Abstract

We derive limits on the sensitivity of optical sampling methods for optical performance monitoring, accounting both for the fundamental detection limit and for realistic detector and thermal noise sources during detection. Nonlinear and linear (homodyne) sampling are compared with optoelectronic monitoring techniques.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Park, “Error monitoring for optical metropolitan network services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. (February 2002), pp. 104–109.
  2. I. Shake, E. Otani, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, Y. Yamabayashi, and T. Morioka, “Bit rate flexible quality monitoring of 10 to 160 Gbit/s optical signals based on optical sampling technique,” Electron. Lett. 36, 2087–2088 (2000).
  3. J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, and S. N. Knudsen, “300 Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 987–989 (2001).
  4. S. Kawanishi, T. Yamamoto, M. Nakazawa, and M. M. Fejer, “High sensitivity waveform measurement with optical sampling using quasi-phasematched mixing in LiNbO3 waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 37, 842–844 (2001).
  5. W. Yang, “Sensitivity issues of optical performance monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 107–109 (2002).
  6. J. Shah, “Ultrafast luminescence spectroscopy using sum frequency generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276–288 (1988).
  7. H. Ohta, S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, and Y. Endo, “Measurement of 200 Gbit/s optical eye diagram by optical sampling with gain-switched optical pulse,” Electron. Lett. 36, 737–739 (2000).
  8. C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, and G. Raybon, “Ultra-sensitive optical sampling by coherent linear detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), Postdeadline paper FD5.
  9. S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Tagikuchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, “Wide band AC balanced homodyne detection of coherent pulses,” Opt. Commun. 145, 91–94 (1998).
  10. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1997).
  11. I. Shake, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Quality monitoring of optical signals influenced by chromatic dispersion in a transmission fiber using averaged Q-factor evaluation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 385–387 (2001).
  12. H.-A. Bachor, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1998).
  13. B. C. Thomsen, L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Ultra-sensitive all-optical sampling ultra-sensitive all-optical sampling at 1.5 µm using waveguide two-photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1483–1484 (1999).
  14. L. P. Barry, J. Debeau, and R. Boittin, “Simple technique to improve the spectral quality of gain-switched pulses from a DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 30, 2143–2145 (1994).

Electron. Lett. (5)

I. Shake, E. Otani, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, Y. Yamabayashi, and T. Morioka, “Bit rate flexible quality monitoring of 10 to 160 Gbit/s optical signals based on optical sampling technique,” Electron. Lett. 36, 2087–2088 (2000).

S. Kawanishi, T. Yamamoto, M. Nakazawa, and M. M. Fejer, “High sensitivity waveform measurement with optical sampling using quasi-phasematched mixing in LiNbO3 waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 37, 842–844 (2001).

H. Ohta, S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, and Y. Endo, “Measurement of 200 Gbit/s optical eye diagram by optical sampling with gain-switched optical pulse,” Electron. Lett. 36, 737–739 (2000).

B. C. Thomsen, L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Ultra-sensitive all-optical sampling ultra-sensitive all-optical sampling at 1.5 µm using waveguide two-photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1483–1484 (1999).

L. P. Barry, J. Debeau, and R. Boittin, “Simple technique to improve the spectral quality of gain-switched pulses from a DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 30, 2143–2145 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum (1)

J. Shah, “Ultrafast luminescence spectroscopy using sum frequency generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276–288 (1988).

IEEE Photon. (1)

J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, and S. N. Knudsen, “300 Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 987–989 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

W. Yang, “Sensitivity issues of optical performance monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 107–109 (2002).

I. Shake, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Quality monitoring of optical signals influenced by chromatic dispersion in a transmission fiber using averaged Q-factor evaluation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 385–387 (2001).

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Tagikuchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, “Wide band AC balanced homodyne detection of coherent pulses,” Opt. Commun. 145, 91–94 (1998).

Other (4)

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1997).

H.-A. Bachor, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1998).

E. Park, “Error monitoring for optical metropolitan network services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. (February 2002), pp. 104–109.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, and G. Raybon, “Ultra-sensitive optical sampling by coherent linear detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), Postdeadline paper FD5.

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