Abstract

A multicode variable-weight (MCVW) technique is proposed for generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) optical networks in order to support multirate and integrated multimedia services. Under this technique, the number of simultaneously assigned codewords to each user is a function of the data rate of the service class, while quality-of-service differentiation is achieved using variable-weight codewords for each service class. The traffic behavior of the network is modeled using a multiservice loss model, and the probability density functions of the number of busy codes in the fiber link are obtained by the Kaufman–Roberts algorithm. In order to analyze the performance of the proposed multiservice multicode GMPLS optical network, several measures are derived and investigated, specifically, the bit-error rate, probability of degradation, blocking probability, and steady-state throughput. These performance measures are obtained for two different receiver structures, namely, correlation receivers with and without hard limiters. The performance of our optical GMPLS network, based on the multicode switching path, is compared with that of traditional optical GMPLS networks, based on the label switching path. The results show the superiority of the proposed technique when compared to traditional ones.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013

J. S. Vardakas, I. D. Moscholios, M. D. Logothetis, and V. G. Stylianakis, “Performance analysis of OCDMA PONs supporting multi-rate bursty traffic,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  61, no. 8, pp. 3374–3384, Aug. 2013.
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

H. Beyranvand and J. A. Salehi, “All-optical multi-service path switching in optical code switched GMPLS core networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 12, pp. 2001–2012, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Vlachos, E. Varvarigos, L. Stampoulidis, D. Roccato, and R. Vilar, “The design of an all-optical packet switching network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 52–61, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

E. Narimanov, W. C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Shifted carrier-hopping prime codes for multicode keying in wavelength-time O-CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  53, no. 12, pp. 2150–2156, Dec. 2005.
[CrossRef]

W. C. Kwong and G.-C. Yang, “Multiple-length extended carrier-hopping prime codes for optical CDMA systems supporting multirate multimedia services,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, no. 11, pp. 3653–3662, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Forouzan, N.-K. Masoumeh, and N. Rezaee, “Frame time-hopping patterns in multirate optical CDMA networks using conventional and multicode schemes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  53, no. 5, pp. 863–875, May 2005.
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

2001

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, and B. Turner, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan. 2001.
[CrossRef]

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, and B. Turner, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  39, no. 7, pp. 144–151, July 2001.
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Kitayama, “Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  16, pp. 1309–1319, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

S. V. Maric and V. K. Lau, “Multirate fiber-optic CDMA: System design and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  16, no. 1, pp. 9–17, Jan. 1998.
[CrossRef]

1997

D. D. Sampson, G. J. Pendock, and R. A. Griffin, “Photonic code division multiple-access communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  16, no. 2, pp. 129–157, Mar. 1997.
[CrossRef]

G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, “Performance comparison of multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA+OCDMA for fiber-optics networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 1426–1434, Nov. 1997.
[CrossRef]

1996

G.-C. Yang, “Variable-weight optical orthogonal codes for CDMA network with multiple performance requirements,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  44, no. 1, pp. 47–55, Jan. 1996.
[CrossRef]

S. V. Maric, O. Moreno, and C. J. Corrada, “Multimedia transmission in fiber-optic LANs using optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  14, no. 10, pp. 2149–2153, Oct. 1996.
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Azizoglu, J. Salehi, and Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, pp. 1162–1170, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

1989

J. A. Salehi and C. A. Brackett, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part II: Systems performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  37, pp. 834–842, Aug. 1989.
[CrossRef]

1981

J. S. Kaufman, “Blocking in a shared resource environment,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  29, no. 10, pp. 1474–1481, Oct. 1981.
[CrossRef]

Azizoglu, M.

M. Azizoglu, J. Salehi, and Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, pp. 1162–1170, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Baba, K.

Banerjee, A.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, and B. Turner, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan. 2001.
[CrossRef]

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, and B. Turner, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  39, no. 7, pp. 144–151, July 2001.
[CrossRef]

Beyranvand, H.

Brackett, C. A.

J. A. Salehi and C. A. Brackett, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part II: Systems performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  37, pp. 834–842, Aug. 1989.
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-Y.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Vlachos, E. Varvarigos, L. Stampoulidis, D. Roccato, and R. Vilar, “The design of an all-optical packet switching network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 52–61, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Colle, D.

R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Vlachos, E. Varvarigos, L. Stampoulidis, D. Roccato, and R. Vilar, “The design of an all-optical packet switching network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 52–61, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Corrada, C. J.

S. V. Maric, O. Moreno, and C. J. Corrada, “Multimedia transmission in fiber-optic LANs using optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  14, no. 10, pp. 2149–2153, Oct. 1996.
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Vlachos, E. Varvarigos, L. Stampoulidis, D. Roccato, and R. Vilar, “The design of an all-optical packet switching network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 52–61, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Drake, J.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, and B. Turner, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  39, no. 7, pp. 144–151, July 2001.
[CrossRef]

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, and B. Turner, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Forouzan, A. R.

A. R. Forouzan, N.-K. Masoumeh, and N. Rezaee, “Frame time-hopping patterns in multirate optical CDMA networks using conventional and multicode schemes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  53, no. 5, pp. 863–875, May 2005.
[CrossRef]

Fortier, P.

Griffin, R. A.

D. D. Sampson, G. J. Pendock, and R. A. Griffin, “Photonic code division multiple-access communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  16, no. 2, pp. 129–157, Mar. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

Intay, E.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Katayama, M.

A. Sandouk, H. Okada, T. Yamazato, M. Katayama, and A. Ogawa, “Throughput improvement of a dual-class multicode CDMA ALOHA system with modified channel load sensing protocol,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communication (ICC), June 1999, pp. 1079–1083.

Kaufman, J. S.

J. S. Kaufman, “Blocking in a shared resource environment,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  29, no. 10, pp. 1474–1481, Oct. 1981.
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

S. Huang, K. Baba, M. Murata, and K. Kitayama, “Variable-bandwidth optical paths: Comparison between optical code-labelled path and OCDM path,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, no. 10, pp. 3563–3573, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

K. Kitayama, “Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  16, pp. 1309–1319, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K. I.

Klonidis, D.

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kwong, W. C.

C.-Y. Chang, G.-C. Yang, and W. C. Kwong, “Wavelength-time codes with maximum cross-correlation function of two for multicode-keying optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 1093–1100, Mar. 2006.
[CrossRef]

E. Narimanov, W. C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Shifted carrier-hopping prime codes for multicode keying in wavelength-time O-CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  53, no. 12, pp. 2150–2156, Dec. 2005.
[CrossRef]

W. C. Kwong and G.-C. Yang, “Multiple-length extended carrier-hopping prime codes for optical CDMA systems supporting multirate multimedia services,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, no. 11, pp. 3653–3662, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, “Performance comparison of multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA+OCDMA for fiber-optics networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 1426–1434, Nov. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Lang, J. P.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, and B. Turner, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan. 2001.
[CrossRef]

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, and B. Turner, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  39, no. 7, pp. 144–151, July 2001.
[CrossRef]

Lau, V. K.

Li, B.

Li, Y.

M. Azizoglu, J. Salehi, and Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, pp. 1162–1170, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Logothetis, M. D.

J. S. Vardakas, I. D. Moscholios, M. D. Logothetis, and V. G. Stylianakis, “Performance analysis of OCDMA PONs supporting multi-rate bursty traffic,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  61, no. 8, pp. 3374–3384, Aug. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Maric, S. V.

S. V. Maric and V. K. Lau, “Multirate fiber-optic CDMA: System design and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  16, no. 1, pp. 9–17, Jan. 1998.
[CrossRef]

S. V. Maric, O. Moreno, and C. J. Corrada, “Multimedia transmission in fiber-optic LANs using optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  14, no. 10, pp. 2149–2153, Oct. 1996.
[CrossRef]

Masoumeh, N.-K.

A. R. Forouzan, N.-K. Masoumeh, and N. Rezaee, “Frame time-hopping patterns in multirate optical CDMA networks using conventional and multicode schemes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  53, no. 5, pp. 863–875, May 2005.
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Moreno, O.

S. V. Maric, O. Moreno, and C. J. Corrada, “Multimedia transmission in fiber-optic LANs using optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  14, no. 10, pp. 2149–2153, Oct. 1996.
[CrossRef]

Moscholios, I. D.

J. S. Vardakas, I. D. Moscholios, M. D. Logothetis, and V. G. Stylianakis, “Performance analysis of OCDMA PONs supporting multi-rate bursty traffic,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  61, no. 8, pp. 3374–3384, Aug. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Murata, M.

Narimanov, E.

E. Narimanov, W. C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Shifted carrier-hopping prime codes for multicode keying in wavelength-time O-CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  53, no. 12, pp. 2150–2156, Dec. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Nejabati, R.

O’Mahoney, M. J.

Ogawa, A.

A. Sandouk, H. Okada, T. Yamazato, M. Katayama, and A. Ogawa, “Throughput improvement of a dual-class multicode CDMA ALOHA system with modified channel load sensing protocol,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communication (ICC), June 1999, pp. 1079–1083.

Ohtsuki, T.

T. Ohtsuki, “Performance of multicode direct-detection optical CDMA systems,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 1998, pp. 3227–3232.

Okada, H.

A. Sandouk, H. Okada, T. Yamazato, M. Katayama, and A. Ogawa, “Throughput improvement of a dual-class multicode CDMA ALOHA system with modified channel load sensing protocol,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communication (ICC), June 1999, pp. 1079–1083.

Pendock, G. J.

D. D. Sampson, G. J. Pendock, and R. A. Griffin, “Photonic code division multiple-access communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  16, no. 2, pp. 129–157, Mar. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Pickavet, M.

R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Vlachos, E. Varvarigos, L. Stampoulidis, D. Roccato, and R. Vilar, “The design of an all-optical packet switching network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 52–61, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Politi, C.

Prucnal, P. R.

E. Narimanov, W. C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Shifted carrier-hopping prime codes for multicode keying in wavelength-time O-CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  53, no. 12, pp. 2150–2156, Dec. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Rezaee, N.

A. R. Forouzan, N.-K. Masoumeh, and N. Rezaee, “Frame time-hopping patterns in multirate optical CDMA networks using conventional and multicode schemes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  53, no. 5, pp. 863–875, May 2005.
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. W.

J. W. Roberts, “A service system with heterogeneous user requirements: Application to multi-service telecommunications systems,” in Proc. Performance of Data Communications Systems and Their Applications, G. Pujolle, Ed. Holland: Amsterdam, 1981, pp. 423–431.

Roccato, D.

R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Vlachos, E. Varvarigos, L. Stampoulidis, D. Roccato, and R. Vilar, “The design of an all-optical packet switching network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 52–61, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Rusch, L. A.

Salehi, J.

M. Azizoglu, J. Salehi, and Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, pp. 1162–1170, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Salehi, J. A.

H. Beyranvand and J. A. Salehi, “All-optical multi-service path switching in optical code switched GMPLS core networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 12, pp. 2001–2012, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. A. Salehi and C. A. Brackett, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part II: Systems performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  37, pp. 834–842, Aug. 1989.
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

D. D. Sampson, G. J. Pendock, and R. A. Griffin, “Photonic code division multiple-access communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  16, no. 2, pp. 129–157, Mar. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Sandouk, A.

A. Sandouk, H. Okada, T. Yamazato, M. Katayama, and A. Ogawa, “Throughput improvement of a dual-class multicode CDMA ALOHA system with modified channel load sensing protocol,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communication (ICC), June 1999, pp. 1079–1083.

Shalaby, H. M.

Shalaby, H. M. H.

Simeonidou, D.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Stampoulidis, L.

R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Vlachos, E. Varvarigos, L. Stampoulidis, D. Roccato, and R. Vilar, “The design of an all-optical packet switching network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 52–61, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Vlachos, E. Varvarigos, L. Stampoulidis, D. Roccato, and R. Vilar, “The design of an all-optical packet switching network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 52–61, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, “Performance comparison of multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA+OCDMA for fiber-optics networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  45, no. 11, pp. 1426–1434, Nov. 1997.
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G.-C. Yang, “Variable-weight optical orthogonal codes for CDMA network with multiple performance requirements,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  44, no. 1, pp. 47–55, Jan. 1996.
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Multiservice OMCS-GMPLS network architecture with end-to-end operation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Multiservice multicode decoder and encoder arrays used in OMCS-GMPLS router. (a) Multiservice multicode decoder array. (b) Multiservice multicode encoder array.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fiber bandwidth partitioning of OMCS-GMPLS network into Q service classes using WSCP policy.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

State transition diagram for class j with Fj parallel codes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

BER versus number of simultaneous active codes for MLVW-OOC and MCVW-OOC systems.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Pdeg as a function of offered load A for different activity coefficients ρ. (a) Correlation receiver with hard limiter. (b) Correlation receiver.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Effect of limiting the number of connected paths on the performance.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Blocking probability versus offered load for different blocking thresholds. (a) For class 1 users. (b) For class 2 users.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Class 1 throughput versus offered packet load. (a) Correlation receiver with hard limiter. (b) Correlation receiver.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Class 2 throughput versus offered packet load. (a) Correlation receiver with hard limiter. (b) Correlation receiver.

Equations (44)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=def[I(n,m),n,mΩ],
0<C(j)<|C|,jΩ,
|C|=j=1QC(j)=j=1Qdj|C|.
|C|(L1)j=1Qdjwj(wj1).
L(j)=W×C(j).
P˜N(j)(n)={0;n<0,1;n=0,FjAjnP˜N(j)(nFj);0<n<L(j),
PN(j)(n)=P˜N(j)(n)k=0L(j)P˜N(j)(k).
PB(j)=n=L(j)Fj+1L(j)PN(j)(n).
pkq=wkwqL,k,qΩ.
K=F1K1+F2K2++FQKQ.
F1K1++Fk1Kk1+FkKk1+Fk+1Kk+1++FQKQ=K1
Pe(k)=Pr{error|Kcodes}=1=0F1K1k=0FkKk1Q=0FQKQPr{interferers|Kcodes}×Pr{a bit error|interferers,Kcodes},
=def{[1,2,,Q]:j{0,1,,FjKj}j{1,k1,k+1,,Q},k{0,1,,FkKk1}}.
Pr{interferers|Kcodes}=(FkKk1k)pkkk(1pkk)FkKk1k×q=1qkQ(FqKqq)pkqq(1pkq)FqKqq,
Pr{a bit error|interferers,Kcodes}=12Pr{a bit error|interferers,Kcodes,1was sent}+12Pr{a bit error|interferers,Kcodes,0was sent}=12Pr{Zwk|interferers,Kcodes,0was sent}=121i=1Q2ii1,i2,,iQΨi=1Q(iii),
Ψ=def{[i1,i2,,iQ]:ij{0,1,,FjKj}j{1,k1,k+1,,Q},ik{0,1,,FkKk1},wkq=1QiqK1}.
Pe(k)=1=0F1K1k=0FkKk1Q=0FQKQ×(FkKk1k)pkkk(1pkk)FkKk1k×q=1qkQ(FqKqq)pkqq(1pkq)FqKqq×[121i=1Q2ii1,i2,,iQΨi=1Q(iii)].
χk=def{1,2,,wk}.
L=def(11121wk21222wkQ1Q2Qwk).
α={α1,α2,,αwk}=def{i=1Qi1,i=1Qi2,,i=1Qiwk}.
ij0,anyiΩ,jχk,i=1Qj=1wkij=i=1Qi=j=1wkαj=.
F=def{LNQ×wk:i=1Qj=1wkij=andij0,anyiΩ,jχk},
Pe(k)=Pr{error|Kcodes}=1=0F1K1k=0FkKk1Q=0FQKQPr{interferers|Kcodes}×LFP(L;F)·Pbe(k)(L),
!i=1Qi1!i=1Qi2!i=1Qiwk!=!α1!α2!αwk!
P(L;F)=1wk!α1!α2!αwk!.
Pbe(k)(L)=12Pr{a bit error|Linterferers,1was sent}+12Pr{a bit error|Linterferers,0was sent}=12Pr{αi1,iχk|Linterferers,0was sent}.
Pbe(k)(L)=1212Pr{αi=0,someiχk|Linterferers,0was sent}=1212(m=1wk12αmm=1wk1n=m+1wk12αm+αn++(1)wk112).
Pe(k)=1=0F1K1k=0FkKk1Q=0FQKQ×(FkKk1k)pkkk(1pkk)FkKk1k×q=1qkQ(FqKqq)pkqq(1pkq)FqKqq×LF:αi1iχk1wk!α1!α2!αwk!×[1212(m=1wk12αmm=1wk1n=m+1wk12αm+αn++(1)wk112)].
Px(j)(x)=m=xC(j)P(xactive paths|mconnected paths)×PM(j)(mconnected paths)=m=xC(j)(mx)ρx(1ρ)mxPM(j)(m),
PM(j)(m|n)=(C(j)m)rRi=1W1(C(j)riFj)nNi=1W(C(j)niFj),
N=def{n=[n1,n2,,nW]:i=1Wni=nFjandni{0,1,,C(j)Fj}  i{1,2,,W}},R=def{r=[r1,r2,,rW1]:i=1W1ri=nmFjandri{0,1,,C(j)Fj}i{1,2,,W1}}.
PM(j)(m)=n=mL(j)(C(j)m)kisetsi=1W1(C(j)kiFj)nisetsi=1W(C(j)niFj)PN(j)(n).
Pdeg=Pr{x(j)>FjΓTh(j),somejΩ}=1Pr{x(j)FjΓTh(j),jΩ}.
Pdeg=1j=1Q[Px(j)(x(j)FjΓTh(j))],
Px(j)(x(j)FjΓTh(j))=x(j)=0FjΓTh(j)[m=x(j)C(j)(mx(j))ρx(j)(1ρ)mx(j)PM(j)(m)].
Pdeg=1j=1Q(x(j)=0FjΓTh(j)[m=x(j)C(j)(mx(j))×ρx(j)(1ρ)mx(j)PM(j)(m)]).
PB(j)=x(j)=W×ΛTh(j)Fj+1W×ΛTh(j)PN(j)(x(j)),Pdeg=1j=1Q(x(j)=0FjΓTh(j)[m=x(j)ΛTh(j)(mx(j))×ρx(j)(1ρ)mx(j)PM(j)(m)]),
f(k)=(Gk/Fk)kk!exp(Gk/Fk),
βk=i=1,ikQi=0k=0[kFkWC(k)]×PSucc(k)i=1Q(Gi/Fi)ii!exp(Gi/Fi),
PSucc(k)=(1PB(k))PS(k)(HW),
PS(k)(K)=1=0F1K1k=0FkKk1Q=0FQKQ×P(interferers|Kcodes)[Pbc(k)()]LB,
Pbc(k)()=Pbc(k)(a bit success|interferers,Kcodes)=1Pbe(k)(a bit error|interferers,Kcodes)=1121i=1Q2ii1,i2,,iQΨi=1Q(iii).
PS(k)(K)=1=0F1K1k=0FkKk1Q=0FQKQ×P(interferers|Kcodes)×LFP(L;F)[Pbc(k)(L)]LB,
Pbc(k)(L)=1Pbe(k)(L)