Abstract

Feature Issue on Optical Performance Monitoring (OPM). Chromatic dispersion (CD) in optical single-mode fibers, i.e., the wavelength dependence of the propagation delay, distorts pulses and is a big problem in 10- and 40-Gbit/s transmission systems. Adjustable drop-in CD compensators require an online CD detection. For this purpose, we modulate the optical power of the laser in a 40-Gbit/s transmitter by 1.2% (rms) at a frequency of 5 MHz. In the presence of CD, the associated periodic optical frequency variation modulates the signal arrival time, which is measured by synchronous (lock-in) detection of an error signal in the clock recovery of the receiver. CD as large as -268 to +350 ps/nm is detected including its sign, more than by any comparable technique. The uncertainty of measured arrival-time modulations can be as low as 100 attoseconds. Moreover, no extra optics or high-frequency electronics are needed, which makes this method extremely cheap to implement. Results are given for nonreturn to zero and carrier-suppressed return to zero (CSRZ), intensity modulation, and differential phase-shift keying.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, M. Yonenama, S. Kuwahara, Y. Miyamoto, and H. Toba, "Automatic dispersion equalisation using bit error rate monitoring in 40-Gbit/s optical transmission system," Electron. Lett. 27, 187-189 (2001).
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  3. A. B. Sahin, L. S. Yan, Q. Yu, M. Hauer, Z. Pan, and A. E. Willner, "Dynamic dispersion slope monitoring of many WDM channels using dispersion-induced RF clock regeneration," in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, New York, 2001), pp. 446-447.
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  9. B. Milivojevic, D. Sandel, S. Bhandare, R. Noé, and F. Wüst, "Practical 40-Gbit/s CSRZ-DPSK transmission system with signed online chromatic dispersion detection," in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, New York, 2003), paper Tu3.6.4.
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  11. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, "2.5Tb/s (64 x 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 x 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD FC2.
  12. Y. Takushima, H. Yoshimi, K. Kikuchi, H. Yamauchi, and H. Taga, "Experimental demonstration of in-service dispersion monitoring in 960-km WDM transmission system using optical frequency-modulation method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 870-872 (2003).

Electr. Eng. (1)

V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, F. Wüst, S. Hinz, and R. Noé, "Linear detection of optical polarization mode dispersion by arrival time modulation," Electr. Eng. 84(2), 71-73 (2002).

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. F. Elrefaie, R. Wagner, D. Atlas, and D. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitation in coherent optical fibre transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 23, 756-758 (1987).

K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, M. Yonenama, S. Kuwahara, Y. Miyamoto, and H. Toba, "Automatic dispersion equalisation using bit error rate monitoring in 40-Gbit/s optical transmission system," Electron. Lett. 27, 187-189 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Takushima, H. Yoshimi, K. Kikuchi, H. Yamauchi, and H. Taga, "Experimental demonstration of in-service dispersion monitoring in 960-km WDM transmission system using optical frequency-modulation method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 870-872 (2003).

Other (8)

A. Sano, T. Kataoka, M. Tomizawa, K. Hagimoto, K. Sato, K. Wakita, and K. Kato, "Automatic dispersion equalization by monitoring extracted-clock power level in a 40-Gbit/s, 200-km transmission line," in Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 2.207-2.210.

A. B. Sahin, L. S. Yan, Q. Yu, M. Hauer, Z. Pan, and A. E. Willner, "Dynamic dispersion slope monitoring of many WDM channels using dispersion-induced RF clock regeneration," in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, New York, 2001), pp. 446-447.

M. N. Petersen, Z. Pan, S. Lee, S. A. Havstad, and A. E. Willner, "Dispersion monitoring and compensation using a single in-band subcarrier tone," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WH4.

A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, and Y. Miyamoto, "A novel dispersion compensation scheme based on phase comparison between two SSB signals generated from a spectrally filtered CS-RZ signal," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WE2.

Q. Yu, L. S. Yan, Z. Pan, and A. E. Willner, "Chromatic dispersion monitor for WDM systems using vestigial-sideband optical filtering," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WE3.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, "2.5Tb/s (64 x 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 x 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD FC2.

D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, F. Wüst, R. Noé, and S. Hinz, "Signed online chromatic dispersion detection at 40 Gb/s with a sub-ps/nm dynamic accuracy," in Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, New York, 2002), Vol. 3, p. 6.1.4.

B. Milivojevic, D. Sandel, S. Bhandare, R. Noé, and F. Wüst, "Practical 40-Gbit/s CSRZ-DPSK transmission system with signed online chromatic dispersion detection," in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, New York, 2003), paper Tu3.6.4.

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