Abstract

<p><a href="http://www.osa-jon.org/features/OAN_2005.html">Feature Issue on Optical Access Networks (OAN)</a></p> The passive optical network (PON) is an optical fiber based network architecture, which can provide much higher bandwidth in the access network compared to traditional copper-based networks. Incorporating wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) in a PON allows one to support much higher bandwidth compared to the standard PON, which operates in the "single-wavelength mode" where one wavelength is used for upstream transmission and a separate one is used for downstream transmission. We present a comprehensive review of various aspects of WDM-PONs proposed in the literature. This includes enabling device technologies for WDM-PONs and network architectures, as well as the corresponding protocols and services that may be deployed on a WDM-PON. The WDM-PON will become a revolutionary and scalable broadband access technology that will provide high bandwidth to end users.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. Clause 64, 65, IEEE 802.3ah standard, approved (24 June 2004).
  2. R. Lauder, "Technology and economics for coarse wavelength multiplexing workshop,"<a href="http://ieeexplore.ieee.org">http://ieeexplore.ieee.org</a>(2004).
  3. J. George, "Designing passive optical networks for cost effective triple play support," in Proceedings of FTTH conference, Orlando, Fl., 4-6 October (2004).
  4. The "triple play" terminology seems to have multiple usage and differs slightly. In general, a service provider (SP) may not care about any special technology; as long as the SP can provide "video+voice+data" services in any way, the SP can call it triple-play service . But, a software engineering viewpoint uses this terminology as the integration of services using the Internet protocol (IP). For clarity, we emphasize wavelength-overlaid "triple-play" PON service.
  5. G. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).
  6. C. Chang-Hasnain, "Progress and prospects of long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE Opt. Commun. Mag. 41 (2), S30-S34 (2004).
  7. T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Mukaihara, H. Nasu, S. Tamura, T. Numura, and A. Kasukawa, "Highly reliable 40 mW 25 GHz×20 ch thermally tunable DFB laser module, integrated with wavelength monitor," Furukawa Rev. 24, 1-5 (2003).
  8. <a href="http://www.aznacorp.com/.">http://www.aznacorp.com/.</a>
  9. <a href="http://www.bookham.com/.">http://www.bookham.com/.</a>
  10. C. Brackett, "Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: principles and applications," IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 8, 948-964 (1990).
  11. The "mode" means a wavelength generated by a laser cavity. Mode hopping is the phenomenon of a dominant mode's shift in random pattern, while mode competition is the continual intensity fluctuations among several modes with the total intensity remaining constant.
  12. J. Hong, H. Kim, and T. Makino, "Enhanced wavelength tuning range in two-section complex-coupled DFB lasers by alternating gain and loss coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1323-1328 (1998).
  13. M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, U. Koren, M.-D. Chien, M. G. Young, and B. I. Miller, "Digitally tunable laser based on the integration of a waveguide grating multiplexer and an optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 516-518 (1994).
  14. M. Zirngibl, "Multifrequency lasers and applications in WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36 (12), 39-41 (1998).
  15. M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and H. M. Presby, "An 18-channel multifrequency laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 870-872 (1996).
  16. T. Makino, G. P. Li, A. Sarangan, and W. Huang, "Multiwavelength gain-coupled MQW DFB laser array with fine tunability," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper FB1.
  17. M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and U. Koren, "Scalable 32 channel chirped-pulse WDM source," IEE Electron. Lett. 32, 1311-1312 (1996).
  18. K. Liou, U. Koren, E. C. Burrows, J. L. Zyskind, and K. Dreyer, "A WDM access system architecture based on spectral slicing of an amplified LED and delay-line multiplexing and encoding of eight wavelength channels for 64 subscribers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 517-519 (1997).
  19. W. T. Holloway, A. J. Keating, and D. D. Sampson, "Multiwavelength source for spectrum-sliced WDM access networks and LANS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1014-1016 (1997).
  20. D. K. Jung, C. J. Youn, H. G. Woo, and Y. C. Chung, "Spectrum-sliced bidirectional WDM PON,"<a href="http://ieeexplore.ieee.org">http://ieeexplore.ieee.org</a>.
  21. S. L. Woodward, P. P. Reichmann, and N. C. Frigo, "A spectrally sliced PON employing Fabry-Perot lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1337-1339 (1998).
  22. H.Sanjoh, H. Yasaka, Y. Sakai, K. Sato, H. Ishii, and Y. Yoshikuni, "Multiwavelength light source with precise frequency spacing using mode-locked semiconductor laser and arrayed waveguide grating filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 818-820 (1997).
  23. F. An, K. S. Kim, Y. Huseh, M. Rogge, W. Shaw, and L. Kazovsky, "Evolution, challenges and enabling technologies for future WDM-based optical access networks," presented at the 2nd Symposium on Photonics, Networking, and Computing, Cary, North Carolina, 26-30 September 2003.
  24. S. J. Park, C. H. Lee, K. T. Jeong, H. J. Park, J. G. Ahn, and K. H. Song, "Fiber-to-the-home services based on WDM passive optical network," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2582-2590 (2004).
  25. N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and G. E. Bodeep, "A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365-1367 (1994).
  26. P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, "Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs," IEE Electron. Lett. 37, 1181-1182 (2001).
  27. GR-1209-CORE for passive fiber optic components.
  28. GR-1221-CORE for passive fiber optic component reliability.
  29. There are several reasons for using the CWDM filter. For the same reasons, this CWDM filter may be used at an EPON ONU, as follows: (i) This CWDM filter prevents the downstream signal from entering the LD at the ONU; (ii) the insertion loss of the filter is far less (~0.5 dB) compared to a 2×1 splitter (~3.5 dB); (iii)This filter prevents the potential upstream signal from entering the PD at the ONU.
  30. J. Hasegawa and K. Nara, "Ultra low loss athermal AWG module with a large number of channels," Furukawa Rev. 26 (Furukawa, 2004).
  31. <a href="http:∕∕www.gemfirecorp.com∕">http:∕∕www.gemfirecorp.com∕</a>.
  32. P. Rigby, "Lightchip launches AWG killer,"<a href="http:∕∕www.lightreading.com∕">http:∕∕www.lightreading.com∕</a>.
  33. N. Kashima, "Upgrade of passive optical subscriber network," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 113-119 (1991).
  34. Y. K. Lin and D. R. Spears, "Passive optical subscriber loops with multi-access," J. Lightwave. Technol. 7, 1769-1777 (1989).
  35. R. D. Feldman, E. E. Harstead, S. Jiang, T. H. Wood, and M. Zirngibl, "An evaluation of architectures incorporating wavelength division multiplexing broad-band fiber access," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1546-1558 (1998).
  36. M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and I. P. Kaminow, "LARNET, a local access router network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 215-217 (1995).
  37. N. J. Frigo, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, P. P. Iannone, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, and H. M. Presby, "RITENet: a passive optical network architecture based on the remote interrogation of terminal equipment,"<a href="http://eeexplore.ieee.org">http://eeexplore.ieee.org</a>(1994).
  38. J. Kani, M. Teshima, K. Akimoto, N. Takachio, S. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, and M. Ishii, "A WDM based optical access network for wide-area gigabit access services," IEEE Opt. Commun. Mag. 41, S43-S48 (2003).
  39. G. Mayer, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, and E. Salvadori, "Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM PON access networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 121-142 (2000).
  40. J. D. Angelopoulos, E. K. Fragoulopoulos, and I. S. Venieris, "Comparison of traffic control issues between regular PONs and super-PONs," in 9th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (IEEE, 1998), Vol. 2, pp. 769-773.
  41. J. D. Angelopoulos, N. I. Lepidas, E. K. Fragoulopoulos, and I. S. Venieris, "TDMA multiplexing of ATM cells in a residential access SuperPON," IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 16, 1123-1133 (1998).
  42. G. Talli and P. D. Townsend, "Feasibility demonstration of 100 km reach DWDM superPON with upstream bit rates of 2.5 Gb∕s and 10 Gb∕s," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, California, 6-11 March 2005.
  43. F. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Shrikhande, and L. G. Kazovski, "SUCCESS: a next-generation hybrid WDM∕TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2557-2569 (2004).
  44. M. McGarry, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, "An evolutionary WDM upgrade for EPONs," Technical Report (Arizona State University, 2005).
  45. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON)," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74-80 (2002).
  46. Y. Hsueh, M. Rogge, W. Shaw, S. Yamamoto, and L. Kazovsky, "Quality of service support over SUCCESS-DWA: a highly evolutional and cost-effective optical access network," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, California, 6-11 March 2005.
  47. N. Frigo and C. F. Lam, "WDM Overlay of APON with EPON--a carrier's perspective,"<a href="http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/efm/public/sep01/lam_1_0901.pdf">http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/efm/public/sep01/lam_1_0901.pdf</a>.

2nd Symposium on Photonics, Networking,

F. An, K. S. Kim, Y. Huseh, M. Rogge, W. Shaw, and L. Kazovsky, "Evolution, challenges and enabling technologies for future WDM-based optical access networks," presented at the 2nd Symposium on Photonics, Networking, and Computing, Cary, North Carolina, 26-30 September 2003.

9th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conf.

J. D. Angelopoulos, E. K. Fragoulopoulos, and I. S. Venieris, "Comparison of traffic control issues between regular PONs and super-PONs," in 9th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (IEEE, 1998), Vol. 2, pp. 769-773.

FTTH Conf. 2004

J. George, "Designing passive optical networks for cost effective triple play support," in Proceedings of FTTH conference, Orlando, Fl., 4-6 October (2004).

Furukawa Rev.

T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Mukaihara, H. Nasu, S. Tamura, T. Numura, and A. Kasukawa, "Highly reliable 40 mW 25 GHz×20 ch thermally tunable DFB laser module, integrated with wavelength monitor," Furukawa Rev. 24, 1-5 (2003).

J. Hasegawa and K. Nara, "Ultra low loss athermal AWG module with a large number of channels," Furukawa Rev. 26 (Furukawa, 2004).

IEE Electron. Lett.

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, "Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs," IEE Electron. Lett. 37, 1181-1182 (2001).

M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and U. Koren, "Scalable 32 channel chirped-pulse WDM source," IEE Electron. Lett. 32, 1311-1312 (1996).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

M. Zirngibl, "Multifrequency lasers and applications in WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36 (12), 39-41 (1998).

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON)," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74-80 (2002).

IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun.

J. D. Angelopoulos, N. I. Lepidas, E. K. Fragoulopoulos, and I. S. Venieris, "TDMA multiplexing of ATM cells in a residential access SuperPON," IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 16, 1123-1133 (1998).

C. Brackett, "Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: principles and applications," IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 8, 948-964 (1990).

IEEE Opt. Commun. Mag.

C. Chang-Hasnain, "Progress and prospects of long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE Opt. Commun. Mag. 41 (2), S30-S34 (2004).

J. Kani, M. Teshima, K. Akimoto, N. Takachio, S. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, and M. Ishii, "A WDM based optical access network for wide-area gigabit access services," IEEE Opt. Commun. Mag. 41, S43-S48 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and I. P. Kaminow, "LARNET, a local access router network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 215-217 (1995).

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and G. E. Bodeep, "A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365-1367 (1994).

S. L. Woodward, P. P. Reichmann, and N. C. Frigo, "A spectrally sliced PON employing Fabry-Perot lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1337-1339 (1998).

H.Sanjoh, H. Yasaka, Y. Sakai, K. Sato, H. Ishii, and Y. Yoshikuni, "Multiwavelength light source with precise frequency spacing using mode-locked semiconductor laser and arrayed waveguide grating filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 818-820 (1997).

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, U. Koren, M.-D. Chien, M. G. Young, and B. I. Miller, "Digitally tunable laser based on the integration of a waveguide grating multiplexer and an optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 516-518 (1994).

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and H. M. Presby, "An 18-channel multifrequency laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 870-872 (1996).

K. Liou, U. Koren, E. C. Burrows, J. L. Zyskind, and K. Dreyer, "A WDM access system architecture based on spectral slicing of an amplified LED and delay-line multiplexing and encoding of eight wavelength channels for 64 subscribers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 517-519 (1997).

W. T. Holloway, A. J. Keating, and D. D. Sampson, "Multiwavelength source for spectrum-sliced WDM access networks and LANS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1014-1016 (1997).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Lightwave. Technol.

Y. K. Lin and D. R. Spears, "Passive optical subscriber loops with multi-access," J. Lightwave. Technol. 7, 1769-1777 (1989).

OFC 1996

T. Makino, G. P. Li, A. Sarangan, and W. Huang, "Multiwavelength gain-coupled MQW DFB laser array with fine tunability," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper FB1.

OFC 2005

G. Talli and P. D. Townsend, "Feasibility demonstration of 100 km reach DWDM superPON with upstream bit rates of 2.5 Gb∕s and 10 Gb∕s," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, California, 6-11 March 2005.

Y. Hsueh, M. Rogge, W. Shaw, S. Yamamoto, and L. Kazovsky, "Quality of service support over SUCCESS-DWA: a highly evolutional and cost-effective optical access network," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, California, 6-11 March 2005.

Other

N. Frigo and C. F. Lam, "WDM Overlay of APON with EPON--a carrier's perspective,"<a href="http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/efm/public/sep01/lam_1_0901.pdf">http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/efm/public/sep01/lam_1_0901.pdf</a>.

M. McGarry, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, "An evolutionary WDM upgrade for EPONs," Technical Report (Arizona State University, 2005).

D. K. Jung, C. J. Youn, H. G. Woo, and Y. C. Chung, "Spectrum-sliced bidirectional WDM PON,"<a href="http://ieeexplore.ieee.org">http://ieeexplore.ieee.org</a>.

The "mode" means a wavelength generated by a laser cavity. Mode hopping is the phenomenon of a dominant mode's shift in random pattern, while mode competition is the continual intensity fluctuations among several modes with the total intensity remaining constant.

<a href="http://www.aznacorp.com/.">http://www.aznacorp.com/.</a>

<a href="http://www.bookham.com/.">http://www.bookham.com/.</a>

The "triple play" terminology seems to have multiple usage and differs slightly. In general, a service provider (SP) may not care about any special technology; as long as the SP can provide "video+voice+data" services in any way, the SP can call it triple-play service . But, a software engineering viewpoint uses this terminology as the integration of services using the Internet protocol (IP). For clarity, we emphasize wavelength-overlaid "triple-play" PON service.

G. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).

Clause 64, 65, IEEE 802.3ah standard, approved (24 June 2004).

R. Lauder, "Technology and economics for coarse wavelength multiplexing workshop,"<a href="http://ieeexplore.ieee.org">http://ieeexplore.ieee.org</a>(2004).

<a href="http:∕∕www.gemfirecorp.com∕">http:∕∕www.gemfirecorp.com∕</a>.

P. Rigby, "Lightchip launches AWG killer,"<a href="http:∕∕www.lightreading.com∕">http:∕∕www.lightreading.com∕</a>.

N. J. Frigo, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, P. P. Iannone, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, and H. M. Presby, "RITENet: a passive optical network architecture based on the remote interrogation of terminal equipment,"<a href="http://eeexplore.ieee.org">http://eeexplore.ieee.org</a>(1994).

GR-1209-CORE for passive fiber optic components.

GR-1221-CORE for passive fiber optic component reliability.

There are several reasons for using the CWDM filter. For the same reasons, this CWDM filter may be used at an EPON ONU, as follows: (i) This CWDM filter prevents the downstream signal from entering the LD at the ONU; (ii) the insertion loss of the filter is far less (~0.5 dB) compared to a 2×1 splitter (~3.5 dB); (iii)This filter prevents the potential upstream signal from entering the PD at the ONU.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.