Abstract

Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) are being designed to deliver multiple services and applications, such as voice communications, standard and high-definition video (STV and HDTV), video conferencing (interactive video), real-time and near-real-time transactions, and data traffic. To support these applications with their diverse requirements, EPONs need to have class-of-service (CoS) mechanisms built in. Here we investigate how the Multipoint Control Protocol (MPCP)—an EPON transmission arbitration mechanism—can be combined with a strict (exhaustive) priority scheduling that is a default scheduling algorithm specified in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.1D standard. Specifically, packet delays for different classes of traffic are analyzed. We find that the queuing delay for lower-priority classes increases when the network load decreases (a phenomenon we call light-load penalty). We also suggest and analyze two different optimization schemes that eliminate the light-load penalty.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. ANSI/IEEE Standard 802.1D, 1998 ed., “IEEE standard for information technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks—Common specifications. Part 3: media access control (MAC) bridges" (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1998), <a href="http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.1D-1998.pdf"> http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.1D-1998.pdf</a>.
  2. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (ePON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photon. Netw. Commun. 3(3), 307–319 (2001).
  3. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. 40(2), 74–80 (2002).
  4. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and A. Maislos, “Ethernet passive optical networks,” in Multiprotocol over DWDM: Building the Next Generation Optical Internets, S. Dixit, ed. (to be published).
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  6. M. S. Taqqu,W.Willinger, and R. Sherman, “Proof of a fundamental result in self-similar traffic modeling,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 27, 5–23 (1997).
  7. K. Claffy, G. Miller, and K. Thompson, “The nature of the beast: recent traffic measurements from an Internet backbone,” in Proceedings of the Internet Society (INET ’98) (Internet Society, 1998), <a href="http://www.isoc.org/isoc/conferences/inet/98/proceedings/">http://www.isoc.org/isoc/conferences/inet/98/proceedings/</a>.
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ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

M. S. Taqqu,W.Willinger, and R. Sherman, “Proof of a fundamental result in self-similar traffic modeling,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 27, 5–23 (1997).

IEEE Commun. (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. 40(2), 74–80 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

J. Diagle and J. Langford, “Models for analysis of packet voice communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 4, 847-855 (1986).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

A. K. Parekh and R. G. Gallager, “A generalized processor sharing approach to flow control in integrated services networks—the single node case,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 12, 344-357 (1993).

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (ePON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photon. Netw. Commun. 3(3), 307–319 (2001).

Other (8)

ANSI/IEEE Standard 802.1D, 1998 ed., “IEEE standard for information technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks—Common specifications. Part 3: media access control (MAC) bridges" (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1998), <a href="http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.1D-1998.pdf"> http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.1D-1998.pdf</a>.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and A. Maislos, “Ethernet passive optical networks,” in Multiprotocol over DWDM: Building the Next Generation Optical Internets, S. Dixit, ed. (to be published).

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, and A. Erramilli, “A bibliographical guide to self-similar traffic and performance modeling for modern high-speed networks,” in Stochastic Networks, F. P. Kelly, S. Zachary, and I. Ziedins, eds. (Oxford University, Oxford, UK, 1996), pp. 339–366.

K. Claffy, G. Miller, and K. Thompson, “The nature of the beast: recent traffic measurements from an Internet backbone,” in Proceedings of the Internet Society (INET ’98) (Internet Society, 1998), <a href="http://www.isoc.org/isoc/conferences/inet/98/proceedings/">http://www.isoc.org/isoc/conferences/inet/98/proceedings/</a>.

D. Sala and A. Gummalla, “PON functional requirements: services and performance,” presented at the IEEE 802.3ah meeting in Portland, Ore., July 2001. Available at <a href="http://www.ieee802.org/3/efm/public/jul01/presentations/sala_1_0701.pdf">http://www.ieee802.org/3/efm/public/jul01/presentations/sala_1_0701.pdf</a>.

M. W. Garrett and W. Willinger, “Analysis, modeling and generation of self-similar VBR video traffic,” Proceedings of the Conference on Communications Architectures, Protocols and Applications (Association for Computing Machinery, 1994), pp. 269–280, <a href="http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/190314.190339">http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/190314.190339</a>.

L. Brakmo, S. O’Malley, and L. Peterson, “TCP Vegas: new techniques for congestion detection and avoidance,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Communications Architectures, Protocols and Applications (Association for Computing Machinery, 1994), pp. 24–35, <a href=" http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/190314.190317">http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/190314.190317</a>.

R. L. Carter and M. E. Crovella, “Measuring bottleneck link speed in packet-switched networks,” TR-96-006 (Department of Computer Science, Boston University, Boston, Mass., March 15, 1996).

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