Abstract

<p><a href="http://www.osa-jon.org/features/OAN_2005.html">Feature Issue on Optical Access Networks (OAN)</a></p> We review the progress in optical wireless communication networks for first- and last-mile broadband access. The link budget is discussed. Modulation and coding are studied to deal with the atmospheric turbulence channel. Topics related to efficient topology design, survivable routing, and dynamic reconfiguration algorithms are discussed. It is shown that optical wireless communication networks have great potential to provide enough bandwidth for first-mile broadband applications. However, major challenges need to be overcome in pointing and acquisition, coding, and network design to make optical wireless networks more popular with customers.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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J. Hamkins and M. Srinivasan, "Turbo codes for APD-detected PPM," in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control and Computing, (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1998), pp. 29-38.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Conf. Information Sciences and Systems (1)

A. Kashyap, S. Khuller, and M. Shayman, "Topology control and routing over wireless optical backbone networks," in Proceedings of the Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (Princeton University, 2004).

Global Telecommunications Conf. 2003 (1)

J. Li and M. Uysal, "Achievable information rate for outdoor free space optical communication with intensity modulation and direct detection," in Global Telecommunications Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2003), pp. 2654-2658.

Global Telecommunications Conf. 2004 (1)

Q. Lu, Q. Liu, and G. S. Mitchell, "Performance analysis for optical wireless communication systems using sub-carrier PSK intensity modulation through turbulent atmospheric channel," in Global Telecommunications Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2004), pp. 1872-1875.

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

M. Uysal, S. M. Navidpour, and J. Li, "Error rate performance of coded free-space optical links over strong turbulence channels," IEEE Commun. Lett. 8, 635-637 (2004).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (8)

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, "Urban optical wireless communication network: the main challenges and possible solutions," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(5), S2-S7 (2004).

C. Davis, I. Smolyaninov, and S. Milner, "Flexible optical wireless links and networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(3), 51-57 (2003).

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, "Urban optical wireless communication networks: the main challenges and possible solutions," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(2), 2-7 (2004).

C. Davis, I. Smolyaninov, and S. Milner, "Flexible optical wireless links and networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(3), 51-57 (2003).

D. C. O'Brien, G. E. Faulkner, K. Jim, E. B. Zyambo, D. J. Edwards, M. Whitehead, P. Stavrinou, G. Parry, J. Bellon, M. J. Sibley, V. A. Lalithambika, V. M. Joyner, R. J. Samsudin, D. M. Holburn, and R. J. Mears, "High-speed integrated transceivers for optical wireless," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(3), 58-62 (2003).

A. Tavares, R. Valadas, R. L. Aguiar, and A. O. Duarte, "Angle diversity and rate-adaptive transmission for indoor wireless optical communications," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(3), 64-73 (2003).

T. Ohtsuki, "Multiple-subcarrier modulation in optical wireless communications," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(3), 74-79 (2003).

A. Al-Ghamdi and J. Elmirghani, "Performance evaluation of a triangular pyramidal fly-eye diversity detector for optical wireless communications," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(3), 80-86 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

A. Acampora, S. H. Bloom, and S. Krishnamurthy, "Free-space optics communication systems: first results from a pilot field-trial in the surrounding area of Milan, Italy," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 973-987 (1998).

S. M. Hass and J. H. Shapiro, "Capacity of wireless optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1346-1357 (2003).

IEEE Micro. (1)

H. Samueli, "The broadband revolution," IEEE Micro. 20(2), 16-26 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and J. Wang, "Mitigation of turbulence-induced scintillation noise in free-space optical links using temporal-domain detection techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 623-625 (2003).

M. Cole and K. Kiasaleh, "Signal intensity estimators for free-space optical communications through turbulent atmosphere," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2395-2397 (2004).

IEEE Spectrum (1)

M. Lloyd-Hart, "Taking the twinkle out of starlight," IEEE Spectrum 40(12), 22-29 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

M. Toyoshima, S. Yamakawa, T. Yamawaki, K. Arai, M. R. Garcia-Talavera, A. Alonso, Z. Sodnik, and B. Demelenne, "Long-term statistics of laser beam propagation in an optical ground-to-geostationary satellite communications link," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 842-850 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (6)

G. Ling and R. M. Gagliardi, "Slot synchronization in optical PPM communications," IEEE Trans. Commun. 34, 1202-1208 (1986).

V. A. Vilnrotter and M. Srinivasan, "Adaptive detector arrays for optical communications receivers," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1091-1097 (2002).

V. W. S. Chan, "Coding for the turbulent atmospheric optical channel," IEEE Trans. Commun. 30, 269-275 (1982).

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Markov chain model in maximum-likelihood sequence detection for free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 509-516 (2003).

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulance channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Performance bounds for coded free-space optical communications through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1233-1239 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

G. Prati and R. Gagliardi, "Block encoding and decoding for the optical PPM channel," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28, 100-105 (1982).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (2)

S. Arnon, "Optimization of urban optical wireless communication systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 626-629 (2003).

H. Izadpanah, T. ElBatt, V. Kukshya, F. Dolezal, and B. K. Ryu, "High-availability free space optical and RF hybrid wireless networks," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 45-53 (2003).

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

W. Huang, J. Takayanagi, T. Sakanaka, and M. Nakagawa, "Atmospheric optical communication system using subcarrier PSK modulation," IEICE Trans. Commun. E76-B, 1169-1177 (1993).

International Conf. on Communications (1)

Q. Liu and Q. Lu, "Subcarrier PSK intensity modulations in optical wireless communications through turbulent atmospheric channel," in IEEE International Conference on Communications (Institute of Electical and Electronics Engineers, 2005), pp. 1872-1875.

Intl Conf on Communications (1)

F. Sun and M. Shayman, "Minimum interference algorithm for integrated topology control and routing in wireless optical backbone networks," in IEEE International Conference on Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2004), pp. 4232-4237.

Intl Solid-State Circuits Conf. 1990 (1)

M. B. Ritter, F. Gfeller, W. Hirt, D. Rogers, and S. Gowda, "Circuit and system challenges in IR wireless communication," in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1990), pp. 398-340.

Intl Symposium on Information Theory (1)

B. Moision and J. Hamkins, "Low-complexity serially-concatenated coding for the deep space optical channel," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (Institute of Electical and Electronics Engineers, 2003), p. 100.

IPN Prog. Rep. 2001 (1)

M. Srinivasan, J. Hamkins, B. Madden-Woods, A. Biswas, and J. Beebe, "Laboratory characterization of silicon avalanche photodiodes for pulse-position modulation (PPM) detection," IPN Prog. Rep. 42-146, 1-14 (2001).

J. Appl. Opt. (5)

D. H. Hohn, "Effects of atmospheric turbulence on the transmission of a laser beam at 6328 A. I-Distribution of intensity," J. Appl. Opt. 5, 1427-1431 (1966).

B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, A. Jankevice, M. Toledo-Quinones, F. Landers, and T. L. Bruno, "Horizontal line-of-sight turbulence over near-ground paths and implications for adaptive optics corrections in laser communications," J. Appl. Opt. 37, 4553-4560 (1998).

A. F. Zhukov, M. V. Kabanov, and R. S. Tsvyk, "Temporal fluctuations of laser beam radiation in atmospheric precipitation," J. Appl. Opt. 27, 578-583 (1988).

A. G. Borovoy, G. Y. Patrushev, and A. I. Petrov, "Laser beam propagation through the turbulent atmosphere with precipitation," J. Appl. Opt. 27, 3704-3714 (1988).

M. Quinn and N. Alyassini, "Influence of atmospheric-induced beam extinction and scintillation on a line-of-sight optical link at 8.5 km range," J. Appl. Opt. 21, 2224-2228 (1982).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Eng. (1)

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media," J. Opt. Eng. 40, 1554-1562 (2001).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

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E. Jakeman, "On the statistics of K-distributed noise," J. Phys. A 13, 31-48 (1980).

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