Abstract

<p><a href="http://www.osa-jon.org/features/OPM_2004.html">Feature Issue on Optical Performance Monitoring (OPM)</a></p> We report on the pilot-tone-based optical performance monitoring techniques for use in the wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) network. We first described the operating principle of the pilot-tone-based monitoring technique and estimated its scalability by analyzing potential problems. We then reviewed the techniques proposed for monitoring various optical parameters of WDM signals--such as optical power, wavelength, optical path, and cross talk--using pilot tones. We also presented examples of various network elements using the pilot-tone-based monitoring technique. In addition, we reviewed the pilot-tone-based monitoring techniques used in adaptive compensators for chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion, and we discussed their limitations and possible solutions. For example, we demonstrated a simple technique for monitoring the chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion simultaneously, without their affecting each other, by scrambling the state of polarization of the optical signal.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  3. K. Otsuka, T. Maki, Y. Sampei, Y. Tachikawa, N. Fukushima, and T. Chikama, "A high-performance optical spectrum monitor with high-speed measuring time for WDM optical networks," in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 1997) (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), 2, pp. 147-150.
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  6. C. J. Youn, S. K. Shin, K. J. Park, and Y. C. Chung, "Optical frequency monitoring technique using arrayed-waveguide grating and pilot tones," IEE Elec. Lett. 37, 1032-1033 (2001).
  7. G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical performance monitoring in reconfigurable WDM optical networks using subcarrier multiplexing," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1639-1648 (2000).
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  10. H. C. Ji, K. J. Park, J. K. Kim, S. K. Shin, M. J. Jang, and Y. C. Chung, "Demonstration of optical path monitoring technique using dual tones in all-optical WDM transport network," in Proceedings of the OptoElectronics and Communication Conference (OECC 2000) (IEEE, 2000), 14A4-4, pp. 476-477.
  11. H. C. Ji, J. K. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "Optical path and crosstalk monitoring technique using pilot tones in all-optical WDM transport network," in Asia-Pacific Optical and Wireless Communications Conference (APOC 2001) (SPIE, 2001), 4584-2, pp. 28-33.
  12. M. Murakami, T. Imai, and M. Aoyama, "A remote supervisory system based on subcarrier overmodulation for submarine optical amplifier systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 671-677 (1996).
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  14. T. E. Dimmick, G. Rossi, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical dispersion monitoring technique using double sideband subcarriers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 900-902 (2000).
  15. S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. Wang, M. Hauer, S. Lee, and A. E. Willner, "Simultaneous PMD monitoring of several WDM channels using subcarrier tones," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2001), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), CFE1, pp. 561-562.
  16. M. N. Petersen, Z. Pan, S. Lee, S. A. Havstad, and A. E. Willner, "Online chromatic dispersion monitoring and compensation using a single inband subcarrier tone," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 570-572 (2002).
  17. K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique in WDM network," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), ThGG88, pp. 735-737.
  18. K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 873-875 (2003).
  19. C. J. Youn, "Optical performance monitoring techniques for WDM networks," Ph.D. dissertation [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 2003].
  20. K. J. Park, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, "Polarization-mode dispersion monitoring technique based on polarization scrambling," IEE Elec. Lett. 38, 83-85 (2002).
  21. ITU-T Study Group 15, "Tone modulation for suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering and for channel identification on systems using in-line OFAs and WDM," Contribution, Question 25/15 (1994).
  22. Y. Sun, A. A. M. Saleh, J. L. Zyskind, D. L. Wilson, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Time dependent perturbation theory and tones in cascaded erbium-doped fiber amplifier systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1083-1087 (1997).
  23. A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
  24. J. H. Jang, S. K. Shin, H. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. J. Park, and Y. C. Chung, "A cold-start WDM system using a synchronized etalon filter," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 383-385 (1997).
  25. K. J. Park, S. K. Shin, H. C. Ji, H. G. Woo, and Y. C. Chung, "A multi-wavelength locker for WDM system," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), WE4, pp. 73-75.
  26. E. Kong, F. Tong, K.-P. Ho, L.-K. Chen, and C.K. Chan, "An optical-path supervisory cross-connects using pilot-tones," in Conferenceon Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 1999) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), FT4, pp. 1281-1282.
  27. C.-K. Chan, E. Kong, F. Tong, and L.-L. Chen, "A novel optical-path supervisory scheme for optical cross connects in all-optical transport network," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 899-901 (1998).
  28. K. U. Chu, C. H. Lee, and S. Y. Shin, "Optical path monitoring based on the identification of optical cross-connect input ports," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), FJ5, pp. 158-160.
  29. J. K. Kim, H. C. Ji, H. S. Chung, C. H. Kim, S. K. Shin, D. H. Hyun, and Y. C. Chung, "Demonstration of fast restorable all-optical WDM network," IEICE Trans. Commun. E84-B, 1119-1126 (2001).
  30. C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, "Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 68-70 (1991).
  31. T. Kato, Y. Koyano, and M. Nishimura, "Temperature dependence of chromatic dispersion in various types of optical fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), TuG7, pp. 104-106.
  32. K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Effect of self-phase modulation on group-velocity dispersion measurement technique using PM-AM conversion," IEE Electron. Lett. 38, 1247-1248 (2002).
  33. J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 88-90 (2001).
  34. T. Ono, Y. Yano, L. D. Garrett, J. A. Nagel, M. J. Dickerson, and M. Cvijetic, "10 Gbit/s PMD compensation field experiment over 452 km using principle state transmission method," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD44.
  35. K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, and Y. C. Chung, "A simultaneous monitoring technique for polarization-mode dispersion and group-velocity dispersion," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), WE4, pp. 199-200.

APOC 2001 (1)

H. C. Ji, J. K. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "Optical path and crosstalk monitoring technique using pilot tones in all-optical WDM transport network," in Asia-Pacific Optical and Wireless Communications Conference (APOC 2001) (SPIE, 2001), 4584-2, pp. 28-33.

CLEO 1999 (1)

E. Kong, F. Tong, K.-P. Ho, L.-K. Chen, and C.K. Chan, "An optical-path supervisory cross-connects using pilot-tones," in Conferenceon Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 1999) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), FT4, pp. 1281-1282.

ECOC 1996 (1)

F. Heismann, M. T. Fatehi, S. K. Korotky, and J. J. Veselka, "Signal tracking and performance monitoring in multi-wavelength optical network," in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1996) (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1996), WeB.2.2, pp. 47-50.

ECOC 1997 (1)

K. Otsuka, T. Maki, Y. Sampei, Y. Tachikawa, N. Fukushima, and T. Chikama, "A high-performance optical spectrum monitor with high-speed measuring time for WDM optical networks," in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 1997) (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), 2, pp. 147-150.

IEE Elec. Lett. (3)

K. J. Park, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, "Simple monitoring technique for WDM networks," IEE Elec. Lett. 35, 415-417 (1999).

C. J. Youn, S. K. Shin, K. J. Park, and Y. C. Chung, "Optical frequency monitoring technique using arrayed-waveguide grating and pilot tones," IEE Elec. Lett. 37, 1032-1033 (2001).

K. J. Park, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, "Polarization-mode dispersion monitoring technique based on polarization scrambling," IEE Elec. Lett. 38, 83-85 (2002).

IEE Electron. Lett. (1)

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Effect of self-phase modulation on group-velocity dispersion measurement technique using PM-AM conversion," IEE Electron. Lett. 38, 1247-1248 (2002).

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Y. Sun, A. A. M. Saleh, J. L. Zyskind, D. L. Wilson, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Time dependent perturbation theory and tones in cascaded erbium-doped fiber amplifier systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1083-1087 (1997).

G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical performance monitoring in reconfigurable WDM optical networks using subcarrier multiplexing," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1639-1648 (2000).

G. R. Hill, P. J. Chidgey, F. Kaufhold, T. Lynch, O. Sahlen, M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerstrom, G. Grasso, F. Meli, S. Johansson, J. Ingers, L. Fernandez, S. Rotolo, A. Antonielli, S. Tebaldini, E. Vezzoni, R. Caddedu, N. Caponio, F. Testa, A. Scavennec, M. J. O'Mahony, J. Zhou, A. Yu, W. Sohler, U. Rust, and H. Herrmann, "A transport network layer based on optical network elements," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 667-678 (1993).

M. Teshima, M. Koga, and K. Sato, "Performance of multiwavelength simultaneous monitoring circuit employing arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2277-2285 (1996).

M. Murakami, T. Imai, and M. Aoyama, "A remote supervisory system based on subcarrier overmodulation for submarine optical amplifier systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 671-677 (1996).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (9)

H. S. Chung, S. K. Shin, K. J. Park, H. G. Woo, and Y. C. Chung, "Effects of stimulated Raman scattering on pilot-tone-based supervisory technique," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 731-733 (2000).

T. E. Dimmick, G. Rossi, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical dispersion monitoring technique using double sideband subcarriers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 900-902 (2000).

M. N. Petersen, Z. Pan, S. Lee, S. A. Havstad, and A. E. Willner, "Online chromatic dispersion monitoring and compensation using a single inband subcarrier tone," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 570-572 (2002).

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).

J. H. Jang, S. K. Shin, H. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. J. Park, and Y. C. Chung, "A cold-start WDM system using a synchronized etalon filter," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 383-385 (1997).

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 873-875 (2003).

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 88-90 (2001).

C.-K. Chan, E. Kong, F. Tong, and L.-L. Chen, "A novel optical-path supervisory scheme for optical cross connects in all-optical transport network," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 899-901 (1998).

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, "Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 68-70 (1991).

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

J. K. Kim, H. C. Ji, H. S. Chung, C. H. Kim, S. K. Shin, D. H. Hyun, and Y. C. Chung, "Demonstration of fast restorable all-optical WDM network," IEICE Trans. Commun. E84-B, 1119-1126 (2001).

OECC 2000 (1)

H. C. Ji, K. J. Park, J. K. Kim, S. K. Shin, M. J. Jang, and Y. C. Chung, "Demonstration of optical path monitoring technique using dual tones in all-optical WDM transport network," in Proceedings of the OptoElectronics and Communication Conference (OECC 2000) (IEEE, 2000), 14A4-4, pp. 476-477.

OFC 1998 (1)

S. K. Shin, C.-H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "A novel frequency and power monitoring method for WDM network," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 1998) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), WJ7, pp. 168-170.

OFC 1999 (1)

P. A. Bonenfant, "Tutorial on protection and restoration in optical networks," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 1999) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), FF1, pp. 104.

OFC 2000 (4)

T. Kato, Y. Koyano, and M. Nishimura, "Temperature dependence of chromatic dispersion in various types of optical fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), TuG7, pp. 104-106.

K. U. Chu, C. H. Lee, and S. Y. Shin, "Optical path monitoring based on the identification of optical cross-connect input ports," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), FJ5, pp. 158-160.

T. Ono, Y. Yano, L. D. Garrett, J. A. Nagel, M. J. Dickerson, and M. Cvijetic, "10 Gbit/s PMD compensation field experiment over 452 km using principle state transmission method," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD44.

K. J. Park, S. K. Shin, H. C. Ji, H. G. Woo, and Y. C. Chung, "A multi-wavelength locker for WDM system," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2000) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), WE4, pp. 73-75.

OFC 2002 (2)

K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, and Y. C. Chung, "A simultaneous monitoring technique for polarization-mode dispersion and group-velocity dispersion," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), WE4, pp. 199-200.

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique in WDM network," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), ThGG88, pp. 735-737.

OSA TOPS Series 2001 (1)

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. Wang, M. Hauer, S. Lee, and A. E. Willner, "Simultaneous PMD monitoring of several WDM channels using subcarrier tones," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2001), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), CFE1, pp. 561-562.

Other (2)

C. J. Youn, "Optical performance monitoring techniques for WDM networks," Ph.D. dissertation [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 2003].

ITU-T Study Group 15, "Tone modulation for suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering and for channel identification on systems using in-line OFAs and WDM," Contribution, Question 25/15 (1994).

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