn, and R. J. Mears, "Integrated transceivers for optical wireless communications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 173-83 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Kimura, S. Bjorlin, H.-F. Chou, Qi Chen, S.-M. Wu, and J. E. Bowers, "Optically preamplified receiver at 10, 20, and 40 Gb∕s using a 1550 nm vertical-cavity SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 456-458 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Commun.

P. Djahani and J. M. Kahn, "Analysis of infrared wireless links employing multibeam transmitters and imaging diversity receivers," IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 2077-2088 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron.

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, "Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 50, 100-107 (2004).

IEEE Trans. on Commun.

S. T. Jivkova and M. Kavehrad, "Multispot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access," IEEE Trans. on Commun. 48, 970-978 (2000).

A. G. Al-Ghamdi and J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Line strip spot-diffusing transmitter configuration for optical wireless systems influenced by background noise and multipath dispersion," IEEE Trans. on Commun. 52, 37-45 (2004).

IEEE Trans. on Wireless Commun.

J. Hou and D. C. O'Brien, "Vertical handover decision-making algorithm using fuzzy logic for the integrated radio and OW system," IEEE Trans. on Wireless Commun. (to be published).

IEEE Wireless Commun.

M. Wolf and D. Kress, "Short-range wireless infrared transmission: the link budget compared to RF," IEEE Wireless Commun. 10, 8-14 (2003).

M. Kavehrad and S. Jivkova, "Indoor broadband optical wireless communications: optical subsystems designs and their impact on channel characteristics," IEEE Wireless Commun. 10, 30-35 (2003).

IEICE Trans. on Commun.

Y. Tanaka, T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, "Indoor visible light data transmission system utilizing white LED lights," IEICE Trans. on Commun. E86-B, 2440-2454 (2003).

Proc. SPIE

K. Liang, H. Shi, S. J. Sheard, and D. C. O'Brien, "Transparent Optical Wireless Hubs Using Wavelength Space Division Multiplexing," in Free space laser communications IV, J.C.Ricklin and D.G.Voelz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 80-87 (2004).

Symp. on Antennas and Propagation 2003

D. Lu and D. Rutledge, "Investigation of indoor radio channels from 2.4 GHz to 24 GHz," in IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation: URSI North American Radio Science Meeting (IEEE, 2003), pp. 134-137.

WPCS'00

M. Flament and M. Unbehaun, "Impact of shadow fading in a MM-wave band wireless network," in Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPCS'00), pp. 427-432.

Other

Visible Light Communications Consortium,<a href="http://www.vlcc.net">http://www.vlcc.net</a>.

Broadway Project website, "<a href="http:∕∕www.ist-broadway.org">http:∕∕www.ist-broadway.org</a>.

UltraLab database,<a href="http:∕∕impulse.usc.edu∕uwbloss1.html">http:∕∕impulse.usc.edu∕uwbloss1.html</a>.

D. Cheung and C. Prettie, "A Path Loss Comparison Between the 5 GHz UNII Band (802.11a) and the 2.4 GHz ISM Band (802.11b)," 2002,<a href="http://impulse.usc.edu/resources/802_11a-vs-b_report.pdf">http://impulse.usc.edu/resources/802_11a-vs-b_report.pdf</a>.

<refitem order="2">WiFi Alliance,<a href="http://www.wi-fi.org">http://www.wi-fi.org</a>.</refitem>

WiMAX Forum

<refitem order="4">Zigbee Alliance,<a href="http://www.zigbee.org">http://www.zigbee.org</a>.</refitem>

<refitem order="5">3gpp,<a href="http://www.3gpp.org">http://www.3gpp.org</a>.</refitem>

http://www.3gpp2.org

<refitem order="7">Worldwide Wireless Research Forum,<a href="http://www.wireless-world-research.org">http://www.wireless-world-research.org</a>.</refitem>

S. G. Glisic, Advanced Wireless Communications: 4G Technologies (Wiley, Hoboken, 2004).

<refitem order="10">Beyond 3G Forum,<a href="http://www.b3g.org">http://www.b3g.org</a>.</refitem>

<refitem order="11">Freescale Corporation (XS110 UWB datasheet 2005)<a href="http://www.freescale.com">http://www.freescale.com</a>.</refitem>

<refitem order="12">Connexionbyboeing,<a href="http://www.connexionbyboeing.com">http://www.connexionbyboeing.com</a>.</refitem>

<refitem order="13">Infrared Data Association (Irda)<a href="http://www.irda.org">http://www.irda.org</a>.</refitem>

Maxim Semiconductor Corporation,<a href="http://www.maxim-ic.com">http://www.maxim-ic.com</a>.

DLink Corporation (DLINK 802.11(g) PCMIA card),<a href="http://www.dlink.com">http://www.dlink.com</a>.

Cambridge Silicon Radio (CSR Bluecore2 datasheet),<a href="http://www.csr.com">http://www.csr.com</a>.

M. Jafar, D. C. O'Brien, C. J. Stevens, and D. J. Edwards are preparing a manuscript to be called "Evaluation of coverage area for a wide line-of-sight indoor optical free-space communication system employing coherent detection."

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.