Abstract

We investigate the survivable traffic-grooming problem for optical mesh networks employing wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and dedicated protection. We consider the dynamic-provisioning environment in which a connection arrives at random, holds for a random amount of time, and then departs. A typical connection request may require bandwidth less than that of a wavelength, and it may also require protection from network failures, typically fiber cuts. On the basis of generic grooming-node architecture, we propose two approaches--protection-at-lightpath (PAL) level and protection-at-connection (PAC) level--for grooming a connection request. Here we investigate dedicated protection. In a companion paper [IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1367 (2003)], we investigate shared protection, which leads to a substantially different treatment. For dedicated protection, we prove that the problem of provisioning a connection under PAC is NP-complete, propose effective heuristics for both schemes, and define comprehensive performance metrics to compare PAL with PAC with respect to wavelength or grooming-port efficiency. Our findings are as follows. Under today's typical connection-bandwidth distribution in which lower-bandwidth connections outnumber higher-bandwidth connections, PAC outperforms PAL (in terms of bandwidth-blocking ratio, lightpath use, and wavelength use) if the number of grooming ports is large; however, PAL outperforms PAC (in terms of bandwidth-blocking ratio and grooming-port use) when the number of grooming ports is moderate or small.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

B. T. Doshi, S. Dravida, P. Harshavardhana, O. Hauser, and Y. Wang, "Optical network design and restoration," Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, 58-84 (1999).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

P.-H. Ho and H. Mouftah, "A framework for service-guaranteed shared protection in WDM mesh networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. (February 2002), pp. 97-103.

J. Strand, A. Chiu, and R. Tkach, "Issues for routing in the optical layer," IEEE Commun. Mag. (February 2001), pp. 81-87.

E. Modiano and P. J. Lin, "Traffic grooming in WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. (July 2001), 124-129

IEEE INFOCOM 2002 (1)

G. Li, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, and R. Doverspike, "Efficient distributed path selection for shared restoration connections," in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (IEEE, New York, 2002), pp. 140-149.

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, "Survivable WDM mesh networks," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 870-883 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (3)

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 122-133 (2002).

D. Dunn, W. Grover, and M. MacGregor, "Comparison of k-shortest paths and maximum flow routing for network facility restoration," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 12, 88-99 (1994).

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks--shared protection," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1367-1383 (2003).

IEEE Netw. (1)

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic engineering in multigranularity heterogeneous optical WDM mesh networks through dynamic traffic grooming," IEEE Netw. 17, 8-15 (2003).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (6)

X. Zhang and C. Qiao, "An effective and comprehensive approach for traffic grooming and wavelength assignment in SONET/WDM rings," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 608-617 (2000).

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, "A novel, generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 285-299 (2003).

G. Mohan, C. S. R. Murthy, and A. K. Somani, "Efficient algorithms for routing dependable connections in WDM optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 553-566 (2001).

R. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, "Fixed-alternate routing and wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 351-367 (2002).

H. Zang, C. Ou, and B. Mukherjee, "Path-protection routing and wavelength-assignment (RWA) in WDM mesh networks under duct-layer constraints," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 248-258 (2003).

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, and G. H. Sasaki, "Cost-effective traffic grooming in WDM rings," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 618-630 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Networks (1)

J. W. Suurballe and R. E. Tarjan, "A quick method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths," Networks 14, 325-336 (1984).

OptiComm 2001 (1)

S. Thiagarajan and A. K. Somani, "Traffic grooming for survivable WDM mesh networks," in Proceedings of OptiComm (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 2001), pp. 54-65.

OSA TOPS Series (2)

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "On-line approaches for provisioning connections of different bandwidth granularities in WDM mesh networks," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. ThW5.

C. Ou, H. Zang, and B. Mukherjee, "Sub-path protection for scalability and fast recovery in optical WDM mesh networks," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. ThO6.

SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. (6)

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architectures and challenges," SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. (March/April 2003), pp. 55-64.

S. Thiagarajan and A. K. Somani, "Capacity fairness of WDM networks with grooming capabilities," SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. (May/June 2001), 24-32.

J. Wang and B. Mukherjee, "Interconnected WDM ring networks: strategies for interconnection and traffic grooming," SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. (September/October 2002), pp. 10-20.

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, L. Sahasrabuddhe, S. J. B. Yoo, and B. Mukherjee, "On the study of routing and wavelength-assignment approaches for survivable wavelength-routed WDM mesh networks," SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. (November/December 2003), pp. 16-29.

G. Ellinas, E. Bouillet, R. Ramamurthy, J. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, and K. Bala, "Routing and restoration architectures in mesh optical networks," SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. (January/February 2003), pp. 91-106.

A. Lardies, R. Gupta, and R. A. Patterson, "Traffic grooming in a multi-layer network," SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. (May/June 2001), pp. 91-99.

Other (1)

R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999).

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