Abstract

Internet protocol TV (IPTV) is one of the most important multimedia applications for next-generation networks. IPTV provides triple-play services that require high-speed access networks with the functions of multicasting and quality of service (QoS) guarantees. Among access networks, Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) are regarded as among the best solutions to meet higher bandwidth demands. In this paper, we propose a new architecture for multicasting live IPTV traffic in EPONs. The proposed mechanism involves assigning a unique logical link identifier to each IPTV channel. To manage multicasting, a table in the optical line terminal (OLT) and in each optical network unit (ONU) is constructed. These tables are maintained in the reconciliation sublayer to deliver the IPTV traffic. We extend the message passing of the original real-time streaming protocol (RTSP), called the extended RTSP (ERTSP), to handle the IPTV requests. A mechanism is proposed to handle the IPTV requests as intra traffic in the ONU without sending the request to the OLT. Handling the live IPTV channel as intra traffic can save bandwidth in the feeder fiber and increase the system throughput. Simulation results show that our proposed architecture can improve the system performance and QoS metrics in terms of packet delay, jitter, system throughput, and packet loss.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  4. O. Friedrich, D. Thatmann, and S. Arbanowski, “An IPTV service state API for converging managed and unmanaged IPTV infrastructures,” in Int. Conf. Multimedia and Expo, July 2010, pp. 1493–1498.
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    [CrossRef]
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  24. J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
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2014 (1)

H. T. Lin, C. L. Lai, and C. L. Liu, “Design and analysis of a frame-oriented dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for triple-play services over EPONs,” Comput. Netw., vol.  64, pp. 339–352, May 2014.
[CrossRef]

2013 (5)

2012 (2)

J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, 2012.
[CrossRef]

L. B. Yuste and H. Melvin, “A protocol review for IPTV and WebTV multimedia delivery systems,” Commun.: Sci. Lett. Univ. Zilina, vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 33–41, 2012.

2011 (2)

B. J. Hwang, I. S. Hwang, and W. R. Chen, “Adaptive radio resource management for interactive user-centric IPTV services in mobile WiMAX networks,” Inf. Sci. (N.Y.), vol.  181, no. 18, pp. 4024–4040, Sept. 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. A. S. Cruz, M. Serafim Nunes, L. Menezes, and J. Domingues, “IPTV architecture for an IMS environment with dynamic QoS adaptation,” Multimedia Tools Applications, vol.  53, no. 3, pp. 557–589, July 2011.

2009 (2)

K. Ahmad and A. C. Begen, “IPTV and video networks in the 2015 timeframe: The evolution to medianets,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 12, pp. 68–74, Dec. 2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Doverspike, G. Li, K. N. Oikonomou, K. K. Ramakrishnan, R. K. Sinha, D. Wang, and C. Chase, “Designing a reliable IPTV network,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol.  13, no. 3, pp. 15–22, May–June 2009.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. Xiao, X. Du, J. Zhang, F. Hu, and S. Guizani, “Internet protocol television (IPTV): The killer application for the next-generation Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 126–134, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and D. G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, K.

K. Ahmad and A. C. Begen, “IPTV and video networks in the 2015 timeframe: The evolution to medianets,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 12, pp. 68–74, Dec. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Arbanowski, S.

O. Friedrich, D. Thatmann, and S. Arbanowski, “An IPTV service state API for converging managed and unmanaged IPTV infrastructures,” in Int. Conf. Multimedia and Expo, July 2010, pp. 1493–1498.

Ashi, Y.

H. Ikeda, J. Sugawa, Y. Ashi, and K. Sakamoto, “High-definition IPTV broadcasting architecture over gigabit-capable passive optical network,” in Global Telecommunications Conf., Nov. 2007, pp. 2242–2246.

Begen, A. C.

K. Ahmad and A. C. Begen, “IPTV and video networks in the 2015 timeframe: The evolution to medianets,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 12, pp. 68–74, Dec. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Black, D.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” , Dec. 1998.

Blake, S.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” , Dec. 1998.

Carlson, M.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” , Dec. 1998.

Casner, S.

H. Schulzrinne, S. Casner, R. Frederick, and V. Jacobson, “RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications,” , July 2003 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3550.txt .

Chase, C.

R. Doverspike, G. Li, K. N. Oikonomou, K. K. Ramakrishnan, R. K. Sinha, D. Wang, and C. Chase, “Designing a reliable IPTV network,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol.  13, no. 3, pp. 15–22, May–June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. C.

I. S. Hwang, A. T. Liem, A. Nikoukar, and K. C. Chen, “A new mechanism to improve bandwidth utilization and QoS of IPTV in Ethernet passive optical network,” in Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symp. Proc. (PIERS), Mar. 2013, pp. 563–566.

Chen, W. R.

B. J. Hwang, I. S. Hwang, and W. R. Chen, “Adaptive radio resource management for interactive user-centric IPTV services in mobile WiMAX networks,” Inf. Sci. (N.Y.), vol.  181, no. 18, pp. 4024–4040, Sept. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Cruz, R. A. S.

R. A. S. Cruz, M. Serafim Nunes, L. Menezes, and J. Domingues, “IPTV architecture for an IMS environment with dynamic QoS adaptation,” Multimedia Tools Applications, vol.  53, no. 3, pp. 557–589, July 2011.

Davies, E.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” , Dec. 1998.

Domingues, J.

R. A. S. Cruz, M. Serafim Nunes, L. Menezes, and J. Domingues, “IPTV architecture for an IMS environment with dynamic QoS adaptation,” Multimedia Tools Applications, vol.  53, no. 3, pp. 557–589, July 2011.

Doverspike, R.

R. Doverspike, G. Li, K. N. Oikonomou, K. K. Ramakrishnan, R. K. Sinha, D. Wang, and C. Chase, “Designing a reliable IPTV network,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol.  13, no. 3, pp. 15–22, May–June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Du, X.

Y. Xiao, X. Du, J. Zhang, F. Hu, and S. Guizani, “Internet protocol television (IPTV): The killer application for the next-generation Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 126–134, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Erramilli, A.

A. Erramilli, P. Pruthi, and W. Willinger, “Fast and physically based generation of self-similar network traffic with applications to ATM performance evaluation,” in 29th Winter Simulation Conf., Dec. 1997, pp. 997–1004.

Frederick, R.

H. Schulzrinne, S. Casner, R. Frederick, and V. Jacobson, “RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications,” , July 2003 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3550.txt .

Friedrich, O.

O. Friedrich, D. Thatmann, and S. Arbanowski, “An IPTV service state API for converging managed and unmanaged IPTV infrastructures,” in Int. Conf. Multimedia and Expo, July 2010, pp. 1493–1498.

Guizani, S.

Y. Xiao, X. Du, J. Zhang, F. Hu, and S. Guizani, “Internet protocol television (IPTV): The killer application for the next-generation Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 126–134, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. S.

S. Park and C. S. Hong, “RTSP-based adaptive sending control for IPTV service in heterogeneous networks and experimental implementation,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E96-B, no. 3, pp. 905–909, Mar 2013.
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. Y.

C. C. Sue, C. Y. Hsu, Y. S. Su, and Y. Y. Shieh, “A new IPTV channel zapping scheme for EPON,” in First Int. Conf. on Ubiquitous and Future Networks, June 2009, pp. 131–136.

Hu, F.

Y. Xiao, X. Du, J. Zhang, F. Hu, and S. Guizani, “Internet protocol television (IPTV): The killer application for the next-generation Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 126–134, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Hwang, B. J.

B. J. Hwang, I. S. Hwang, and W. R. Chen, “Adaptive radio resource management for interactive user-centric IPTV services in mobile WiMAX networks,” Inf. Sci. (N.Y.), vol.  181, no. 18, pp. 4024–4040, Sept. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I. S.

Ikeda, H.

H. Ikeda, J. Sugawa, Y. Ashi, and K. Sakamoto, “High-definition IPTV broadcasting architecture over gigabit-capable passive optical network,” in Global Telecommunications Conf., Nov. 2007, pp. 2242–2246.

Jacobson, V.

H. Schulzrinne, S. Casner, R. Frederick, and V. Jacobson, “RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications,” , July 2003 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3550.txt .

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and D. G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and A. Maislos, “Ethernet passive optical networks,” in IP Over WDM: Building the Next Generation Optical Internet, S. Dixit, Ed. Wiley, 2003, pp. 229–275.

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Network. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2005.

Lai, C. L.

H. T. Lin, C. L. Lai, and C. L. Liu, “Design and analysis of a frame-oriented dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for triple-play services over EPONs,” Comput. Netw., vol.  64, pp. 339–352, May 2014.
[CrossRef]

Lai, K. R.

Lee, J. Y.

Li, G.

R. Doverspike, G. Li, K. N. Oikonomou, K. K. Ramakrishnan, R. K. Sinha, D. Wang, and C. Chase, “Designing a reliable IPTV network,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol.  13, no. 3, pp. 15–22, May–June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Liem, A. T.

Lin, H. T.

H. T. Lin, C. L. Lai, and C. L. Liu, “Design and analysis of a frame-oriented dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for triple-play services over EPONs,” Comput. Netw., vol.  64, pp. 339–352, May 2014.
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. L.

H. T. Lin, C. L. Lai, and C. L. Liu, “Design and analysis of a frame-oriented dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for triple-play services over EPONs,” Comput. Netw., vol.  64, pp. 339–352, May 2014.
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

S. Meng, L. Liu, and J. Yin, “A collaborative and scalable platform for on-demand IPTV services,” IEEE Trans. Serv. Comput., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 358–372, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Maislos, A.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and A. Maislos, “Ethernet passive optical networks,” in IP Over WDM: Building the Next Generation Optical Internet, S. Dixit, Ed. Wiley, 2003, pp. 229–275.

Melvin, H.

L. B. Yuste and H. Melvin, “A protocol review for IPTV and WebTV multimedia delivery systems,” Commun.: Sci. Lett. Univ. Zilina, vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 33–41, 2012.

Menezes, L.

R. A. S. Cruz, M. Serafim Nunes, L. Menezes, and J. Domingues, “IPTV architecture for an IMS environment with dynamic QoS adaptation,” Multimedia Tools Applications, vol.  53, no. 3, pp. 557–589, July 2011.

Meng, S.

S. Meng, L. Liu, and J. Yin, “A collaborative and scalable platform for on-demand IPTV services,” IEEE Trans. Serv. Comput., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 358–372, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, 2012.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and D. G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and A. Maislos, “Ethernet passive optical networks,” in IP Over WDM: Building the Next Generation Optical Internet, S. Dixit, Ed. Wiley, 2003, pp. 229–275.

Nikoukar, A.

Oikonomou, K. N.

R. Doverspike, G. Li, K. N. Oikonomou, K. K. Ramakrishnan, R. K. Sinha, D. Wang, and C. Chase, “Designing a reliable IPTV network,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol.  13, no. 3, pp. 15–22, May–June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

S. Park and C. S. Hong, “RTSP-based adaptive sending control for IPTV service in heterogeneous networks and experimental implementation,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E96-B, no. 3, pp. 905–909, Mar 2013.
[CrossRef]

Pesavento, D. G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and D. G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Pruthi, P.

A. Erramilli, P. Pruthi, and W. Willinger, “Fast and physically based generation of self-similar network traffic with applications to ATM performance evaluation,” in 29th Winter Simulation Conf., Dec. 1997, pp. 997–1004.

Ramakrishnan, K. K.

R. Doverspike, G. Li, K. N. Oikonomou, K. K. Ramakrishnan, R. K. Sinha, D. Wang, and C. Chase, “Designing a reliable IPTV network,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol.  13, no. 3, pp. 15–22, May–June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Reaz, A. S.

J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, K.

H. Ikeda, J. Sugawa, Y. Ashi, and K. Sakamoto, “High-definition IPTV broadcasting architecture over gigabit-capable passive optical network,” in Global Telecommunications Conf., Nov. 2007, pp. 2242–2246.

Schulzrinne, H.

H. Schulzrinne, S. Casner, R. Frederick, and V. Jacobson, “RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications,” , July 2003 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3550.txt .

Serafim Nunes, M.

R. A. S. Cruz, M. Serafim Nunes, L. Menezes, and J. Domingues, “IPTV architecture for an IMS environment with dynamic QoS adaptation,” Multimedia Tools Applications, vol.  53, no. 3, pp. 557–589, July 2011.

Shieh, Y. Y.

C. C. Sue, C. Y. Hsu, Y. S. Su, and Y. Y. Shieh, “A new IPTV channel zapping scheme for EPON,” in First Int. Conf. on Ubiquitous and Future Networks, June 2009, pp. 131–136.

Sinha, R. K.

R. Doverspike, G. Li, K. N. Oikonomou, K. K. Ramakrishnan, R. K. Sinha, D. Wang, and C. Chase, “Designing a reliable IPTV network,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol.  13, no. 3, pp. 15–22, May–June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. S.

C. C. Sue, C. Y. Hsu, Y. S. Su, and Y. Y. Shieh, “A new IPTV channel zapping scheme for EPON,” in First Int. Conf. on Ubiquitous and Future Networks, June 2009, pp. 131–136.

Sue, C. C.

C. C. Sue, C. Y. Hsu, Y. S. Su, and Y. Y. Shieh, “A new IPTV channel zapping scheme for EPON,” in First Int. Conf. on Ubiquitous and Future Networks, June 2009, pp. 131–136.

Sugawa, J.

H. Ikeda, J. Sugawa, Y. Ashi, and K. Sakamoto, “High-definition IPTV broadcasting architecture over gigabit-capable passive optical network,” in Global Telecommunications Conf., Nov. 2007, pp. 2242–2246.

Teng, C. H.

Thatmann, D.

O. Friedrich, D. Thatmann, and S. Arbanowski, “An IPTV service state API for converging managed and unmanaged IPTV infrastructures,” in Int. Conf. Multimedia and Expo, July 2010, pp. 1493–1498.

Wang, D.

R. Doverspike, G. Li, K. N. Oikonomou, K. K. Ramakrishnan, R. K. Sinha, D. Wang, and C. Chase, “Designing a reliable IPTV network,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol.  13, no. 3, pp. 15–22, May–June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” , Dec. 1998.

Weiss, W.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” , Dec. 1998.

Willinger, W.

A. Erramilli, P. Pruthi, and W. Willinger, “Fast and physically based generation of self-similar network traffic with applications to ATM performance evaluation,” in 29th Winter Simulation Conf., Dec. 1997, pp. 997–1004.

Xiao, Y.

Y. Xiao, X. Du, J. Zhang, F. Hu, and S. Guizani, “Internet protocol television (IPTV): The killer application for the next-generation Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 126–134, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Yin, J.

S. Meng, L. Liu, and J. Yin, “A collaborative and scalable platform for on-demand IPTV services,” IEEE Trans. Serv. Comput., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 358–372, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Yuste, L. B.

L. B. Yuste and H. Melvin, “A protocol review for IPTV and WebTV multimedia delivery systems,” Commun.: Sci. Lett. Univ. Zilina, vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 33–41, 2012.

Zhang, J.

Y. Xiao, X. Du, J. Zhang, F. Hu, and S. Guizani, “Internet protocol television (IPTV): The killer application for the next-generation Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 126–134, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Commun.: Sci. Lett. Univ. Zilina (1)

L. B. Yuste and H. Melvin, “A protocol review for IPTV and WebTV multimedia delivery systems,” Commun.: Sci. Lett. Univ. Zilina, vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 33–41, 2012.

Comput. Netw. (1)

H. T. Lin, C. L. Lai, and C. L. Liu, “Design and analysis of a frame-oriented dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for triple-play services over EPONs,” Comput. Netw., vol.  64, pp. 339–352, May 2014.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

Y. Xiao, X. Du, J. Zhang, F. Hu, and S. Guizani, “Internet protocol television (IPTV): The killer application for the next-generation Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 126–134, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

K. Ahmad and A. C. Begen, “IPTV and video networks in the 2015 timeframe: The evolution to medianets,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 12, pp. 68–74, Dec. 2009.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and D. G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

General IPTV architecture [6].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Proposed EPON topology.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Proposed ONU architecture.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Detailed IPTV controller operations in upstream direction.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Proposed OLT architecture.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Detailed IPTV engine operations in upstream direction.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Request handlings for channel registration in the ERTSP: (a) the requested IPTV channel of user m is in ONU N, (b) the requested IPTV channel of user m is not in ONU N, but in the OLT, and (c) the requested IPTV channel of user m is not in ONU N and not in the OLT.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison of LDBA system throughput with different local traffic ratios and different traffic loads: (a) 16 ONUs and (b) 32 ONUs.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

AF delay with different traffic loads and different local traffic ratios: (a) 16 ONUs and (b) 32 ONUs.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

BE delay with different traffic loads and different local traffic ratios: (a) 16 ONUs and (b) 32 ONUs.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

EF Jitter with different traffic loads and different local traffic ratios: (a) 16 ONUs and (b) 32 ONUs.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Packet loss probability with different traffic loads and different local traffic ratios: (a) 16 ONUs and (b) 32 ONUs.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Defined Functions in the OLT and ONU

Tables Icon

TABLE II Real-Time Streaming Protocol Methods

Tables Icon

TABLE III Simulation Scenario