Abstract

Power consumption in current communication networks including the access networks is increasing rapidly; energy efficiency is therefore one of the key design considerations in the next generation passive optical networks (PONs). In this paper, we investigate how a wavelength relocation mechanism can reduce power consumption and deployment cost of transceivers in time and wavelength division multiplexed PONs (TWDM-PONs), in which wavelengths and transceivers can be shared among multiple PONs. We analyze how the percentage of deployed wavelengths and transceivers will impact the average available bandwidth and cause extra delay for the working optical network units (ONUs). We show through simulation that under typical ONU online profiles, the percentage of wavelength and transceivers that need to be deployed can be reduced to as low as 30% as compared to conventional PONs, with no resource sharing and wavelength relocation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Kani, “Power saving techniques and mechanisms for optical access networks systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 31, pp. 563–570, 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Yang, W. Sun, W. Hu, and J. Li, “ONU migration in dynamic time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON),” Opt. Express, vol. 21, pp. 21491–21499, 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 31, pp. 587–593, 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Lee, “A joint algorithm for base station operation and user association in heterogeneous networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 1552–1555, 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Shachaf, C. Chang, P. Kourtessis, and J. Senior, “Multi-PON access network using a coarse AWG for smooth migration from TDM to WDM PON,” Opt. Express, vol. 15, pp. 7840–7844, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, pp. 126–133, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Cao, J. Mendinueta, B. Thomsen, and J. Mitchell, “Demonstration of a 10  Gbit/s long reach wavelength converting optical access network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 31, pp. 328–333, 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. s33–s38, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Kubo, J. Kani, H. Ujikawa, T. Sakamoto, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and H. Hadama, “Study and demonstration of sleep and adaptive link rate control mechanisms for energy efficient 10G-EPON,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, pp. 716–729, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Suzuki, K. Kobiki, E. Igawa, and J. Nakagawa, “Dynamic sleep-mode ONU with self-sustained fast-lock CDR IC for burst-mode power saving in 10  G-EPON systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 1796–1798, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Dias and E. Wong, “Sleep/doze controlled dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for energy-efficient passive optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, pp. 9931–9946, 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Dhaini, P. Ho, and G. Shen, “Toward green next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 94–101, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Adaptive power saving mechanism for 10 gigabit class PON systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, pp. 280–288, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Mizukami, J. Yamaguchi, N. Nemoto, Y. Kawajiri, H. Hirata, S. Uchiyama, M. Makihara, T. Sakata, N. Shimoyama, and K. Oda, “128×128 three-dimensional MEMS optical switch module with simultaneous optical path connection for optical cross-connect systems,” Appl. Opt., vol. 50, pp. 4037–4041, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. Papen, “A 10 μs hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OW3H.3.
  16. P. Ji, D. Qian, K. Kanonakis, C. Kachris, and I. Tomkos, “Design and evaluation of a flexible-bandwidth OFDM-based intra data center interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 19, 3700310, 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  17. Q. Cheng, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, and I. White, “Scalable low-energy hybrid photonic space switch,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 31, pp. 3077–3084, 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, and T. Niwa, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 46–52, 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Nakamura, K. Taguchi, S. Tamaki, T. Mizuno, Y. Hashizume, T. Yamada, M. Ito, H. Takahashi, S. Kimura, and N. Yoshimoto, “40 Gbit/s-class-λ-tunable WDM/TDM-PON using λ-selectable B-Tx and 4 × M cyclic AWG router for flexible photonic aggregation networks,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, pp. 463–468, 2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (10)

J. Kani, “Power saving techniques and mechanisms for optical access networks systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 31, pp. 563–570, 2013.
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, W. Sun, W. Hu, and J. Li, “ONU migration in dynamic time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON),” Opt. Express, vol. 21, pp. 21491–21499, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 31, pp. 587–593, 2013.
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Lee, “A joint algorithm for base station operation and user association in heterogeneous networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 1552–1555, 2013.
[CrossRef]

B. Cao, J. Mendinueta, B. Thomsen, and J. Mitchell, “Demonstration of a 10  Gbit/s long reach wavelength converting optical access network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 31, pp. 328–333, 2013.
[CrossRef]

P. Ji, D. Qian, K. Kanonakis, C. Kachris, and I. Tomkos, “Design and evaluation of a flexible-bandwidth OFDM-based intra data center interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 19, 3700310, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Q. Cheng, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, and I. White, “Scalable low-energy hybrid photonic space switch,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 31, pp. 3077–3084, 2013.
[CrossRef]

K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, and T. Niwa, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 46–52, 2013.
[CrossRef]

M. Dias and E. Wong, “Sleep/doze controlled dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for energy-efficient passive optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, pp. 9931–9946, 2013.
[CrossRef]

H. Nakamura, K. Taguchi, S. Tamaki, T. Mizuno, Y. Hashizume, T. Yamada, M. Ito, H. Takahashi, S. Kimura, and N. Yoshimoto, “40 Gbit/s-class-λ-tunable WDM/TDM-PON using λ-selectable B-Tx and 4 × M cyclic AWG router for flexible photonic aggregation networks,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, pp. 463–468, 2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

M. Mizukami, J. Yamaguchi, N. Nemoto, Y. Kawajiri, H. Hirata, S. Uchiyama, M. Makihara, T. Sakata, N. Shimoyama, and K. Oda, “128×128 three-dimensional MEMS optical switch module with simultaneous optical path connection for optical cross-connect systems,” Appl. Opt., vol. 50, pp. 4037–4041, 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Dhaini, P. Ho, and G. Shen, “Toward green next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 94–101, 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. s33–s38, 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, K. Kobiki, E. Igawa, and J. Nakagawa, “Dynamic sleep-mode ONU with self-sustained fast-lock CDR IC for burst-mode power saving in 10  G-EPON systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 1796–1798, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

R. Kubo, J. Kani, H. Ujikawa, T. Sakamoto, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and H. Hadama, “Study and demonstration of sleep and adaptive link rate control mechanisms for energy efficient 10G-EPON,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, pp. 716–729, 2010.
[CrossRef]

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Adaptive power saving mechanism for 10 gigabit class PON systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, pp. 280–288, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, 2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, pp. 126–133, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Ahmed, J.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ansari, N.

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. s33–s38, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Cao, B.

Chang, C.

Chen, J.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Q.

Choi, S.

S. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Lee, “A joint algorithm for base station operation and user association in heterogeneous networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 1552–1555, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Dhaini, R.

R. Dhaini, P. Ho, and G. Shen, “Toward green next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 94–101, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Dias, M.

Effenberger, F.

Fainman, S.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. Papen, “A 10 μs hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OW3H.3.

Farrington, N.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. Papen, “A 10 μs hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OW3H.3.

Ford, J.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. Papen, “A 10 μs hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OW3H.3.

Forencich, A.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. Papen, “A 10 μs hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OW3H.3.

Fujimoto, Y.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Adaptive power saving mechanism for 10 gigabit class PON systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, pp. 280–288, 2010.
[CrossRef]

R. Kubo, J. Kani, H. Ujikawa, T. Sakamoto, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and H. Hadama, “Study and demonstration of sleep and adaptive link rate control mechanisms for energy efficient 10G-EPON,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, pp. 716–729, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Hadama, H.

Hasegawa, H.

K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, and T. Niwa, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 46–52, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Hashizume, Y.

Hirata, H.

Ho, P.

R. Dhaini, P. Ho, and G. Shen, “Toward green next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 94–101, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

Igawa, E.

N. Suzuki, K. Kobiki, E. Igawa, and J. Nakagawa, “Dynamic sleep-mode ONU with self-sustained fast-lock CDR IC for burst-mode power saving in 10  G-EPON systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 1796–1798, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

Ji, P.

P. Ji, D. Qian, K. Kanonakis, C. Kachris, and I. Tomkos, “Design and evaluation of a flexible-bandwidth OFDM-based intra data center interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 19, 3700310, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Kachris, C.

P. Ji, D. Qian, K. Kanonakis, C. Kachris, and I. Tomkos, “Design and evaluation of a flexible-bandwidth OFDM-based intra data center interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 19, 3700310, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Kani, J.

Kanonakis, K.

P. Ji, D. Qian, K. Kanonakis, C. Kachris, and I. Tomkos, “Design and evaluation of a flexible-bandwidth OFDM-based intra data center interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 19, 3700310, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Kawajiri, Y.

Kim, S.

S. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Lee, “A joint algorithm for base station operation and user association in heterogeneous networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 1552–1555, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Kimura, S.

Kobiki, K.

N. Suzuki, K. Kobiki, E. Igawa, and J. Nakagawa, “Dynamic sleep-mode ONU with self-sustained fast-lock CDR IC for burst-mode power saving in 10  G-EPON systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 1796–1798, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Kourtessis, P.

Kubo, R.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, H. Ujikawa, T. Sakamoto, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and H. Hadama, “Study and demonstration of sleep and adaptive link rate control mechanisms for energy efficient 10G-EPON,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, pp. 716–729, 2010.
[CrossRef]

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Adaptive power saving mechanism for 10 gigabit class PON systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, pp. 280–288, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Kumozaki, K.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Adaptive power saving mechanism for 10 gigabit class PON systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, pp. 280–288, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

S. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Lee, “A joint algorithm for base station operation and user association in heterogeneous networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 1552–1555, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Luo, Y.

Ma, Y.

Makihara, M.

Mendinueta, J.

Mitchell, J.

B. Cao, J. Mendinueta, B. Thomsen, and J. Mitchell, “Demonstration of a 10  Gbit/s long reach wavelength converting optical access network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 31, pp. 328–333, 2013.
[CrossRef]

D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, pp. 126–133, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Mizukami, M.

Mizuno, T.

Mukherjee, B.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, J.

N. Suzuki, K. Kobiki, E. Igawa, and J. Nakagawa, “Dynamic sleep-mode ONU with self-sustained fast-lock CDR IC for burst-mode power saving in 10  G-EPON systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 1796–1798, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, H.

Nemoto, N.

Niwa, T.

K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, and T. Niwa, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 46–52, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Oda, K.

Papen, G.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. Papen, “A 10 μs hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OW3H.3.

Peng, G.

Penty, R.

Porter, G.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. Papen, “A 10 μs hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OW3H.3.

Qian, D.

P. Ji, D. Qian, K. Kanonakis, C. Kachris, and I. Tomkos, “Design and evaluation of a flexible-bandwidth OFDM-based intra data center interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 19, 3700310, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Qian, Y.

Sakamoto, T.

Sakata, T.

Sato, K.

K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, and T. Niwa, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 46–52, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Senior, J.

Shachaf, Y.

Shea, D.

D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, pp. 126–133, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Shen, G.

R. Dhaini, P. Ho, and G. Shen, “Toward green next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 94–101, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Shimoyama, N.

Skubic, B.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Sun, P.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. Papen, “A 10 μs hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OW3H.3.

Sun, W.

Suzuki, N.

N. Suzuki, K. Kobiki, E. Igawa, and J. Nakagawa, “Dynamic sleep-mode ONU with self-sustained fast-lock CDR IC for burst-mode power saving in 10  G-EPON systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 1796–1798, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, K.

Takahashi, H.

Tamaki, S.

Thomsen, B.

Tomkos, I.

P. Ji, D. Qian, K. Kanonakis, C. Kachris, and I. Tomkos, “Design and evaluation of a flexible-bandwidth OFDM-based intra data center interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 19, 3700310, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, S.

Ujikawa, H.

Vahdat, A.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. Papen, “A 10 μs hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OW3H.3.

White, I.

Wonfor, A.

Wong, E.

Wosinska, L.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

Yamaguchi, J.

Yan, X.

Yang, H.

Yoshimoto, N.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. s33–s38, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

S. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Lee, “A joint algorithm for base station operation and user association in heterogeneous networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 1552–1555, 2013.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (4)

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. s33–s38, 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Dhaini, P. Ho, and G. Shen, “Toward green next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 94–101, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, and T. Niwa, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 46–52, 2013.
[CrossRef]

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, pp. 126–133, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Ji, D. Qian, K. Kanonakis, C. Kachris, and I. Tomkos, “Design and evaluation of a flexible-bandwidth OFDM-based intra data center interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 19, 3700310, 2013.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Suzuki, K. Kobiki, E. Igawa, and J. Nakagawa, “Dynamic sleep-mode ONU with self-sustained fast-lock CDR IC for burst-mode power saving in 10  G-EPON systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 1796–1798, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Adaptive power saving mechanism for 10 gigabit class PON systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, pp. 280–288, 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (4)

Other (1)

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. Papen, “A 10 μs hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OW3H.3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

TWDM multi-PON access network with wavelength relocation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Wavelength relocation procedure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Number of working ONUs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Percentage of average available bandwidth for each ONU.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Average extra delay with different traffic loads and value of σ.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Average extra delay with different traffic loads and percentages of wavelength deployment.