Abstract

A self-starting pulsed encoding of a Mach–Zehnder intensity modulator (MZM) is demonstrated to generate a 40Gbit/s return-to-zero binary phase-shifted-keying (RZ-BPSK) data stream by using the optoelectronic feedback loop. By driving the MZM with an optoelectronic oscillator, both the electrical clock and the optical pulse train at 40 GHz can be extracted to deliver and trigger the synthesizer-free 40Gbit/s RZ-BPSK data. The pulsed RZ carrier with a pulsewidth of 10.5 ps provides a jitter as low as 150 fs and an extinction ratio as high as 7.8 dB, which is particularly suitable for the RZ-BPSK transmission at 40Gbit/s. The back-to-back transmitted synthesizer-free 40Gbit/s RZ-BPSK data with a pattern length of 2231 reveals a receiving power sensitivity of 16.3dBm at the requested bit error rate of 109 by setting the DC bias of the BPSK demodulator at 3.76 V. After 25 km single-mode-fiber transmission, the RZ-BPSK data indicates a power penalty of 4 dB when compared with the back-to-back case.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (3)

L. R. Chen and J. Wang, “All-optical RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK conversion with multicasting based on XPM in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun., vol.  285, no. 16, pp. 3459–3465, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Fresi, M. Scaffardi, N. Amaya, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, and A. Bogoni, “40-Gb/s NRZ-to-RZ and OOK-to-BPSK format and wavelength conversion on a single SOA-MZI for gridless networking operations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 279–281, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, Y. C. Chi, Y. S. Liao, H. C. Kuo, H. L. Wang, and G. C. Lin, “A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 13622–13635, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

C. C. Lin, Y. C. Chi, H. C. Kuo, P. C. Peng, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and G.-R. Lin, “Beyond-bandwidth electrical pulse modulation of a TO-can packaged VCSEL for 10  Gbit/s injection-locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 6, pp. 830–841, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

G. W. Lu, E. Tipsuwannakul, T. Miyazaki, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Format conversion of optical multilevel signals using FWM-based optical phase erasure,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 16, pp. 2460–2466, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chi, P. C. Peng, and G.-R. Lin, “Clock-free RZ-BPSK data generation using self-starting optoelectronic oscillator,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 11, pp. 1702–1707, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chi and G.-R. Lin, “Distinguished RZ-OOK performances between DFBLD pulsed carriers self-started by gain switching and nonlinear absorption modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 5, pp. 1146–1152, Sept.–Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. C. Chi and G.-R. Lin, “A self-started laser diode pulsation based synthesizer-free optical return-to-zero on–off-keying data generator,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech., vol.  58, no. 8, pp. 2292–2298, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (6)

2007 (9)

G.-R. Lin, K. C. Yu, C. L. Pan, and Y. S. Liao, “All-optical decision-gating of 10-Gb/s RZ data in a semiconductor optical amplifier temporally gain-shaped with dark-optical-comb,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 7, pp. 1651–1658, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

H. Hasegawa, Y. Oikawa, and M. Nakazawa, “A 10-GHz optoelectronic oscillator at 850  nm using a single-mode VCSEL and a photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  19, no. 19, pp. 1451–1453, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D.-S. Yee, and K. H. Park, “40  Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol.  29, no. 5, pp. 633–640, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, D. Huang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhu, “Simulation and analysis of OOK-to-BPSK format conversion based on gain-transparent SOA used as optical phase-modulator,” Opt. Express, vol.  15, no. 26, pp. 18357–18369, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

K. Mishina, S. M. Nissanka, A. Maruta, S. Mitani, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Hatta, and K. Kitayama, “All-optical modulation format conversion from NRZ-OOK to RZ-QPSK using parallel SOA-MZI OOK/BPSK converters,” Opt. Express, vol.  15, no. 12, pp. 7774–7785, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, F. Liu, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, “All-optical format conversions from NRZ to BPSK and QPSK based on nonlinear responses in silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express, vol.  15, no. 21, pp. 14275–14282, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, and A. D. Ellis, “All-optical 42.6  Gbit/s NRZ to RZ format conversion by cross-phase modulation in single SOA,” Electron. Lett., vol.  43, no. 16, pp. 890–892, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, Y. F. Shao, and S. C. Wen, “A novel scheme to generate dark-RZ pulse and study on its transmission performance,” Opt. Commun., vol.  269, no. 1, pp. 241–246, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

J. Torregrosa, H. Maestre, J. Capmany, and C. R. Fernández-Pousa, “Return-to-zero pulse generators using overdriven amplitude modulators at one fourth of the data rate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  19, no. 22, pp. 1837–1839, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

G.-R. Lin, K. C. Yu, and Y. C. Chang, “10  Gbit/s all-optical NRZ-to-RZ data format conversion based on a backward dark-optical-comb injected semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Lett., vol.  31, no. 10, pp. 1376–1378, May 2006.
[CrossRef]

C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, and Y. Tian, “All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  18, no. 22, pp. 2368–2370, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

K. Mishina, A. Maruta, S. Mitani, T. Miyahara, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Hatta, K. Motoshima, and K. Kitayama, “NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation-format conversion using SOA-MZI wavelength converter,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, no. 10, pp. 3751–3758, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Optoelectronic oscillator using a LiNbO3 phase modulator for self-oscillating frequency comb generation,” Opt. Express, vol.  31, no. 6, pp. 811–813, Mar. 2006.

2005 (4)

G.-R. Lin and I.-H. Chiu, “Femtosecond wavelength tunable semiconductor optical amplifier fiber laser mode-locked by backward dark-optical-comb injection at 10  GHz,” Opt. Express, vol.  13, no. 22, pp. 8772–8780, Oct. 2005.
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech., vol.  53, no. 3, pp. 929–933, Mar. 2005.
[CrossRef]

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sørensen, N. Chi, H. J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson interferometer for RZ signal generation using phase-to-intensity modulation conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  17, no. 8, pp. 1674–1676, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, Y. C. Chang, Y. H. Lin, and J. H. Chen, “All-optical data format conversion in synchronously modulated single-mode Fabry–Pérot laser diode using external injection-locking-induced nonlinear threshold reduction effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 1307–1309, June 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, R. J. Essiambre, and I. Kang, “Chirped return-to-zero modulation by imbalanced pulse carver driving signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1379–1381, May 2004.
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chang, Y. H. Lin, J. H. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format transformer with an injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode at unlasing condition,” Opt. Express, vol.  12, no. 19, pp. 4449–4456, Sept. 2004.
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, Y. C. Chang, and J. R. Wu, “Rational harmonic mode-locking of erbium-doped fiber laser at 40  GHz using a loss-modulated Fabry-Perot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 8, pp. 1810–1812, Aug. 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “39-GHz optoelectronic oscillator using broad-band polymer electrooptic modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 191–193, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. J. Winzer and J. Leuthold, “Return-to-zero modulator using a single NRZ drive signal and an optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  13, no. 12, pp. 1298–1300, Dec. 2001.
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

D. Breuer and K. Petermann, “Comparison of NRZ- and RZ-modulation format for 40-Gb/s TDM standard-fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 398–400, Mar. 1997.
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. J. Veselka, S. K. Korotky, P. V. Mamyshev, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and N. M. Froberg, “A soliton transmitter using a CW laser and an NRZ driven Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  8, no. 7, pp. 950–952, July 1996.
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and G. Lutes, “A high-speed photonic clock and carrier recovery device,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 688–690, May 1996.
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Bigo, E. Desurvire, S. Gauchard, and E. Brun, “Bit-rate enhancement through optical NRZ-to-RZ conversion and passive time-division multiplexing for soliton transmission systems,” Electron. Lett., vol.  30, no. 12, pp. 984–985, June 1994.
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. S. Tucker, J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, and J. E. Bowers, “8  Gbit/s return-to-zero modulation of a semiconductor laser by gain-switching,” Electron. Lett., vol.  22, no. 25, pp. 1329–1331, Dec. 1986.
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

H. F. Schlaak, A. Neyer, and W. Sohler, “Electrooptical oscillator using an integrated cutoff modulator,” Opt. Commun., vol.  32, no. 1, pp. 72–74, Jan. 1980.
[CrossRef]

Abe, J.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. Academic, 1995.

Amaya, N.

F. Fresi, M. Scaffardi, N. Amaya, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, and A. Bogoni, “40-Gb/s NRZ-to-RZ and OOK-to-BPSK format and wavelength conversion on a single SOA-MZI for gridless networking operations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 279–281, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

Apiratikul, P.

Astar, W.

Bigo, S.

S. Bigo, E. Desurvire, S. Gauchard, and E. Brun, “Bit-rate enhancement through optical NRZ-to-RZ conversion and passive time-division multiplexing for soliton transmission systems,” Electron. Lett., vol.  30, no. 12, pp. 984–985, June 1994.
[CrossRef]

Blasche, G.

W. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech., vol.  53, no. 3, pp. 929–933, Mar. 2005.
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Boghdady, H.

H. E. Kotb, A. M. E. Safwat, H. Boghdady, and D. A. M. Khalil, “RF optoelectronic oscillator using a directly modulated semiconductor laser and a fiber optical ring filter,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol.  51, no. 2, pp. 470–475, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Bogoni, A.

F. Fresi, M. Scaffardi, N. Amaya, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, and A. Bogoni, “40-Gb/s NRZ-to-RZ and OOK-to-BPSK format and wavelength conversion on a single SOA-MZI for gridless networking operations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 279–281, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

R. S. Tucker, J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, and J. E. Bowers, “8  Gbit/s return-to-zero modulation of a semiconductor laser by gain-switching,” Electron. Lett., vol.  22, no. 25, pp. 1329–1331, Dec. 1986.
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Breuer, D.

C. M. Weinert, R. Ludwig, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, and F. Küppers, “40  Gb/s and 4×40  Gb/s TDM/WDM standard fiber transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  17, no. 11, pp. 2276–2284, Nov. 1999.
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D. Breuer and K. Petermann, “Comparison of NRZ- and RZ-modulation format for 40-Gb/s TDM standard-fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 398–400, Mar. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Brun, E.

S. Bigo, E. Desurvire, S. Gauchard, and E. Brun, “Bit-rate enhancement through optical NRZ-to-RZ conversion and passive time-division multiplexing for soliton transmission systems,” Electron. Lett., vol.  30, no. 12, pp. 984–985, June 1994.
[CrossRef]

Cannon, B. M.

Capmany, J.

J. Torregrosa, H. Maestre, J. Capmany, and C. R. Fernández-Pousa, “Return-to-zero pulse generators using overdriven amplitude modulators at one fourth of the data rate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  19, no. 22, pp. 1837–1839, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

Chang, D. H.

D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “39-GHz optoelectronic oscillator using broad-band polymer electrooptic modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 191–193, Feb. 2002.
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Chang, Y. C.

G.-R. Lin, K. C. Yu, and Y. C. Chang, “10  Gbit/s all-optical NRZ-to-RZ data format conversion based on a backward dark-optical-comb injected semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Lett., vol.  31, no. 10, pp. 1376–1378, May 2006.
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G.-R. Lin, Y. C. Chang, Y. H. Lin, and J. H. Chen, “All-optical data format conversion in synchronously modulated single-mode Fabry–Pérot laser diode using external injection-locking-induced nonlinear threshold reduction effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 1307–1309, June 2005.
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Y. C. Chang, Y. H. Lin, J. H. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format transformer with an injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode at unlasing condition,” Opt. Express, vol.  12, no. 19, pp. 4449–4456, Sept. 2004.
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G.-R. Lin, Y. C. Chang, and J. R. Wu, “Rational harmonic mode-locking of erbium-doped fiber laser at 40  GHz using a loss-modulated Fabry-Perot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 8, pp. 1810–1812, Aug. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chembo, Y. K.

Y. K. Chembo, L. Larger, and P. Colet, “Nonlinear dynamics and spectral stability of optoelectronic microwave oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  44, no. 9, pp. 858–866, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, J. H.

G.-R. Lin, Y. C. Chang, Y. H. Lin, and J. H. Chen, “All-optical data format conversion in synchronously modulated single-mode Fabry–Pérot laser diode using external injection-locking-induced nonlinear threshold reduction effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 1307–1309, June 2005.
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chang, Y. H. Lin, J. H. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format transformer with an injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode at unlasing condition,” Opt. Express, vol.  12, no. 19, pp. 4449–4456, Sept. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, Y. F. Shao, and S. C. Wen, “A novel scheme to generate dark-RZ pulse and study on its transmission performance,” Opt. Commun., vol.  269, no. 1, pp. 241–246, Jan. 2007.
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Chen, L. R.

L. R. Chen and J. Wang, “All-optical RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK conversion with multicasting based on XPM in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun., vol.  285, no. 16, pp. 3459–3465, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-J.

Chi, N.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sørensen, N. Chi, H. J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson interferometer for RZ signal generation using phase-to-intensity modulation conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  17, no. 8, pp. 1674–1676, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Chi, Y. C.

G.-R. Lin, Y. C. Chi, Y. S. Liao, H. C. Kuo, H. L. Wang, and G. C. Lin, “A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 13622–13635, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lin, Y. C. Chi, H. C. Kuo, P. C. Peng, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and G.-R. Lin, “Beyond-bandwidth electrical pulse modulation of a TO-can packaged VCSEL for 10  Gbit/s injection-locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 6, pp. 830–841, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chi and G.-R. Lin, “Distinguished RZ-OOK performances between DFBLD pulsed carriers self-started by gain switching and nonlinear absorption modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 5, pp. 1146–1152, Sept.–Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chi, P. C. Peng, and G.-R. Lin, “Clock-free RZ-BPSK data generation using self-starting optoelectronic oscillator,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 11, pp. 1702–1707, June 2011.
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Y. C. Chi and G.-R. Lin, “A self-started laser diode pulsation based synthesizer-free optical return-to-zero on–off-keying data generator,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech., vol.  58, no. 8, pp. 2292–2298, Aug. 2010.
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G.-H. Peng, Y. C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “DWDM channel spacing tunable optical TDM carrier from a mode-locked weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode based fiber ring,” Opt. Express, vol.  16, no. 17, pp. 13405–13413, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Chiu, I.-H.

Chung, Y. D.

M. Shin, P. S. Devgan, V. S. Grigoryan, P. Kumar, Y. D. Chung, and J. Kim, “Low phase-noise 40  GHz optical pulses from a self-starting electroabsorption-modulator-based optoelectronic oscillator,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, 2006, paper OFB1.

Colet, P.

Y. K. Chembo, L. Larger, and P. Colet, “Nonlinear dynamics and spectral stability of optoelectronic microwave oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  44, no. 9, pp. 858–866, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Desurvire, E.

S. Bigo, E. Desurvire, S. Gauchard, and E. Brun, “Bit-rate enhancement through optical NRZ-to-RZ conversion and passive time-division multiplexing for soliton transmission systems,” Electron. Lett., vol.  30, no. 12, pp. 984–985, June 1994.
[CrossRef]

Devgan, P.

Devgan, P. S.

M. Shin, P. S. Devgan, V. S. Grigoryan, P. Kumar, Y. D. Chung, and J. Kim, “Low phase-noise 40  GHz optical pulses from a self-starting electroabsorption-modulator-based optoelectronic oscillator,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, 2006, paper OFB1.

Deyerl, H. J.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sørensen, N. Chi, H. J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson interferometer for RZ signal generation using phase-to-intensity modulation conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  17, no. 8, pp. 1674–1676, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

L. Huo, Y. Dong, C. Lou, and Y. Gao, “Clock extraction using an optoelectronic oscillator from high-speed NRZ signal and NRZ-to-RZ format transformation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 7, pp. 981–983, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, R. J. Essiambre, and I. Kang, “Chirped return-to-zero modulation by imbalanced pulse carver driving signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1379–1381, May 2004.
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, and A. D. Ellis, “All-optical 42.6  Gbit/s NRZ to RZ format conversion by cross-phase modulation in single SOA,” Electron. Lett., vol.  43, no. 16, pp. 890–892, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Ennser, K.

Erlig, H.

D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “39-GHz optoelectronic oscillator using broad-band polymer electrooptic modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 191–193, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R. J.

P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, R. J. Essiambre, and I. Kang, “Chirped return-to-zero modulation by imbalanced pulse carver driving signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1379–1381, May 2004.
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Pousa, C. R.

J. Torregrosa, H. Maestre, J. Capmany, and C. R. Fernández-Pousa, “Return-to-zero pulse generators using overdriven amplitude modulators at one fourth of the data rate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  19, no. 22, pp. 1837–1839, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “39-GHz optoelectronic oscillator using broad-band polymer electrooptic modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 191–193, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Fresi, F.

F. Fresi, M. Scaffardi, N. Amaya, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, and A. Bogoni, “40-Gb/s NRZ-to-RZ and OOK-to-BPSK format and wavelength conversion on a single SOA-MZI for gridless networking operations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 279–281, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Froberg, N. M.

J. J. Veselka, S. K. Korotky, P. V. Mamyshev, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and N. M. Froberg, “A soliton transmitter using a CW laser and an NRZ driven Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  8, no. 7, pp. 950–952, July 1996.
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

L. Huo, Y. Dong, C. Lou, and Y. Gao, “Clock extraction using an optoelectronic oscillator from high-speed NRZ signal and NRZ-to-RZ format transformation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 7, pp. 981–983, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

Gauchard, S.

S. Bigo, E. Desurvire, S. Gauchard, and E. Brun, “Bit-rate enhancement through optical NRZ-to-RZ conversion and passive time-division multiplexing for soliton transmission systems,” Electron. Lett., vol.  30, no. 12, pp. 984–985, June 1994.
[CrossRef]

Geng, Y.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sørensen, N. Chi, H. J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson interferometer for RZ signal generation using phase-to-intensity modulation conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  17, no. 8, pp. 1674–1676, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

J. J. Veselka, S. K. Korotky, P. V. Mamyshev, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and N. M. Froberg, “A soliton transmitter using a CW laser and an NRZ driven Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  8, no. 7, pp. 950–952, July 1996.
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, and J. E. Bowers, “8  Gbit/s return-to-zero modulation of a semiconductor laser by gain-switching,” Electron. Lett., vol.  22, no. 25, pp. 1329–1331, Dec. 1986.
[CrossRef]

Grigoryan, V. S.

M. Shin, P. S. Devgan, V. S. Grigoryan, P. Kumar, Y. D. Chung, and J. Kim, “Low phase-noise 40  GHz optical pulses from a self-starting electroabsorption-modulator-based optoelectronic oscillator,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, 2006, paper OFB1.

Hasegawa, H.

H. Hasegawa, Y. Oikawa, and M. Nakazawa, “A 10-GHz optoelectronic oscillator at 850  nm using a single-mode VCSEL and a photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  19, no. 19, pp. 1451–1453, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Hatta, T.

Hong, W.

Huang, D.

W. Hong, D. Huang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhu, “Simulation and analysis of OOK-to-BPSK format conversion based on gain-transparent SOA used as optical phase-modulator,” Opt. Express, vol.  15, no. 26, pp. 18357–18369, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Sun, Q. Sun, X. Zhang, and D. Huang, “Experimental demonstration on PPLN-based 40  Gbit/s all-optical NRZ-to-CSRZ, NRZ-to-RZ, and NRZ-DPSK-to-RZ-DPSK format conversions,” in Proc. AOE, 2008, pp. 1–3.

Huo, L.

L. Huo, Y. Dong, C. Lou, and Y. Gao, “Clock extraction using an optoelectronic oscillator from high-speed NRZ signal and NRZ-to-RZ format transformation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 7, pp. 981–983, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

Ishida, K.

Izutsu, M.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Optoelectronic oscillator using a LiNbO3 phase modulator for self-oscillating frequency comb generation,” Opt. Express, vol.  31, no. 6, pp. 811–813, Mar. 2006.

Jeon, M. Y.

M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D.-S. Yee, and K. H. Park, “40  Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol.  29, no. 5, pp. 633–640, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, P.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sørensen, N. Chi, H. J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson interferometer for RZ signal generation using phase-to-intensity modulation conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  17, no. 8, pp. 1674–1676, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, R. J. Essiambre, and I. Kang, “Chirped return-to-zero modulation by imbalanced pulse carver driving signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1379–1381, May 2004.
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

Kasahara, K.

Kawanishi, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Optoelectronic oscillator using a LiNbO3 phase modulator for self-oscillating frequency comb generation,” Opt. Express, vol.  31, no. 6, pp. 811–813, Mar. 2006.

Khalil, D. A. M.

H. E. Kotb, A. M. E. Safwat, H. Boghdady, and D. A. M. Khalil, “RF optoelectronic oscillator using a directly modulated semiconductor laser and a fiber optical ring filter,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol.  51, no. 2, pp. 470–475, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. C.

M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D.-S. Yee, and K. H. Park, “40  Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol.  29, no. 5, pp. 633–640, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

M. Shin, P. S. Devgan, V. S. Grigoryan, P. Kumar, Y. D. Chung, and J. Kim, “Low phase-noise 40  GHz optical pulses from a self-starting electroabsorption-modulator-based optoelectronic oscillator,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, 2006, paper OFB1.

Kim, S.-B.

M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D.-S. Yee, and K. H. Park, “40  Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol.  29, no. 5, pp. 633–640, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Kinjo, K.

Kitayama, K.

Ko, H.

M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D.-S. Yee, and K. H. Park, “40  Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol.  29, no. 5, pp. 633–640, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Korotky, S. K.

J. J. Veselka, S. K. Korotky, P. V. Mamyshev, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and N. M. Froberg, “A soliton transmitter using a CW laser and an NRZ driven Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  8, no. 7, pp. 950–952, July 1996.
[CrossRef]

Kotb, H. E.

H. E. Kotb, A. M. E. Safwat, H. Boghdady, and D. A. M. Khalil, “RF optoelectronic oscillator using a directly modulated semiconductor laser and a fiber optical ring filter,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol.  51, no. 2, pp. 470–475, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sørensen, N. Chi, H. J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson interferometer for RZ signal generation using phase-to-intensity modulation conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  17, no. 8, pp. 1674–1676, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

J. Lasri, P. Devgan, R. Tang, and P. Kumar, “Self-starting optoelectronic oscillator for generating ultra-low-jitter high-rate (10  GHz or higher) optical pulses,” Opt. Express, vol.  11, no. 12, pp. 1430–1435, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

M. Shin, P. S. Devgan, V. S. Grigoryan, P. Kumar, Y. D. Chung, and J. Kim, “Low phase-noise 40  GHz optical pulses from a self-starting electroabsorption-modulator-based optoelectronic oscillator,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, 2006, paper OFB1.

Kuo, H. C.

Küppers, F.

Laming, R. I.

Larger, L.

Y. K. Chembo, L. Larger, and P. Colet, “Nonlinear dynamics and spectral stability of optoelectronic microwave oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  44, no. 9, pp. 858–866, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Lasri, J.

Leem, Y. A.

M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D.-S. Yee, and K. H. Park, “40  Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol.  29, no. 5, pp. 633–640, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Leng, L.

C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, and Y. Tian, “All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  18, no. 22, pp. 2368–2370, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

P. J. Winzer and J. Leuthold, “Return-to-zero modulator using a single NRZ drive signal and an optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  13, no. 12, pp. 1298–1300, Dec. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y. S.

Lin, C. C.

Lin, G. C.

Lin, G.-R.

G.-R. Lin, Y. C. Chi, Y. S. Liao, H. C. Kuo, H. L. Wang, and G. C. Lin, “A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 13622–13635, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lin, Y. C. Chi, H. C. Kuo, P. C. Peng, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and G.-R. Lin, “Beyond-bandwidth electrical pulse modulation of a TO-can packaged VCSEL for 10  Gbit/s injection-locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 6, pp. 830–841, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chi and G.-R. Lin, “Distinguished RZ-OOK performances between DFBLD pulsed carriers self-started by gain switching and nonlinear absorption modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 5, pp. 1146–1152, Sept.–Oct. 2011.
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Y. C. Chang, Y. H. Lin, J. H. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format transformer with an injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode at unlasing condition,” Opt. Express, vol.  12, no. 19, pp. 4449–4456, Sept. 2004.
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C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sørensen, N. Chi, H. J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson interferometer for RZ signal generation using phase-to-intensity modulation conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  17, no. 8, pp. 1674–1676, Aug. 2005.
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Electron. Lett. (3)

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M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D.-S. Yee, and K. H. Park, “40  Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol.  29, no. 5, pp. 633–640, Oct. 2007.
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (15)

H. Hasegawa, Y. Oikawa, and M. Nakazawa, “A 10-GHz optoelectronic oscillator at 850  nm using a single-mode VCSEL and a photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  19, no. 19, pp. 1451–1453, Oct. 2007.
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[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, Y. C. Chang, and J. R. Wu, “Rational harmonic mode-locking of erbium-doped fiber laser at 40  GHz using a loss-modulated Fabry-Perot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 8, pp. 1810–1812, Aug. 2004.
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[CrossRef]

L. Huo, Y. Dong, C. Lou, and Y. Gao, “Clock extraction using an optoelectronic oscillator from high-speed NRZ signal and NRZ-to-RZ format transformation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 7, pp. 981–983, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the synthesizer-free 40Gbit/s RZ data generation based on a self-starting MZM pulsed RZ carrier generator. OBPF, optical bandpass filter; PM, phase modulator; PD, photodiode; LNA, low-noise amplifier; BPF, bandpass filter; PA, power amplifier; SMF, single-mode fiber; BPSK DeMod, BPSK demodulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the MZM-OEO model corresponding voltage defined at different nodes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Experimentally measured and (b) numerically simulated output of the self-pulsated RZ waveforms after the MZM-PD link.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical spectra of (a) free-running DFBLD, (b) self-pulsating MZM driven OEO, (c) NRZ modulated self-starting MZM pulsator, and (d) demodulated synthesizer-free 40Gbit/s RZ-BPSK data after BPSK demodulator.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Upper: eye diagrams of optical RZ carriers delivered from the self-starting MZM pulsated RZ carrier generator at MZM DC biases of 0.9 Vπ (left) and Vπ (right), respectively. Lower: pulsewidth, timing jitter, and pulse ER of the self-started optical RZ carrier as a function of the MZM DC bias.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calculated timing jitter against the delayed SMF length in the self-feedback OEO.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

RF spectrum of the oscillating clock extracted from the self-starting MZM pulsed RZ carrier generator.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

RZ-BPSK eye diagrams obtained with varying relative true-time delay between the microwave clock and RZ carrier.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

SNR and corresponding output eye diagrams of the synthesizer-free 40Gbit/s RZ-BPSK data as a function of the biased voltage for adjusting the notch wavelength of the BPSK demodulator.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Back-to-back and 25 km SMF transmitted BER performance of the synthesizer-free 40Gbit/s RZ-BPSK data triggered by the self-starting MZM pulsator.

Equations (6)

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{VBPF,in(t)=VBPF,out(t)+1ΔfdVBPF,out(t)dt+fc2Δft0tVBPF,out(s)dsVAMP,out(t)=κGVAMP,in(t)=κGVBPF,out(t)VMZM-PD(t)=ηPcos2{π[VAMP,out(tT)+VB]2Vπ}=VBPF,in(t),
VBPF,out(t)+1ΔfdVBPF,out(t)dt+fc2Δft0tVBPF,out(s)ds=ηPcos2{π[κGVBPF,out(tT)+VB]2Vπ}.
σ(f)=12πfR[2fLfH10SRF(f)10df]1/2,
Eo(t)=i[Ei+Jn(β)cos[(ωi+nωm)t+nπ2]],
Vπ,PM=dλinγ3γ33L,
Eo(t)zα2Eo(t)iβ222Eo(t)t2=α2Eo(t)iβ222t2{iEi+Jn(β)·cos[(ωi+nωm)t+nπ2]}=α2Eo(t)iβ22iEi+{Jn(β)·2cos[(ωi+nωm)t+nπ2]t2}=α2Eo(t)iβ22iEi+Jn(β){(ωi+nωm)2·cos[(ωi+nωm)t+nπ2]}=α2Eo(t)+iβ22iEi+(ωi+nωm)2·Jn(β)cos[(ωi+nωm)t+nπ2],