Abstract

The physical resource assignment problem in dynamic optical networks, often referred to as the routing and wavelength assignment problem, is very important for the development of optical transport networks. Research has been done to optimize this operation so that the overall connection blocking can be minimized. Traffic grooming adds another dimension to this problem by introducing opportunities for multiplexing low-bit-rate traffic into a high-bit-rate stream. The ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm is a metaheuristic method that is inspired by the foraging behavior of ants and has been widely implemented in solving discrete optimization problems. This paper proposes an ACO to solve the grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment problem. Unlike previous work, our work includes considerations of mixed line rate, physical impairments, and traffic grooming functionality. Comprehensive simulation tests show how variations on the ACO algorithms’ implementation affect performance. A comparison is made between this distributed algorithm and a centralized algorithm that we propose, a grooming adaptive shortest path algorithm (GASP). Although GASP shows better efficiency in terms of blocking probability, ACO shows great robustness and adaptivity to varying network and traffic conditions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  2. O. Awwad, A. Al-Fuqaha, and M. Guizani, “Genetic approach for traffic grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment in WDM optical networks with sparse grooming resources,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, vol. 6, 2006, pp. 2447–2452.
  3. B. Chen, G. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Balasubramanian and A. Somani, “On path-level traffic grooming strategies in WDM metro optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 11, pp. 91–97, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Colorni, M. Dorigo, and V. Maniezzo, “Distributed optimization by ant colonies,” in Proc. of the First European Conf. on Artificial Life, vol. 142, 1991, pp. 134–142.
  6. G. Di Caro and M. Dorigo, “Mobile agents for adaptive routing,” in Proc. of the Thirty-First Hawaii Int. Conf. on System Sciences, vol. 7, 1998, pp. 74–83.
  7. J. Pedro, J. Pires, and J. Carvalho, “Distributed routing path optimization for OBS networks based on ant colony optimization,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2009, pp. 1–7.
  8. R. M. Garlick and R. S. Barr, “Dynamic wavelength routing in WDM networks via ant colony optimization,” in Ant Algorithms: Third Int. Workshop, vol. 2463. Springer-Verlag, 2002, pp. 250–255.
  9. S.-H. Ngo, X. Jiang, and S. Horiguchi, “Adaptive routing and wavelength assignment using ant-based algorithm,” in Proc. 12th IEEE Int. Conf. on Networks, vol. 2, 2004, pp. 482–486.
  10. K. Bhaskaran, J. Triay, and V. Vokkarane, “Dynamic anycast routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks using ant colony optimization (ACO),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2011, pp. 1–6.
  11. Y.-M. Kim, E.-J. Lee, and H.-S. Park, “Ant colony optimization based self-organizing QoS framework in IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 11, pp. 1074–1076, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Mapisse, P. Cardoso, and J. Monteiro, “Ant colony optimization routing mechanisms with bandwidth sensing,” in EUROCON—Int. Conf. on Computer as a Tool (EUROCON), 2011, pp. 1–4.
  13. Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “ACO-based routing and spectrum allocation in flexible bandwidth networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  25, no. 3, pp. 135–143, 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Pavani and H. Waldman, “Traffic engineering and restoration in optical packet switching networks by means of ant colony optimization,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2006, pp. 1–10.
  15. X. Li, Y. Aneja, and F. Baki, “Ant colony optimization metaheuristic for the traffic grooming in WDM networks,” in Proc. of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Combinatorial Optimization and Applications, 2008, pp. 235–245.
  16. X. Wang, M. Brandt-Pearce, and S. Subramaniam, “Dynamic grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment for real-time optical networks using ant colony optimization,” presented at IEEE GLOBECOM, Atlanta, GA, Dec.2013.
  17. B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  17, no. 10, pp. 1713–1723, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. Winzer, G. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 662–701, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Batayneh, D. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstaedter, and B. Mukherjee, “On routing and transmission-range determination of multi-bit-rate signals over mixed-line-rate WDM optical networks for carrier Ethernet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 1304–1316, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Triay and C. Cervello-Pastor, “An ant-based algorithm for distributed routing and wavelength assignment in dynamic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 542–552, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connexion with graphs,” Numer. Math., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 269–271, 1959.
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw, vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 197–206, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  24. X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: architecture, network design and wavelength routing,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  10, no. 1, pp. 39–53, 2005.
    [CrossRef]

2013

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “ACO-based routing and spectrum allocation in flexible bandwidth networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  25, no. 3, pp. 135–143, 2013.
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Batayneh, D. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstaedter, and B. Mukherjee, “On routing and transmission-range determination of multi-bit-rate signals over mixed-line-rate WDM optical networks for carrier Ethernet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 1304–1316, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, 2010.
[CrossRef]

R. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. Winzer, G. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 662–701, 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Triay and C. Cervello-Pastor, “An ant-based algorithm for distributed routing and wavelength assignment in dynamic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 542–552, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Y.-M. Kim, E.-J. Lee, and H.-S. Park, “Ant colony optimization based self-organizing QoS framework in IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 11, pp. 1074–1076, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2008

B. Chen, G. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, 2008.
[CrossRef]

S. Balasubramanian and A. Somani, “On path-level traffic grooming strategies in WDM metro optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 11, pp. 91–97, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2005

X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: architecture, network design and wavelength routing,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  10, no. 1, pp. 39–53, 2005.
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw, vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 197–206, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1959

E. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connexion with graphs,” Numer. Math., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 269–271, 1959.
[CrossRef]

Al-Fuqaha, A.

O. Awwad, A. Al-Fuqaha, and M. Guizani, “Genetic approach for traffic grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment in WDM optical networks with sparse grooming resources,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, vol. 6, 2006, pp. 2447–2452.

Aneja, Y.

X. Li, Y. Aneja, and F. Baki, “Ant colony optimization metaheuristic for the traffic grooming in WDM networks,” in Proc. of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Combinatorial Optimization and Applications, 2008, pp. 235–245.

Awwad, O.

O. Awwad, A. Al-Fuqaha, and M. Guizani, “Genetic approach for traffic grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment in WDM optical networks with sparse grooming resources,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, vol. 6, 2006, pp. 2447–2452.

Azizoglu, M.

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw, vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 197–206, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Baki, F.

X. Li, Y. Aneja, and F. Baki, “Ant colony optimization metaheuristic for the traffic grooming in WDM networks,” in Proc. of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Combinatorial Optimization and Applications, 2008, pp. 235–245.

Balasubramanian, S.

S. Balasubramanian and A. Somani, “On path-level traffic grooming strategies in WDM metro optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 11, pp. 91–97, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Barr, R. S.

R. M. Garlick and R. S. Barr, “Dynamic wavelength routing in WDM networks via ant colony optimization,” in Ant Algorithms: Third Int. Workshop, vol. 2463. Springer-Verlag, 2002, pp. 250–255.

Batayneh, M.

M. Batayneh, D. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstaedter, and B. Mukherjee, “On routing and transmission-range determination of multi-bit-rate signals over mixed-line-rate WDM optical networks for carrier Ethernet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 1304–1316, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Bhaskaran, K.

K. Bhaskaran, J. Triay, and V. Vokkarane, “Dynamic anycast routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks using ant colony optimization (ACO),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2011, pp. 1–6.

Brandt-Pearce, M.

X. Wang, M. Brandt-Pearce, and S. Subramaniam, “Dynamic grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment for real-time optical networks using ant colony optimization,” presented at IEEE GLOBECOM, Atlanta, GA, Dec.2013.

Cardoso, P.

J. Mapisse, P. Cardoso, and J. Monteiro, “Ant colony optimization routing mechanisms with bandwidth sensing,” in EUROCON—Int. Conf. on Computer as a Tool (EUROCON), 2011, pp. 1–4.

Carvalho, J.

J. Pedro, J. Pires, and J. Carvalho, “Distributed routing path optimization for OBS networks based on ant colony optimization,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2009, pp. 1–7.

Cervello-Pastor, C.

J. Triay and C. Cervello-Pastor, “An ant-based algorithm for distributed routing and wavelength assignment in dynamic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 542–552, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, G. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Colorni, A.

A. Colorni, M. Dorigo, and V. Maniezzo, “Distributed optimization by ant colonies,” in Proc. of the First European Conf. on Artificial Life, vol. 142, 1991, pp. 134–142.

Datta, D.

Di Caro, G.

G. Di Caro and M. Dorigo, “Mobile agents for adaptive routing,” in Proc. of the Thirty-First Hawaii Int. Conf. on System Sciences, vol. 7, 1998, pp. 74–83.

Dijkstra, E.

E. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connexion with graphs,” Numer. Math., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 269–271, 1959.
[CrossRef]

Dorigo, M.

G. Di Caro and M. Dorigo, “Mobile agents for adaptive routing,” in Proc. of the Thirty-First Hawaii Int. Conf. on System Sciences, vol. 7, 1998, pp. 74–83.

A. Colorni, M. Dorigo, and V. Maniezzo, “Distributed optimization by ant colonies,” in Proc. of the First European Conf. on Artificial Life, vol. 142, 1991, pp. 134–142.

Dutta, R.

B. Chen, G. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R.

Feng, H.

Foschini, G.

Garlick, R. M.

R. M. Garlick and R. S. Barr, “Dynamic wavelength routing in WDM networks via ant colony optimization,” in Ant Algorithms: Third Int. Workshop, vol. 2463. Springer-Verlag, 2002, pp. 250–255.

Goebel, B.

Gu, W.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “ACO-based routing and spectrum allocation in flexible bandwidth networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  25, no. 3, pp. 135–143, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Guizani, M.

O. Awwad, A. Al-Fuqaha, and M. Guizani, “Genetic approach for traffic grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment in WDM optical networks with sparse grooming resources,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, vol. 6, 2006, pp. 2447–2452.

Heritage, J.

Hoffmann, M.

M. Batayneh, D. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstaedter, and B. Mukherjee, “On routing and transmission-range determination of multi-bit-rate signals over mixed-line-rate WDM optical networks for carrier Ethernet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 1304–1316, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, S.

S.-H. Ngo, X. Jiang, and S. Horiguchi, “Adaptive routing and wavelength assignment using ant-based algorithm,” in Proc. 12th IEEE Int. Conf. on Networks, vol. 2, 2004, pp. 482–486.

Jiang, X.

S.-H. Ngo, X. Jiang, and S. Horiguchi, “Adaptive routing and wavelength assignment using ant-based algorithm,” in Proc. 12th IEEE Int. Conf. on Networks, vol. 2, 2004, pp. 482–486.

Kim, Y.-M.

Y.-M. Kim, E.-J. Lee, and H.-S. Park, “Ant colony optimization based self-organizing QoS framework in IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 11, pp. 1074–1076, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Kirstaedter, A.

M. Batayneh, D. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstaedter, and B. Mukherjee, “On routing and transmission-range determination of multi-bit-rate signals over mixed-line-rate WDM optical networks for carrier Ethernet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 1304–1316, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Kramer, G.

Lee, E.-J.

Y.-M. Kim, E.-J. Lee, and H.-S. Park, “Ant colony optimization based self-organizing QoS framework in IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 11, pp. 1074–1076, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, Y. Aneja, and F. Baki, “Ant colony optimization metaheuristic for the traffic grooming in WDM networks,” in Proc. of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Combinatorial Optimization and Applications, 2008, pp. 235–245.

Maniezzo, V.

A. Colorni, M. Dorigo, and V. Maniezzo, “Distributed optimization by ant colonies,” in Proc. of the First European Conf. on Artificial Life, vol. 142, 1991, pp. 134–142.

Mapisse, J.

J. Mapisse, P. Cardoso, and J. Monteiro, “Ant colony optimization routing mechanisms with bandwidth sensing,” in EUROCON—Int. Conf. on Computer as a Tool (EUROCON), 2011, pp. 1–4.

Mokhtar, A.

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw, vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 197–206, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Monteiro, J.

J. Mapisse, P. Cardoso, and J. Monteiro, “Ant colony optimization routing mechanisms with bandwidth sensing,” in EUROCON—Int. Conf. on Computer as a Tool (EUROCON), 2011, pp. 1–4.

Mukherjee, B.

M. Batayneh, D. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstaedter, and B. Mukherjee, “On routing and transmission-range determination of multi-bit-rate signals over mixed-line-rate WDM optical networks for carrier Ethernet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 1304–1316, 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  17, no. 10, pp. 1713–1723, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Nag, A.

Ngo, S.-H.

S.-H. Ngo, X. Jiang, and S. Horiguchi, “Adaptive routing and wavelength assignment using ant-based algorithm,” in Proc. 12th IEEE Int. Conf. on Networks, vol. 2, 2004, pp. 482–486.

Park, H.-S.

Y.-M. Kim, E.-J. Lee, and H.-S. Park, “Ant colony optimization based self-organizing QoS framework in IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 11, pp. 1074–1076, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Pavani, G.

G. Pavani and H. Waldman, “Traffic engineering and restoration in optical packet switching networks by means of ant colony optimization,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2006, pp. 1–10.

Pedro, J.

J. Pedro, J. Pires, and J. Carvalho, “Distributed routing path optimization for OBS networks based on ant colony optimization,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2009, pp. 1–7.

Pires, J.

J. Pedro, J. Pires, and J. Carvalho, “Distributed routing path optimization for OBS networks based on ant colony optimization,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2009, pp. 1–7.

Ramamurthy, B.

X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: architecture, network design and wavelength routing,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  10, no. 1, pp. 39–53, 2005.
[CrossRef]

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  17, no. 10, pp. 1713–1723, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Rouskas, G.

B. Chen, G. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Schupke, D.

M. Batayneh, D. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstaedter, and B. Mukherjee, “On routing and transmission-range determination of multi-bit-rate signals over mixed-line-rate WDM optical networks for carrier Ethernet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 1304–1316, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Somani, A.

S. Balasubramanian and A. Somani, “On path-level traffic grooming strategies in WDM metro optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 11, pp. 91–97, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, S.

X. Wang, M. Brandt-Pearce, and S. Subramaniam, “Dynamic grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment for real-time optical networks using ant colony optimization,” presented at IEEE GLOBECOM, Atlanta, GA, Dec.2013.

Tornatore, M.

Triay, J.

J. Triay and C. Cervello-Pastor, “An ant-based algorithm for distributed routing and wavelength assignment in dynamic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 542–552, 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Bhaskaran, J. Triay, and V. Vokkarane, “Dynamic anycast routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks using ant colony optimization (ACO),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2011, pp. 1–6.

Vokkarane, V.

K. Bhaskaran, J. Triay, and V. Vokkarane, “Dynamic anycast routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks using ant colony optimization (ACO),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2011, pp. 1–6.

Waldman, H.

G. Pavani and H. Waldman, “Traffic engineering and restoration in optical packet switching networks by means of ant colony optimization,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2006, pp. 1–10.

Wang, J.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “ACO-based routing and spectrum allocation in flexible bandwidth networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  25, no. 3, pp. 135–143, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, M. Brandt-Pearce, and S. Subramaniam, “Dynamic grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment for real-time optical networks using ant colony optimization,” presented at IEEE GLOBECOM, Atlanta, GA, Dec.2013.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “ACO-based routing and spectrum allocation in flexible bandwidth networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  25, no. 3, pp. 135–143, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P.

Yang, X.

X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: architecture, network design and wavelength routing,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  10, no. 1, pp. 39–53, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “ACO-based routing and spectrum allocation in flexible bandwidth networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  25, no. 3, pp. 135–143, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “ACO-based routing and spectrum allocation in flexible bandwidth networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  25, no. 3, pp. 135–143, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, K.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett.

Y.-M. Kim, E.-J. Lee, and H.-S. Park, “Ant colony optimization based self-organizing QoS framework in IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 11, pp. 1074–1076, 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

S. Balasubramanian and A. Somani, “On path-level traffic grooming strategies in WDM metro optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 11, pp. 91–97, 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

J. Triay and C. Cervello-Pastor, “An ant-based algorithm for distributed routing and wavelength assignment in dynamic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 542–552, 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw, vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 197–206, 1998.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

M. Batayneh, D. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstaedter, and B. Mukherjee, “On routing and transmission-range determination of multi-bit-rate signals over mixed-line-rate WDM optical networks for carrier Ethernet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 1304–1316, 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, G. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Numer. Math.

E. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connexion with graphs,” Numer. Math., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 269–271, 1959.
[CrossRef]

Photon. Netw. Commun.

X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: architecture, network design and wavelength routing,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  10, no. 1, pp. 39–53, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “ACO-based routing and spectrum allocation in flexible bandwidth networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  25, no. 3, pp. 135–143, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Pavani and H. Waldman, “Traffic engineering and restoration in optical packet switching networks by means of ant colony optimization,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2006, pp. 1–10.

X. Li, Y. Aneja, and F. Baki, “Ant colony optimization metaheuristic for the traffic grooming in WDM networks,” in Proc. of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Combinatorial Optimization and Applications, 2008, pp. 235–245.

X. Wang, M. Brandt-Pearce, and S. Subramaniam, “Dynamic grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment for real-time optical networks using ant colony optimization,” presented at IEEE GLOBECOM, Atlanta, GA, Dec.2013.

O. Awwad, A. Al-Fuqaha, and M. Guizani, “Genetic approach for traffic grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment in WDM optical networks with sparse grooming resources,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, vol. 6, 2006, pp. 2447–2452.

J. Mapisse, P. Cardoso, and J. Monteiro, “Ant colony optimization routing mechanisms with bandwidth sensing,” in EUROCON—Int. Conf. on Computer as a Tool (EUROCON), 2011, pp. 1–4.

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R. M. Garlick and R. S. Barr, “Dynamic wavelength routing in WDM networks via ant colony optimization,” in Ant Algorithms: Third Int. Workshop, vol. 2463. Springer-Verlag, 2002, pp. 250–255.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

NSF-24 network.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Blocking probability of ACO with implementation of traffic grooming and TR (NR=3, NC=1, PL=1, TL=30, and ρ=0.7).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Blocking probability of ACO with backtracking (NR=3) and without backtracking (NR=15).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Blocking probability of ACO with different ants’ behavior parameters: number of cycles NC, launch interval TL, and launch probability PL (E=100 Erlangs, h=1 time unit).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Blocking probability of ACO with different random walk probabilities r for various ant launch probabilities PL (NR=3, NC=1, E=400 Erlangs).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Blocking probability of ACO with different configurations: one ant per node pair with NC=1 and NC=3; three ants per cycle and NC=1 (NR=3, PL=1, TL=20, and ρ=0.7).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Blocking probability of ACO versus parameter ρ (PL=[0.1,0.5,1], NR=3, NC=1, TL=30, and E=400 Erlangs).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Blocking probability of ACO versus GASP and static SP, static FA (NR=3, NC=1, PL=0.5, TL=10, and ρ=0.5).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

One realization of real-time ongoing connections using ACO versus GASP (NR=3, NC=1, PL=0.5, TL=10, and ρ=0.5, averaged over 60 trials).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Ongoing traffic when fiber cut occurs (NR=3, NC=1, PL=0.5, TL=10, and ρ=0.5, averaged over 60 trials).

Tables (3)

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TABLE I Pheromones at Node 8 of Fig. 1

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Algorithm 1 Ant Foraging Cycle

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

pij=τij(k)(t)
pij=(1β)τij(k)(t)+βωk,i,
τ(t+1)ρτ(t)+(1ρ)Δτ,
Δτ=1L(1+αω)
τ(t+1)(1ρ)τ(t)+ρτ0
pij=(1r)[(1β)τij(k)(t)+βωk,i]+rNk
Average number of ants=NC×PL×ETLh.