Abstract

Spatial division multiplexing (SDM) has been presented as a key solution to circumvent the nonlinear Shannon limit of standard single-core fibers. To implement SDM, multi-core fiber (MCF) technology becomes a top candidate that is leveraged by the very low inter-core crosstalk (XT) measurements obtained in real laboratory MCF prototypes with up to 22 cores. In this work, we concentrate on the design of MCF-enabled optical transport networks. To this goal, we present a methodology to estimate the worst-case transmission reach of the optical signals (at different bit rates and modulation formats) across MCFs given real laboratory XT measurements. Next, we present an optimal integer linear programming (ILP) formulation for the design of a flex-grid/SDM optical transport network that makes use of the transmission reach estimations. Additionally, an effective simulated annealing (SA)-based heuristic able to solve large problem instances with reasonable execution times is presented. Once the proposed heuristic is adequately tuned and validated, we use it to compare the resource utilization in MCF-enabled network scenarios against currently available multi-fiber link solutions. Numerical results reveal very close performances with up to 19 cores/fibers in national backbone network scenarios and up to 12 cores/fibers in long-haul continental ones.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (3)

G. M. Saridis, D. Alexandropoulos, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Survey and evaluation of space division multiplexing: from technologies to optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  17, no. 4, pp. 2136–2156, 2015.
[Crossref]

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, Feb.2015.
[Crossref]

A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, and R. Forchheimer, “Resource allocation for space-division multiplexing: optical white box versus optical black box networking,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  33, no. 23, pp. 4928–4941, Dec.2015.
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. s12–s20, Feb.2012.
[Crossref]

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Analytical expression of average power-coupling coefficients for estimating intercore crosstalk in multicore fibers,” IEEE Photonics J., vol.  4, no. 5, pp. 1987–1995, Oct.2012.
[Crossref]

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “Space division multiplexed transmission of 109-Tb/s data signals using homogeneous seven-core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 4, pp. 658–665, Jan.2012.
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[Crossref]

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug.2011.
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2000 (1)

H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive multiplexing in multimode optical fiber,” Science, vol.  289, no. 5477, 281–283, July2000.

Abe, Y.

Alexandropoulos, D.

G. M. Saridis, D. Alexandropoulos, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Survey and evaluation of space division multiplexing: from technologies to optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  17, no. 4, pp. 2136–2156, 2015.
[Crossref]

Amaya, N.

Amezcua-Correa, R.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

Antonio-Lopez, E.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

Awaji, Y.

Ben Yoo, S. J.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. s12–s20, Feb.2012.
[Crossref]

Benitez, A. V.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

Bergman, K.

Betoule, C.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, Feb.2015.
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

Comellas, J.

Cugini, F.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, Feb.2015.
[Crossref]

Delgado Mendinueta, J.-M.

B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s transmission using a 22 core homogeneous single-mode multi-core fiber and wideband optical comb,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.1.

Ercan, B.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fidler, F.

Fontaine, N. K.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

Forchheimer, R.

A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, and R. Forchheimer, “Resource allocation for space-division multiplexing: optical white box versus optical black box networking,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  33, no. 23, pp. 4928–4941, Dec.2015.
[Crossref]

A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and R. Forchheimer, “Routing, spectrum and core allocation in flexgrid SDM networks with multi-core fibers,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, May2014.

Foschini, G. J.

Gené, J. M.

J. Perelló, J. M. Gené, J. Lazaro, A. Pages, and S. Spadaro, “Assessment of flex-grid/SDM backbone networks under inter-core XT-limited transmission reach,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching (PS), Sept.2015.

Gerstel, O.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, Feb.2015.
[Crossref]

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. s12–s20, Feb.2012.
[Crossref]

Goebel, B.

Grüner-Nielsen, L. E.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

Guan, B.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

Hayashi, T.

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “Space division multiplexed transmission of 109-Tb/s data signals using homogeneous seven-core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 4, pp. 658–665, Jan.2012.
[Crossref]

B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s transmission using a 22 core homogeneous single-mode multi-core fiber and wideband optical comb,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.1.

Henning, I.

Hirano, M.

B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s transmission using a 22 core homogeneous single-mode multi-core fiber and wideband optical comb,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.1.

Hirano, S.

T. Mizuochi, T. Sugihara, Y. Miyata, K. Kubo, K. Onohara, S. Hirano, H. Yoshida, T. Yoshida, and T. Ichikawa, “Evolution and status of forward error correction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar.4–8, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Hugues-Salas, E.

A. Peters, E. Hugues-Salas, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Measuring flexibility and design trade-offs of N × M SSS-based ROADMs and BVTs,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Mar.2015, paper W3J.5.

Ichikawa, T.

T. Mizuochi, T. Sugihara, Y. Miyata, K. Kubo, K. Onohara, S. Hirano, H. Yoshida, T. Yoshida, and T. Ichikawa, “Evolution and status of forward error correction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar.4–8, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Igarashi, K.

D. Soma, K. Igarashi, Y. Wakayama, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Yoshikane, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “2.05 Peta-bit/s super-nyquist-WDM SDM transmission using 9.8-km 6-mode 19-core fiber in full C band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.2.

Imamura, K.

Irfan, M.

Ishida, I.

Jensen, R. V.

Jinno, M.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, Feb.2015.
[Crossref]

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. s12–s20, Feb.2012.
[Crossref]

Kanno, A.

Kawaguchi, Y.

D. Soma, K. Igarashi, Y. Wakayama, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Yoshikane, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “2.05 Peta-bit/s super-nyquist-WDM SDM transmission using 9.8-km 6-mode 19-core fiber in full C band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.2.

Kawakami, H.

Kawanishi, T.

Kishikawa, H.

Klaus, W.

Klinkowski, M.

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug.2011.
[Crossref]

Klonidis, D.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, Feb.2015.
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

Koshiba, M.

Kramer, G.

Kubo, K.

T. Mizuochi, T. Sugihara, Y. Miyata, K. Kubo, K. Onohara, S. Hirano, H. Yoshida, T. Yoshida, and T. Ichikawa, “Evolution and status of forward error correction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar.4–8, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Lazaro, J.

J. Perelló, J. M. Gené, J. Lazaro, A. Pages, and S. Spadaro, “Assessment of flex-grid/SDM backbone networks under inter-core XT-limited transmission reach,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching (PS), Sept.2015.

Lingle, R.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

Lopez, V.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, Feb.2015.
[Crossref]

Lord, A.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. s12–s20, Feb.2012.
[Crossref]

Luís, R. S.

B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s transmission using a 22 core homogeneous single-mode multi-core fiber and wideband optical comb,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.1.

Maeda, K.

Marciante, J.

B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s transmission using a 22 core homogeneous single-mode multi-core fiber and wideband optical comb,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.1.

Masuda, H.

Matsuo, S.

Mendinueta, J. M. D.

Miyamoto, Y.

Miyata, Y.

T. Mizuochi, T. Sugihara, Y. Miyata, K. Kubo, K. Onohara, S. Hirano, H. Yoshida, T. Yoshida, and T. Ichikawa, “Evolution and status of forward error correction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar.4–8, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Miyazawa, T.

Mizuochi, T.

T. Mizuochi, T. Sugihara, Y. Miyata, K. Kubo, K. Onohara, S. Hirano, H. Yoshida, T. Yoshida, and T. Ichikawa, “Evolution and status of forward error correction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar.4–8, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Mori, T.

Morioka, T.

Morita, I.

D. Soma, K. Igarashi, Y. Wakayama, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Yoshikane, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “2.05 Peta-bit/s super-nyquist-WDM SDM transmission using 9.8-km 6-mode 19-core fiber in full C band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.2.

Muhammad, A.

A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, and R. Forchheimer, “Resource allocation for space-division multiplexing: optical white box versus optical black box networking,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  33, no. 23, pp. 4928–4941, Dec.2015.
[Crossref]

A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and R. Forchheimer, “Routing, spectrum and core allocation in flexgrid SDM networks with multi-core fibers,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, May2014.

Nagatani, M.

Nakagawa, T.

Nejabati, R.

Ono, H.

Onohara, K.

T. Mizuochi, T. Sugihara, Y. Miyata, K. Kubo, K. Onohara, S. Hirano, H. Yoshida, T. Yoshida, and T. Ichikawa, “Evolution and status of forward error correction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar.4–8, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Pages, A.

J. Perelló, J. M. Gené, J. Lazaro, A. Pages, and S. Spadaro, “Assessment of flex-grid/SDM backbone networks under inter-core XT-limited transmission reach,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching (PS), Sept.2015.

Pagès, A.

Palkopoulou, E.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, Feb.2015.
[Crossref]

Perelló, J.

A. Pagès, J. Perelló, S. Spadaro, and J. Comellas, “Optimal route, spectrum, and modulation level assignment in split-spectrum-enabled dynamic elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 114–126, Feb.2014.
[Crossref]

J. Perelló, J. M. Gené, J. Lazaro, A. Pages, and S. Spadaro, “Assessment of flex-grid/SDM backbone networks under inter-core XT-limited transmission reach,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching (PS), Sept.2015.

Peters, A.

A. Peters, E. Hugues-Salas, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Measuring flexibility and design trade-offs of N × M SSS-based ROADMs and BVTs,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Mar.2015, paper W3J.5.

Puttnam, B. J.

Ryf, R.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

Saitoh, K.

Sakaguchi, J.

Sano, A.

Saridis, G. M.

G. M. Saridis, D. Alexandropoulos, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Survey and evaluation of space division multiplexing: from technologies to optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  17, no. 4, pp. 2136–2156, 2015.
[Crossref]

Sasaki, Y.

Scott, R.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

Sekiya, M.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, Feb.2015.
[Crossref]

Shikama, K.

Simeonidou, D.

G. M. Saridis, D. Alexandropoulos, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Survey and evaluation of space division multiplexing: from technologies to optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  17, no. 4, pp. 2136–2156, 2015.
[Crossref]

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning, “Fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 8865–8872, 2013.
[Crossref]

A. Peters, E. Hugues-Salas, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Measuring flexibility and design trade-offs of N × M SSS-based ROADMs and BVTs,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Mar.2015, paper W3J.5.

A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and R. Forchheimer, “Routing, spectrum and core allocation in flexgrid SDM networks with multi-core fibers,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, May2014.

Siracusa, D.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, Feb.2015.
[Crossref]

Soma, D.

D. Soma, K. Igarashi, Y. Wakayama, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Yoshikane, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “2.05 Peta-bit/s super-nyquist-WDM SDM transmission using 9.8-km 6-mode 19-core fiber in full C band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.2.

Spadaro, S.

A. Pagès, J. Perelló, S. Spadaro, and J. Comellas, “Optimal route, spectrum, and modulation level assignment in split-spectrum-enabled dynamic elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 114–126, Feb.2014.
[Crossref]

J. Perelló, J. M. Gené, J. Lazaro, A. Pages, and S. Spadaro, “Assessment of flex-grid/SDM backbone networks under inter-core XT-limited transmission reach,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching (PS), Sept.2015.

Stuart, H. R.

H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive multiplexing in multimode optical fiber,” Science, vol.  289, no. 5477, 281–283, July2000.

Sugihara, T.

T. Mizuochi, T. Sugihara, Y. Miyata, K. Kubo, K. Onohara, S. Hirano, H. Yoshida, T. Yoshida, and T. Ichikawa, “Evolution and status of forward error correction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar.4–8, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Sugizaki, R.

Sun, Y.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

Suzuki, M.

D. Soma, K. Igarashi, Y. Wakayama, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Yoshikane, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “2.05 Peta-bit/s super-nyquist-WDM SDM transmission using 9.8-km 6-mode 19-core fiber in full C band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.2.

Tadakuma, M.

Takara, H.

Takenaga, K.

Takeshima, K.

D. Soma, K. Igarashi, Y. Wakayama, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Yoshikane, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “2.05 Peta-bit/s super-nyquist-WDM SDM transmission using 9.8-km 6-mode 19-core fiber in full C band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.2.

Talbi, E.-G.

E.-G. Talbi, Metaheuristics: From Design to Implementation (Wiley, 2009).

Tamura, Y.

B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s transmission using a 22 core homogeneous single-mode multi-core fiber and wideband optical comb,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.1.

Taru, T.

Thottan, M. K.

Thouénon, G.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, Feb.2015.
[Crossref]

Tomkos, I.

Tottori, Y.

Tsuchida, Y.

Tsuritani, T.

D. Soma, K. Igarashi, Y. Wakayama, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Yoshikane, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “2.05 Peta-bit/s super-nyquist-WDM SDM transmission using 9.8-km 6-mode 19-core fiber in full C band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.2.

Tu, J.

Varvarigos, E.

Wada, N.

Wakayama, Y.

D. Soma, K. Igarashi, Y. Wakayama, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Yoshikane, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “2.05 Peta-bit/s super-nyquist-WDM SDM transmission using 9.8-km 6-mode 19-core fiber in full C band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.2.

Walkowiak, K.

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug.2011.
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

Winzer, P. J.

Yamada, M.

Ye, F.

Yoo, S. J. B.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

Yoshida, H.

T. Mizuochi, T. Sugihara, Y. Miyata, K. Kubo, K. Onohara, S. Hirano, H. Yoshida, T. Yoshida, and T. Ichikawa, “Evolution and status of forward error correction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar.4–8, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Yoshida, T.

T. Mizuochi, T. Sugihara, Y. Miyata, K. Kubo, K. Onohara, S. Hirano, H. Yoshida, T. Yoshida, and T. Ichikawa, “Evolution and status of forward error correction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar.4–8, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Yoshikane, N.

D. Soma, K. Igarashi, Y. Wakayama, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Yoshikane, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “2.05 Peta-bit/s super-nyquist-WDM SDM transmission using 9.8-km 6-mode 19-core fiber in full C band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.2.

Zervas, G.

G. M. Saridis, D. Alexandropoulos, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Survey and evaluation of space division multiplexing: from technologies to optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  17, no. 4, pp. 2136–2156, 2015.
[Crossref]

A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, and R. Forchheimer, “Resource allocation for space-division multiplexing: optical white box versus optical black box networking,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  33, no. 23, pp. 4928–4941, Dec.2015.
[Crossref]

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning, “Fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 8865–8872, 2013.
[Crossref]

A. Peters, E. Hugues-Salas, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Measuring flexibility and design trade-offs of N × M SSS-based ROADMs and BVTs,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Mar.2015, paper W3J.5.

A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and R. Forchheimer, “Routing, spectrum and core allocation in flexgrid SDM networks with multi-core fibers,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, May2014.

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

P. J. Winzer, “Spatial multiplexing in fiber optics: the 10× scaling of metro/core capacities,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  19, pp. 22–30, Sept.2014.
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug.2011.
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, Feb.2015.
[Crossref]

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. s12–s20, Feb.2012.
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

G. M. Saridis, D. Alexandropoulos, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Survey and evaluation of space division multiplexing: from technologies to optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  17, no. 4, pp. 2136–2156, 2015.
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Analytical expression of average power-coupling coefficients for estimating intercore crosstalk in multicore fibers,” IEEE Photonics J., vol.  4, no. 5, pp. 1987–1995, Oct.2012.
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

P. J. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics, vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 345–348, Aug.2014.
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Science (1)

H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive multiplexing in multimode optical fiber,” Science, vol.  289, no. 5477, 281–283, July2000.

Other (10)

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30 × 30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Post Deadline Papers, Mar.2015, paper Th5C.1.

B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s transmission using a 22 core homogeneous single-mode multi-core fiber and wideband optical comb,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.1.

D. Soma, K. Igarashi, Y. Wakayama, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Yoshikane, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “2.05 Peta-bit/s super-nyquist-WDM SDM transmission using 9.8-km 6-mode 19-core fiber in full C band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper PDP.3.2.

I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Eds., “Advances in tb/s superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunication, 6th ed. Boston, MA: Academic, 2013, ch. 3, pp. 83–119.

A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and R. Forchheimer, “Routing, spectrum and core allocation in flexgrid SDM networks with multi-core fibers,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, May2014.

T. Mizuochi, T. Sugihara, Y. Miyata, K. Kubo, K. Onohara, S. Hirano, H. Yoshida, T. Yoshida, and T. Ichikawa, “Evolution and status of forward error correction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar.4–8, 2012, pp. 1–3.

E.-G. Talbi, Metaheuristics: From Design to Implementation (Wiley, 2009).

J. Perelló, J. M. Gené, J. Lazaro, A. Pages, and S. Spadaro, “Assessment of flex-grid/SDM backbone networks under inter-core XT-limited transmission reach,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching (PS), Sept.2015.

“Spectral grids for WDM applications: DWDM frequency grid,” , Feb.2012.

A. Peters, E. Hugues-Salas, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Measuring flexibility and design trade-offs of N × M SSS-based ROADMs and BVTs,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Mar.2015, paper W3J.5.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. SA-RMCSA heuristic pseudo-code.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. C-RMCSA greedy heuristic pseudo-code.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Network topologies used. Link distances are shown in km.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Total number of FSs allocated in the 6-node TEST network along the SA iterations. The initial and final | S | values are shown.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (Top) Number of FSs used and (bottom) total number of FSs allocated in a MCF/MF-enabled EON network with 7, 12, and 19 cores/fibers.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (Top) Number of FSs used and (bottom) total number of FSs allocated in a MCF/MF-enabled DT network with 7, 12, and 19 cores/fibers.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Number of TXPs used at 40, 100, and 400 Gb/s in the EON with (top) 19-core MCFs and (bottom) 19 fibers per MF link. Scenarios with demands following TP-1 and TP-2 are shown.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Number of TXPs used at 40, 100, and 400 Gb/s in the DT with (top) 19-core MCFs and (bottom) 19 fibers per MF link. Scenarios with demands following TP-1 and TP-2 are shown.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (Top) Number of FSs used and (bottom) total number of FSs allocated in the MCF/MF-enabled EON network with 19 cores/fibers for different values of K { 1 , , 6 } .

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Theoretical SNR min at BER of 10 2 [1]

Tables Icon

TABLE II Worst Aggregate Inter-Core XT

Tables Icon

TABLE III In-Band XT Values for 1 dB Penalty [2]

Tables Icon

TABLE IV Transmission Reach (in km)

Tables Icon

TABLE V Number of Decision Variables and Constraints

Tables Icon

TABLE VI SA-RMCSA Performance Validation

Tables Icon

TABLE VII SA-RMCSA Improvement Over C-RMCSA

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L max , SNR = P S · L span SNR min · h · f · G · N F · R S ,
L max , XT = 10 XT dB , max XT dB , 1 km 10    [ km ] ,
minimize    F = s S z s + ϵ d D l L d h l S l x d , l ,
l L d x d , l = 1 ,    d D ,
d D l L d e L d s x d , l | C | · y e , s ,       e E , s S ,
e E y e , s | E | · z s ,       s S .