Abstract

Optical slot switching has formerly been proposed as a flexible solution for metropolitan ring networks to carry data traffic with a subwavelength switching granularity and with good energy efficiency, which is enabled by optical transparency. In this paper, we propose for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, several architectures for the electronic side of optical slot switching nodes to increase flexibility through the addition of electronic switches, working either at client packet granularity or at slot granularity. Such electronic switches can be located at either the transmitter side or receiver side, or at both sides of a node, thereby decreasing traffic latency, at the expense of increased node cost and/or energy consumption. This paper focuses on the latency aspect. We investigate the impact of a timer that can be used to upper bound the slot insertion time on the medium. We also propose a novel client packet queuing model in an optical slot switching ring and assess and compare the latency of these node architectures analytically and with simulations.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Korotky, “Traffic trends: Drivers and measures of cost-effective and energy-efficient technologies and architectures for backbone optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2012, paper OM2G.1.
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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multidomain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 6, pp. 138–144, June 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. C. Yuang, I. Chao, B. C. Lo, P. L. Tien, J. J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. M. Lin, S. S. W. Lee, and C. Y. Chien, “HOPSMAN: An experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb/s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Deng, S. Cao, T. Ma, X. Shi, X. Luo, S. Shen, and Q. Xiong, “A novel optical burst ring network with optical-layer aggregation and flexible bandwidth provisioning,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper O.Th.R.5.
  6. Y. Pointurier, B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, and J.-C. Antona, “Dimensioning and energy efficiency of multi-rate metro networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 22, pp. 3552–3564, Nov. 2012.
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  9. B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, D. Barth, M. Morvan, and P. Castoldi, “Optimal dimensioning of the WDM unidirectional ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 254–265, July 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Bonald, S. Oueslati, J. Roberts, and C. Roger, “SWING: Traffic capacity of a simple WDM ring network,” in Proc. ITC 21, 2009.
  11. M. A. Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, A. Morabito, and F. Neri, “All-optical WDM multi-rings with differentiated QoS,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 58–66, Feb. 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Hacimeroglu and T. Atmaca, “Impacts of packet filling in an optical burst switching architecture,” in Proc. IEEE AICT, 2005, pp. 103–108.
  13. H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, J. Angelopoulos, I. Pountourakis, and T. Orphanoudakis, “Efficient burst aggregation for QoS-aware slotted OBS systems,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 93–98, Jan. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Pantaleo, M. Tornatore, A. Pattavina, C. Raffaelli, and F. Callegati, “Dynamic service differentiation in OBS networks,” in Proc. Broadnets, 2007, pp. 37–39.
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  17. T. Eido, D. T. Nguyen, and T. Atmaca, “Packet filling optimization in multiservice slotted optical burst switching MAN networks,” in Proc. IEEE AICT, 2008, pp. 221–226.
  18. B. Ušćumlić, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, M. Morvan, and I. Cerutti, “Network planning and traffic engineering in ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” in Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR), Nov. 2011, pp. 808–815.
  19. S. Bradner and J. McQuaid, “Benchmarking methodology for network interconnect devices,” , Mar. 1999 [Online]. Available: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2544.txt .
  20. W. C. Chan, T. C. Lu, and R. J. Chen, “Pollaczek-Khinchin formula for the M/G/1 queue in discrete time with vacations,” IEE Proc. Comput. Digit. Tech., vol.  144, pp. 222–226, July 1997.
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  21. J. H. R. Sinha and C. Papadopoulos, “Internet packet size distributions: Some observations,” , May 2007.

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, D. Barth, M. Morvan, and P. Castoldi, “Optimal dimensioning of the WDM unidirectional ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 254–265, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

D. Chiaroni, G. Buforn Santamaria, C. Simonneau, S. Etienne, J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J. Simsarian, “Packet OADMs for the next generation of ring networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 265–283, Winter 2010.
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multidomain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 6, pp. 138–144, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Yuang, I. Chao, B. C. Lo, P. L. Tien, J. J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. M. Lin, S. S. W. Lee, and C. Y. Chien, “HOPSMAN: An experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb/s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, J. Angelopoulos, I. Pountourakis, and T. Orphanoudakis, “Efficient burst aggregation for QoS-aware slotted OBS systems,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 93–98, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Simsarian and L. Zhang, “Wavelength locking a fast-switching tunable laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 7, pp. 1745–1747, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. A. Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, A. Morabito, and F. Neri, “All-optical WDM multi-rings with differentiated QoS,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 58–66, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. C. Chan, T. C. Lu, and R. J. Chen, “Pollaczek-Khinchin formula for the M/G/1 queue in discrete time with vacations,” IEE Proc. Comput. Digit. Tech., vol.  144, pp. 222–226, July 1997.
[CrossRef]

Angelopoulos, J.

H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, J. Angelopoulos, I. Pountourakis, and T. Orphanoudakis, “Efficient burst aggregation for QoS-aware slotted OBS systems,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 93–98, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Angelopoulos, J. D.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multidomain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 6, pp. 138–144, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Antona, J.-C.

Y. Pointurier, B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, and J.-C. Antona, “Dimensioning and energy efficiency of multi-rate metro networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 22, pp. 3552–3564, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

D. Chiaroni, G. Buforn Santamaria, C. Simonneau, S. Etienne, J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J. Simsarian, “Packet OADMs for the next generation of ring networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 265–283, Winter 2010.
[CrossRef]

Atmaca, T.

F. Hacimeroglu and T. Atmaca, “Impacts of packet filling in an optical burst switching architecture,” in Proc. IEEE AICT, 2005, pp. 103–108.

T. Eido, D. T. Nguyen, and T. Atmaca, “Packet filling optimization in multiservice slotted optical burst switching MAN networks,” in Proc. IEEE AICT, 2008, pp. 221–226.

Barth, D.

B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, D. Barth, M. Morvan, and P. Castoldi, “Optimal dimensioning of the WDM unidirectional ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 254–265, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Bianco, A.

M. A. Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, A. Morabito, and F. Neri, “All-optical WDM multi-rings with differentiated QoS,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 58–66, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Bigo, S.

D. Chiaroni, G. Buforn Santamaria, C. Simonneau, S. Etienne, J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J. Simsarian, “Packet OADMs for the next generation of ring networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 265–283, Winter 2010.
[CrossRef]

Bonald, T.

T. Bonald, S. Oueslati, J. Roberts, and C. Roger, “SWING: Traffic capacity of a simple WDM ring network,” in Proc. ITC 21, 2009.

Bradner, S.

S. Bradner and J. McQuaid, “Benchmarking methodology for network interconnect devices,” , Mar. 1999 [Online]. Available: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2544.txt .

Buforn Santamaria, G.

D. Chiaroni, G. Buforn Santamaria, C. Simonneau, S. Etienne, J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J. Simsarian, “Packet OADMs for the next generation of ring networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 265–283, Winter 2010.
[CrossRef]

Callegati, F.

A. Pantaleo, M. Tornatore, A. Pattavina, C. Raffaelli, and F. Callegati, “Dynamic service differentiation in OBS networks,” in Proc. Broadnets, 2007, pp. 37–39.

Cao, S.

N. Deng, S. Cao, T. Ma, X. Shi, X. Luo, S. Shen, and Q. Xiong, “A novel optical burst ring network with optical-layer aggregation and flexible bandwidth provisioning,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper O.Th.R.5.

Castoldi, P.

B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, D. Barth, M. Morvan, and P. Castoldi, “Optimal dimensioning of the WDM unidirectional ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 254–265, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Cerutti, I.

Y. Pointurier, B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, and J.-C. Antona, “Dimensioning and energy efficiency of multi-rate metro networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 22, pp. 3552–3564, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, D. Barth, M. Morvan, and P. Castoldi, “Optimal dimensioning of the WDM unidirectional ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 254–265, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Ušćumlić, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, and I. Cerutti, “Traffic grooming in WDM optical packet rings,” in Proc. ITC 21, 2009.

B. Ušćumlić, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, M. Morvan, and I. Cerutti, “Network planning and traffic engineering in ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” in Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR), Nov. 2011, pp. 808–815.

Chan, W. C.

W. C. Chan, T. C. Lu, and R. J. Chen, “Pollaczek-Khinchin formula for the M/G/1 queue in discrete time with vacations,” IEE Proc. Comput. Digit. Tech., vol.  144, pp. 222–226, July 1997.
[CrossRef]

Chao, I.

M. C. Yuang, I. Chao, B. C. Lo, P. L. Tien, J. J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. M. Lin, S. S. W. Lee, and C. Y. Chien, “HOPSMAN: An experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb/s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. J.

M. C. Yuang, I. Chao, B. C. Lo, P. L. Tien, J. J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. M. Lin, S. S. W. Lee, and C. Y. Chien, “HOPSMAN: An experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb/s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. J.

W. C. Chan, T. C. Lu, and R. J. Chen, “Pollaczek-Khinchin formula for the M/G/1 queue in discrete time with vacations,” IEE Proc. Comput. Digit. Tech., vol.  144, pp. 222–226, July 1997.
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

X. Yu, Y. Chen, and C. Qiao, “Performance evaluation of optical burst switching with assembled burst traffic input,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Nov. 2002, pp. 2318–2322.

Chiaroni, D.

D. Chiaroni, G. Buforn Santamaria, C. Simonneau, S. Etienne, J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J. Simsarian, “Packet OADMs for the next generation of ring networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 265–283, Winter 2010.
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. Y.

M. C. Yuang, I. Chao, B. C. Lo, P. L. Tien, J. J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. M. Lin, S. S. W. Lee, and C. Y. Chien, “HOPSMAN: An experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb/s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Deng, N.

N. Deng, S. Cao, T. Ma, X. Shi, X. Luo, S. Shen, and Q. Xiong, “A novel optical burst ring network with optical-layer aggregation and flexible bandwidth provisioning,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper O.Th.R.5.

Drakos, A.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multidomain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 6, pp. 138–144, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Eido, T.

T. Eido, D. T. Nguyen, and T. Atmaca, “Packet filling optimization in multiservice slotted optical burst switching MAN networks,” in Proc. IEEE AICT, 2008, pp. 221–226.

Etienne, S.

D. Chiaroni, G. Buforn Santamaria, C. Simonneau, S. Etienne, J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J. Simsarian, “Packet OADMs for the next generation of ring networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 265–283, Winter 2010.
[CrossRef]

Gravey, A.

Y. Pointurier, B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, and J.-C. Antona, “Dimensioning and energy efficiency of multi-rate metro networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 22, pp. 3552–3564, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, D. Barth, M. Morvan, and P. Castoldi, “Optimal dimensioning of the WDM unidirectional ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 254–265, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Ušćumlić, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, and I. Cerutti, “Traffic grooming in WDM optical packet rings,” in Proc. ITC 21, 2009.

B. Ušćumlić, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, M. Morvan, and I. Cerutti, “Network planning and traffic engineering in ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” in Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR), Nov. 2011, pp. 808–815.

Gravey, P.

B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, D. Barth, M. Morvan, and P. Castoldi, “Optimal dimensioning of the WDM unidirectional ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 254–265, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Ušćumlić, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, and I. Cerutti, “Traffic grooming in WDM optical packet rings,” in Proc. ITC 21, 2009.

B. Ušćumlić, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, M. Morvan, and I. Cerutti, “Network planning and traffic engineering in ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” in Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR), Nov. 2011, pp. 808–815.

Hacimeroglu, F.

F. Hacimeroglu and T. Atmaca, “Impacts of packet filling in an optical burst switching architecture,” in Proc. IEEE AICT, 2005, pp. 103–108.

Haridoss, K.

V. M. Vokkarane, K. Haridoss, and J. P. Jue, “Threshold-based burst assembly policies for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” in Proc. OptiComm, 2002, pp. 125–136.

Jue, J. P.

V. M. Vokkarane, K. Haridoss, and J. P. Jue, “Threshold-based burst assembly policies for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” in Proc. OptiComm, 2002, pp. 125–136.

Kanonakis, K.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multidomain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 6, pp. 138–144, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, J. Angelopoulos, I. Pountourakis, and T. Orphanoudakis, “Efficient burst aggregation for QoS-aware slotted OBS systems,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 93–98, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Korotky, S.

S. Korotky, “Traffic trends: Drivers and measures of cost-effective and energy-efficient technologies and architectures for backbone optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2012, paper OM2G.1.

Lee, S. S. W.

M. C. Yuang, I. Chao, B. C. Lo, P. L. Tien, J. J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. M. Lin, S. S. W. Lee, and C. Y. Chien, “HOPSMAN: An experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb/s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Leligou, H. C.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multidomain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 6, pp. 138–144, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, J. Angelopoulos, I. Pountourakis, and T. Orphanoudakis, “Efficient burst aggregation for QoS-aware slotted OBS systems,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 93–98, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Leonardi, E.

M. A. Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, A. Morabito, and F. Neri, “All-optical WDM multi-rings with differentiated QoS,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 58–66, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. M.

M. C. Yuang, I. Chao, B. C. Lo, P. L. Tien, J. J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. M. Lin, S. S. W. Lee, and C. Y. Chien, “HOPSMAN: An experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb/s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Lo, B. C.

M. C. Yuang, I. Chao, B. C. Lo, P. L. Tien, J. J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. M. Lin, S. S. W. Lee, and C. Y. Chien, “HOPSMAN: An experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb/s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Lord, A.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multidomain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 6, pp. 138–144, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

W. C. Chan, T. C. Lu, and R. J. Chen, “Pollaczek-Khinchin formula for the M/G/1 queue in discrete time with vacations,” IEE Proc. Comput. Digit. Tech., vol.  144, pp. 222–226, July 1997.
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

N. Deng, S. Cao, T. Ma, X. Shi, X. Luo, S. Shen, and Q. Xiong, “A novel optical burst ring network with optical-layer aggregation and flexible bandwidth provisioning,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper O.Th.R.5.

Ma, T.

N. Deng, S. Cao, T. Ma, X. Shi, X. Luo, S. Shen, and Q. Xiong, “A novel optical burst ring network with optical-layer aggregation and flexible bandwidth provisioning,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper O.Th.R.5.

Marsan, M. A.

M. A. Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, A. Morabito, and F. Neri, “All-optical WDM multi-rings with differentiated QoS,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 58–66, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Matrakidis, C.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multidomain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 6, pp. 138–144, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

McQuaid, J.

S. Bradner and J. McQuaid, “Benchmarking methodology for network interconnect devices,” , Mar. 1999 [Online]. Available: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2544.txt .

Morabito, A.

M. A. Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, A. Morabito, and F. Neri, “All-optical WDM multi-rings with differentiated QoS,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 58–66, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Morvan, M.

B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, D. Barth, M. Morvan, and P. Castoldi, “Optimal dimensioning of the WDM unidirectional ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 254–265, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Ušćumlić, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, M. Morvan, and I. Cerutti, “Network planning and traffic engineering in ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” in Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR), Nov. 2011, pp. 808–815.

Neri, F.

M. A. Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, A. Morabito, and F. Neri, “All-optical WDM multi-rings with differentiated QoS,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 58–66, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. T.

T. Eido, D. T. Nguyen, and T. Atmaca, “Packet filling optimization in multiservice slotted optical burst switching MAN networks,” in Proc. IEEE AICT, 2008, pp. 221–226.

Orphanoudakis, T.

H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, J. Angelopoulos, I. Pountourakis, and T. Orphanoudakis, “Efficient burst aggregation for QoS-aware slotted OBS systems,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 93–98, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Orphanoudakis, T. G.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multidomain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 6, pp. 138–144, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Oueslati, S.

T. Bonald, S. Oueslati, J. Roberts, and C. Roger, “SWING: Traffic capacity of a simple WDM ring network,” in Proc. ITC 21, 2009.

Pantaleo, A.

A. Pantaleo, M. Tornatore, A. Pattavina, C. Raffaelli, and F. Callegati, “Dynamic service differentiation in OBS networks,” in Proc. Broadnets, 2007, pp. 37–39.

Papadopoulos, C.

J. H. R. Sinha and C. Papadopoulos, “Internet packet size distributions: Some observations,” , May 2007.

Pattavina, A.

A. Pantaleo, M. Tornatore, A. Pattavina, C. Raffaelli, and F. Callegati, “Dynamic service differentiation in OBS networks,” in Proc. Broadnets, 2007, pp. 37–39.

Pointurier, Y.

Pountourakis, I.

H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, J. Angelopoulos, I. Pountourakis, and T. Orphanoudakis, “Efficient burst aggregation for QoS-aware slotted OBS systems,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 93–98, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Qiao, C.

X. Yu, Y. Chen, and C. Qiao, “Performance evaluation of optical burst switching with assembled burst traffic input,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Nov. 2002, pp. 2318–2322.

Raffaelli, C.

A. Pantaleo, M. Tornatore, A. Pattavina, C. Raffaelli, and F. Callegati, “Dynamic service differentiation in OBS networks,” in Proc. Broadnets, 2007, pp. 37–39.

Roberts, J.

T. Bonald, S. Oueslati, J. Roberts, and C. Roger, “SWING: Traffic capacity of a simple WDM ring network,” in Proc. ITC 21, 2009.

Roger, C.

T. Bonald, S. Oueslati, J. Roberts, and C. Roger, “SWING: Traffic capacity of a simple WDM ring network,” in Proc. ITC 21, 2009.

Shen, S.

N. Deng, S. Cao, T. Ma, X. Shi, X. Luo, S. Shen, and Q. Xiong, “A novel optical burst ring network with optical-layer aggregation and flexible bandwidth provisioning,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper O.Th.R.5.

Shi, X.

N. Deng, S. Cao, T. Ma, X. Shi, X. Luo, S. Shen, and Q. Xiong, “A novel optical burst ring network with optical-layer aggregation and flexible bandwidth provisioning,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper O.Th.R.5.

Simonneau, C.

D. Chiaroni, G. Buforn Santamaria, C. Simonneau, S. Etienne, J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J. Simsarian, “Packet OADMs for the next generation of ring networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 265–283, Winter 2010.
[CrossRef]

Simsarian, J.

D. Chiaroni, G. Buforn Santamaria, C. Simonneau, S. Etienne, J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J. Simsarian, “Packet OADMs for the next generation of ring networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 265–283, Winter 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Simsarian and L. Zhang, “Wavelength locking a fast-switching tunable laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 7, pp. 1745–1747, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Sinha, J. H. R.

J. H. R. Sinha and C. Papadopoulos, “Internet packet size distributions: Some observations,” , May 2007.

Stavdas, A.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multidomain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 6, pp. 138–144, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. L.

M. C. Yuang, I. Chao, B. C. Lo, P. L. Tien, J. J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. M. Lin, S. S. W. Lee, and C. Y. Chien, “HOPSMAN: An experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb/s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Tornatore, M.

A. Pantaleo, M. Tornatore, A. Pattavina, C. Raffaelli, and F. Callegati, “Dynamic service differentiation in OBS networks,” in Proc. Broadnets, 2007, pp. 37–39.

Ušcumlic, B.

Y. Pointurier, B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, and J.-C. Antona, “Dimensioning and energy efficiency of multi-rate metro networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 22, pp. 3552–3564, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, D. Barth, M. Morvan, and P. Castoldi, “Optimal dimensioning of the WDM unidirectional ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 254–265, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Ušćumlić, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, and I. Cerutti, “Traffic grooming in WDM optical packet rings,” in Proc. ITC 21, 2009.

B. Ušćumlić, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, M. Morvan, and I. Cerutti, “Network planning and traffic engineering in ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” in Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR), Nov. 2011, pp. 808–815.

Vokkarane, V. M.

V. M. Vokkarane, K. Haridoss, and J. P. Jue, “Threshold-based burst assembly policies for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” in Proc. OptiComm, 2002, pp. 125–136.

Wei, C.

M. C. Yuang, I. Chao, B. C. Lo, P. L. Tien, J. J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. M. Lin, S. S. W. Lee, and C. Y. Chien, “HOPSMAN: An experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb/s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Q.

N. Deng, S. Cao, T. Ma, X. Shi, X. Luo, S. Shen, and Q. Xiong, “A novel optical burst ring network with optical-layer aggregation and flexible bandwidth provisioning,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper O.Th.R.5.

Yu, X.

X. Yu, Y. Chen, and C. Qiao, “Performance evaluation of optical burst switching with assembled burst traffic input,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Nov. 2002, pp. 2318–2322.

Yuang, M. C.

M. C. Yuang, I. Chao, B. C. Lo, P. L. Tien, J. J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. M. Lin, S. S. W. Lee, and C. Y. Chien, “HOPSMAN: An experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb/s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

J. Simsarian and L. Zhang, “Wavelength locking a fast-switching tunable laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 7, pp. 1745–1747, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

D. Chiaroni, G. Buforn Santamaria, C. Simonneau, S. Etienne, J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J. Simsarian, “Packet OADMs for the next generation of ring networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 265–283, Winter 2010.
[CrossRef]

Eur. Trans. Telecommun. (1)

H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, J. Angelopoulos, I. Pountourakis, and T. Orphanoudakis, “Efficient burst aggregation for QoS-aware slotted OBS systems,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 93–98, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Comput. Digit. Tech. (1)

W. C. Chan, T. C. Lu, and R. J. Chen, “Pollaczek-Khinchin formula for the M/G/1 queue in discrete time with vacations,” IEE Proc. Comput. Digit. Tech., vol.  144, pp. 222–226, July 1997.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

M. A. Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, A. Morabito, and F. Neri, “All-optical WDM multi-rings with differentiated QoS,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 58–66, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multidomain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 6, pp. 138–144, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Yuang, I. Chao, B. C. Lo, P. L. Tien, J. J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. M. Lin, S. S. W. Lee, and C. Y. Chien, “HOPSMAN: An experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb/s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Simsarian and L. Zhang, “Wavelength locking a fast-switching tunable laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 7, pp. 1745–1747, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

B. Ušćumlić, I. Cerutti, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, D. Barth, M. Morvan, and P. Castoldi, “Optimal dimensioning of the WDM unidirectional ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 254–265, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

T. Bonald, S. Oueslati, J. Roberts, and C. Roger, “SWING: Traffic capacity of a simple WDM ring network,” in Proc. ITC 21, 2009.

F. Hacimeroglu and T. Atmaca, “Impacts of packet filling in an optical burst switching architecture,” in Proc. IEEE AICT, 2005, pp. 103–108.

A. Pantaleo, M. Tornatore, A. Pattavina, C. Raffaelli, and F. Callegati, “Dynamic service differentiation in OBS networks,” in Proc. Broadnets, 2007, pp. 37–39.

V. M. Vokkarane, K. Haridoss, and J. P. Jue, “Threshold-based burst assembly policies for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” in Proc. OptiComm, 2002, pp. 125–136.

X. Yu, Y. Chen, and C. Qiao, “Performance evaluation of optical burst switching with assembled burst traffic input,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Nov. 2002, pp. 2318–2322.

T. Eido, D. T. Nguyen, and T. Atmaca, “Packet filling optimization in multiservice slotted optical burst switching MAN networks,” in Proc. IEEE AICT, 2008, pp. 221–226.

B. Ušćumlić, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, M. Morvan, and I. Cerutti, “Network planning and traffic engineering in ECOFRAME optical packet ring,” in Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR), Nov. 2011, pp. 808–815.

S. Bradner and J. McQuaid, “Benchmarking methodology for network interconnect devices,” , Mar. 1999 [Online]. Available: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2544.txt .

S. Korotky, “Traffic trends: Drivers and measures of cost-effective and energy-efficient technologies and architectures for backbone optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2012, paper OM2G.1.

B. Ušćumlić, A. Gravey, P. Gravey, and I. Cerutti, “Traffic grooming in WDM optical packet rings,” in Proc. ITC 21, 2009.

N. Deng, S. Cao, T. Ma, X. Shi, X. Luo, S. Shen, and Q. Xiong, “A novel optical burst ring network with optical-layer aggregation and flexible bandwidth provisioning,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper O.Th.R.5.

J. H. R. Sinha and C. Papadopoulos, “Internet packet size distributions: Some observations,” , May 2007.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical slot switching ring, four nodes, and two clients per node.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

POADM node architectures. (a) Basic node architecture. (b) Node architecture with client granularity switch (c-switch) at the transmitter. (c) Node architecture with c-switch at the receiver. (d) Node architecture with slot granularity switch (s-switch) at the receiver.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simple four-node scenario.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Queuing delay for a simple four-node scenario. Here Cx,y stands for the flow sent by client x on node y.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Clients/nodes/wavelengths mapping and traffic demand: n, m=1,,4, nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

MPQD without timer, symmetric demand.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

MPQD, using a timer=15slots, symmetric demand.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

MPQD, using timer=15slots, a=c=50Mb/s, and b=d=[50,1570]Mb/s.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

MPQD, using timer=15slots, a=b=50Mb/s, and c=d=[50,1570]Mb/s.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Trade-off between flow intensity, timer value Tp, and optical slot filling ratio.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Maximum Achievable Load to Ensure a Queuing Delay Below 200 μs

Equations (28)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K=slot size [in bits]packet size [in bits].
MPQD=MQT+MOSFT.
MQTM/D/1=12·1μ·ρ1ρ,
MQT12·1rμ·ρ1ρ+12μ,
OSFT=(K1)·1λ.
MOSFT=OSFT2=(K1)·12λ,
MPQD=12·1rμ·ρ1ρ+12μ+K12λ.
N(T)=n=0n·P(N(T)=n)=n=0n·eλT·(λT)nn!.
X¯=E[min(N(T),K1)]+1
X¯=1+(n=0K1n·eλT·(λT)nn!)+(K1)·(n=KeλT·(λT)nn!).
X¯=1+(K1)(n=0K2(K1n)·eλT·(λT)nn!).
r=X¯.
ρ=ρ·KX¯.
MQT=12·1rμ·ρ1ρ+12μ.
MOSFT=1X¯(n=0K2(1+n2)·T·eλT·(λT)nn!+K(K1)·T2n=K1eλT·(λT)nn!).
MPQD12μ+MOSFT.
MPQDMOSFT.
GDs,dAGTs,dA,
GTs,dA=MOSFTs,dno switchMOSFTs,dA.
OSFTs,i,d,jno switch=(K1)·PSDs,i,d,j,
MOSFTs,dno switch=K12·PSfs,d·i,j1Ds,i,d,j,
MOSFTs,dTx=K12·PSKd·j1As,d,j.
GDs,dTx=MOSFTs,dno switchMOSFTs,dTx=Kdfs,d·i,j1Ds,i,d,jj1As,d,j.
GDs,dRx=MOSFTs,dno switchMOSFTs,dRx=Kdfs,d·i,j1Ds,i,d,jj1Bs,i,d,
MOSFTs,d(c-switch at the Tx and Rx)=K12·PSEs,d.
GDs,dTx+Rx=Es,dfs,d·1i,j1Ds,i,d,j.
GDs,dA=MQT+MOSFTs,dno switchMQT+MOSFTs,dA.
load=s,i,d,jDs,i,d,j2·WR,