Abstract

We propose a highly scalable optoelectronic switching fabric with a wavelength-division and space-division optical switch architecture and a skew-insensitive frame-by-frame synchronization scheme. The optical switch architecture offers superior scalability, modularity, and transmission quality compared with a conventional space-division optical switch. It can accommodate more than terabit/s capacity and reduce the number of semiconductor optical amplifier gates by a factor of 8 for a 256 × 256 switching fabric. The proposed synchronization scheme automatically compensates for the transmission skews among the packet interfaces and the switching fabric, and with this scheme it is no longer necessary to adjust cable length and transmission delay in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and interconnects across shelves and cabinets. We prove the feasibility of the switching fabric by implementing an actual asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switching node and demonstrate its operational stability, which we call the photonic core node (PCN). The PCN will accommodate not only ATM switching but also wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) optical path grooming and multiplexing as well as Internet Protocol (IP) routing by supplying it with IP packet buffer interfaces, because optical switches are bit-rate and format independent. We believe that this technology will be the key to the installation of future broadband networks.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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IEE Electron. Lett. (1)

O. Ishida, T. Hasegawa, W. Tsurumaki, and K. Iwashita, "Parallel-optical-interconnecting multiwavelength star network (POIMS Net) for high-capacity switching," IEE Electron. Lett. 32, 1804-1806 (1996).

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N × N wavelength multiplexer," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 447-455 (1995).

Special Issue on Photonic Packet Switching Technologies and Systems, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16 (1998); see also Joint Special Issue on Photonics in Switching: Systems and Devices," IEICE Trans. Comm. E82-B (1999).

IEEE Micro (1)

N. McKeown, M. Izzard, A. Mekkittikul, W. Ellersick, and M. Horowitz, "The tiny tera: a packet switch core," IEEE Micro 17(1), 26-33 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Maeno, Y. Suemura, Akio Tajima, and N. Henmi, "A 2.56-Tb/s multiwavelength and scalable switch-fabric for fast packet-switching networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1180-1182 (1998).

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

S. Araki, N. Henmi, Y. Maeno, K. Matsuda, O. Nakakubo, M. Shinohara, Y. Suemura, A. Tajima, H. Takahashi, S. Takahashi, H. Koganemaru, and K. Saisho, "Photonic core node based on a 2.56-Terabit/s opto-electronic switching fabric," IEICE Trans. Commun. E84-B, 1111-1118 (2001).

IEICE Trans. Electron. B (1)

Y. Mitsunaga, Y. Katsuyama, H. Kobayashi, and Y. Ishida, "Life-time design of optical cable strength," IEICE Trans. Electron. B J66-B, 1051-1058 (1983).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Tajima, N. Kitamura, S. Takahashi, S. Kitamura, Y. Maeno, Y. Suemura, and N. Henmi, "10-Gb/s/port gated divider passive combiner optical switch with single-mode to multi-mode combiner," Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 162-165 (1998).

Other (12)

S. Araki, N. Henmi, Y. Maeno, K. Matsuda, K. Saisho, M. Shinohara, Y. Suemura, A. Tajima, H. Takahashi, and S. Takahashi, "Photonic core node based on a 2.56-Terabit/s opto-electronic switching fabric," presented at The XVII World Telecommunications Congress (WTC/ISS2000), Birmingham, UK, 7-12 May 2000.

T. Kato, J. Sasaki, T. Shimoda, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, M. Yamaguchi, M. Kitamura, and M. Itoh, "10Gb/s photonic cell switching with hybrid 4x4 optical matrix switch module on silica based planar waveguide platform," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC'98), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. PD3.1-PD3.4.

I. Ogawa, F. Ebisawa, N. Yoshimoto, K. Takiguchi, F. Hanawa, T. Hashimoto, A. Sugita, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Inoue, Y. Yamada, Y. Tohmori, T. Ito, K. Magari, Y. Kawaguchi, A. Himeno, and K. Kato, "Lossless hybrid integrated 8-ch optical wavelength selector module using PLC Platform and PLC-PLC direct attachment techniques," Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC'98), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. PD4.1-PD4.4.

H. Ishii, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Yoshikuni, "Semiconductor arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG) and its applications," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Pacific Rim) 2001 DIG (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001) pp. I-262-I-263.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1997).

S. Araki, S. Takahashi, Y. Maeno, Y. Suemura, A. Tajima, H. Takahashi, K. Matsuda, T. Tanamuki, S. Dohmae, and N. Henmi, "A 2.56 Tb/s throughput packet/cell-based optical switch-fabric demonstrator," in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC'98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 125-129.

Y. Maeno, Y. Suemura, S. Araki, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, H. Takahashi, and N. Henmi, "A bandwidth-effective terabit/s opto-electronic packet-switch with skew-insensitive synchronisation scheme," in Proceedings of 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC'99) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. I-118-I-119.

A. Tajima, H. Takahashi, S. Araki, and N. Henmi, "A 10-Gb/s optical asynchronous cell/packet receiver with a fast bit-synchronization circuit," Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC'99) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 111-113.

S. Takahashi, T. Kato, H. Takeshita, S. Kitamura, and N. Henmi, "10 Gbps/ch space-division optical cell switching with 8 × 8 gate type switch matrix employing gate turn-on-delay compensator," Technical Digest of Photonics in Switching (PS'96) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 12-15 (1996).

N. Yamanaka, S. Yasukawa, E. Oki, T. Kurimoto, T. Kawamura, and T. Matsumura, "OPTIMA: Tb/s ATM switching system architecture based on highly statistical optical WDM interconnection," in International Switching Symposium (ISS '97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 255-260.

S. Kitamura, H. Hatakeyama, T. Kato, N. Kimura, M. Yamaguchi, and K. Komatsu, "Very-low-operating-current SOA-gate modules for optical matrix switches," in Technical Digest of Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 116-119.

N. Henmi, "Towards Tb/s throughput optical switching network," in Technical Digest of the Third Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC'98) (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1998), pp. 424-425.

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