Abstract

We propose a novel technique for simultaneous multi-impairment monitoring and autonomous bit-rate and modulation format identification (BR-MFI) in next-generation heterogeneous fiber-optic communication networks by using principal component analysis-based pattern recognition on asynchronous delay-tap plots. The results of numerical simulations performed for three commonly used modulation formats at two different bit-rates each demonstrate simultaneous and independent monitoring of optical signal-to-noise ratio, chromatic dispersion, and differential group delay with mean errors of 1 dB, 4ps/nm, and 1.6 ps, respectively, without knowing the signal’s bit-rate and modulation format. Similarly, the results for joint BR-MFI validate accurate identification of all the bit-rates and modulation formats despite the presence of various network impairments. The effects of fiber nonlinearity and transmitter variations on the performance of the proposed technique are also investigated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “Non-data-aided joint bit-rate and modulation format identification for next-generation heterogeneous optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 68–74, Mar. 2014.
[CrossRef]

2013

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 21, pp. 2129–2132, Nov. 2013.
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring based on variance of received optical power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 486–488, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, F. N. Khan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Analysis of signed chromatic dispersion monitoring by waveform asymmetry for differentially-coherent phase-modulated systems,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 4147–4156, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010

Z. Li, Z. Jian, L. Cheng, Y. Yang, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, C. Yu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Signed chromatic dispersion monitoring of 100  Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK signal by evaluating the asymmetry ratio of delay tap sampling,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 3149–3157, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. K. Qureshi, Z. Jian, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Tunable polarization maintaining fiber Bragg grating based OSNR monitor,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  16, no. 4, pp. 222–224, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  16, no. 1, pp. 20–45, Jan. 2010.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Statistical analysis of optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring using delay-tap sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 149–151, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “OSNR monitoring for RZ-DQPSK systems using half-symbol delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 11, pp. 823–825, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

2006

2004

1991

M. Turk and A. Pentland, “Eigenfaces for recognition,” J. Cogn. Neurosci., vol.  3, no. 1, pp. 71–86, Mar. 1991.

Anderson, T. B.

T. B. Anderson, A. Kowalczyk, K. Clarke, S. D. Dods, D. Hewitt, and J. C. Li, “Multi impairment monitoring for optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 16, pp. 3729–3736, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. D. Dods and T. B. Anderson, “Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2006, paper OThP5.

Arlunno, V.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 21, pp. 2129–2132, Nov. 2013.
[CrossRef]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Optical modulation format recognition in Stokes space for digital coherent receivers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OTh3B.3.

Bach, R.

Blumenthal, D.

Borkowski, R.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 21, pp. 2129–2132, Nov. 2013.
[CrossRef]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Optical modulation format recognition in Stokes space for digital coherent receivers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OTh3B.3.

Caballero, A.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 21, pp. 2129–2132, Nov. 2013.
[CrossRef]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Optical modulation format recognition in Stokes space for digital coherent receivers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OTh3B.3.

Chan, C. K.

C. K. Chan, Optical Performance Monitoring. Academic, 2010.

Cheng, L.

L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring based on variance of received optical power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 486–488, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Z. Jian, L. Cheng, Y. Yang, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, C. Yu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Signed chromatic dispersion monitoring of 100  Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK signal by evaluating the asymmetry ratio of delay tap sampling,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 3149–3157, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Clarke, K.

DeSalvo, R.

P. Isautier, A. Stark, K. Mehta, R. DeSalvo, and S. E. Ralph, “Autonomous software-defined coherent optical receivers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OTH3B.4.

Dods, S. D.

T. B. Anderson, A. Kowalczyk, K. Clarke, S. D. Dods, D. Hewitt, and J. C. Li, “Multi impairment monitoring for optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 16, pp. 3729–3736, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. D. Dods and T. B. Anderson, “Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2006, paper OThP5.

Einstein, D.

Gonzalez, N. G.

N. G. Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Turin, Sept. 2010, paper P6.11.

Hewitt, D.

Hidehiko, T.

Isautier, P.

P. Isautier, A. Stark, K. Mehta, R. DeSalvo, and S. E. Ralph, “Autonomous software-defined coherent optical receivers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OTH3B.4.

Jackson, J. E.

J. E. Jackson, A User’s Guide to Principal Components. Wiley, 2003.

Jargon, J. A.

Jian, Z.

Jolliffe, I. T.

I. T. Jolliffe, Principal Component Analysis, 2nd ed. Springer, 2002.

Khan, F. N.

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “Non-data-aided joint bit-rate and modulation format identification for next-generation heterogeneous optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 68–74, Mar. 2014.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Modulation format identification in heterogeneous fiber-optic networks using artificial neural networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 11, pp. 12422–12431, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, F. N. Khan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Analysis of signed chromatic dispersion monitoring by waveform asymmetry for differentially-coherent phase-modulated systems,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 4147–4156, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “OSNR monitoring for RZ-DQPSK systems using half-symbol delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 11, pp. 823–825, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Statistical analysis of optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring using delay-tap sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 149–151, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D. C.

Kitayama, K.

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental investigation of delay-tap sampling technique for online monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 3, pp. 179–181, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Transparent performance monitoring of RZ-DQPSK systems employing delay-tap sampling,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  6, no. 11, pp. 1257–1269, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kozicki, B.

Landolsi, T.

Laperle, C.

K. Roberts and C. Laperle, “Flexible transceivers,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, Sept. 2012, paper We.3.A.3.

Lau, A. P. T.

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “Non-data-aided joint bit-rate and modulation format identification for next-generation heterogeneous optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 68–74, Mar. 2014.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Modulation format identification in heterogeneous fiber-optic networks using artificial neural networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 11, pp. 12422–12431, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, F. N. Khan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Analysis of signed chromatic dispersion monitoring by waveform asymmetry for differentially-coherent phase-modulated systems,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 4147–4156, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring based on variance of received optical power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 486–488, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Statistical analysis of optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring using delay-tap sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 149–151, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “OSNR monitoring for RZ-DQPSK systems using half-symbol delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 11, pp. 823–825, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Z. Jian, L. Cheng, Y. Yang, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, C. Yu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Signed chromatic dispersion monitoring of 100  Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK signal by evaluating the asymmetry ratio of delay tap sampling,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 3149–3157, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Li, J. C.

Li, Z.

L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring based on variance of received optical power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 486–488, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, F. N. Khan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Analysis of signed chromatic dispersion monitoring by waveform asymmetry for differentially-coherent phase-modulated systems,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 4147–4156, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “OSNR monitoring for RZ-DQPSK systems using half-symbol delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 11, pp. 823–825, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Z. Jian, L. Cheng, Y. Yang, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, C. Yu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Signed chromatic dispersion monitoring of 100  Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK signal by evaluating the asymmetry ratio of delay tap sampling,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 3149–3157, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Statistical analysis of optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring using delay-tap sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 149–151, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Z. Li and G. Li, “Chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals based on asynchronous amplitude-histogram evaluation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, no. 7, pp. 2859–2866, July 2006.
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Modulation format identification in heterogeneous fiber-optic networks using artificial neural networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 11, pp. 12422–12431, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, F. N. Khan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Analysis of signed chromatic dispersion monitoring by waveform asymmetry for differentially-coherent phase-modulated systems,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 4147–4156, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring based on variance of received optical power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 486–488, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Statistical analysis of optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring using delay-tap sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 149–151, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “OSNR monitoring for RZ-DQPSK systems using half-symbol delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 11, pp. 823–825, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Z. Jian, L. Cheng, Y. Yang, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, C. Yu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Signed chromatic dispersion monitoring of 100  Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK signal by evaluating the asymmetry ratio of delay tap sampling,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 3149–3157, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. K. Qureshi, Z. Jian, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Tunable polarization maintaining fiber Bragg grating based OSNR monitor,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  16, no. 4, pp. 222–224, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Maruta, A.

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental investigation of delay-tap sampling technique for online monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 3, pp. 179–181, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Transparent performance monitoring of RZ-DQPSK systems employing delay-tap sampling,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  6, no. 11, pp. 1257–1269, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Mehta, K.

P. Isautier, A. Stark, K. Mehta, R. DeSalvo, and S. E. Ralph, “Autonomous software-defined coherent optical receivers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OTH3B.4.

Monroy, I. T.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 21, pp. 2129–2132, Nov. 2013.
[CrossRef]

N. G. Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Turin, Sept. 2010, paper P6.11.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Optical modulation format recognition in Stokes space for digital coherent receivers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OTh3B.3.

Mukherjee, B.

Nag, A.

Ostar, L.

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  16, no. 1, pp. 20–45, Jan. 2010.
[CrossRef]

A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and C. Yu, “Optical performance monitoring,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Eds. Academic, 2008, ch. 7.

Paraschis, L.

Pentland, A.

M. Turk and A. Pentland, “Eigenfaces for recognition,” J. Cogn. Neurosci., vol.  3, no. 1, pp. 71–86, Mar. 1991.

M. Turk and A. Pentland, “Face recognition using eigenfaces,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Maui, HI, June 1991, pp. 586–591.

Preiss, M.

Qureshi, K. K.

K. K. Qureshi, Z. Jian, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Tunable polarization maintaining fiber Bragg grating based OSNR monitor,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  16, no. 4, pp. 222–224, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Ralph, S. E.

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Roberts, K.

K. Roberts and C. Laperle, “Flexible transceivers,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, Sept. 2012, paper We.3.A.3.

Skoog, R. A.

Stark, A.

P. Isautier, A. Stark, K. Mehta, R. DeSalvo, and S. E. Ralph, “Autonomous software-defined coherent optical receivers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OTH3B.4.

Sui, Q.

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “Non-data-aided joint bit-rate and modulation format identification for next-generation heterogeneous optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 68–74, Mar. 2014.
[CrossRef]

Takuya, O.

Tam, H. Y.

L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring based on variance of received optical power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 486–488, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. K. Qureshi, Z. Jian, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Tunable polarization maintaining fiber Bragg grating based OSNR monitor,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  16, no. 4, pp. 222–224, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Z. Jian, L. Cheng, Y. Yang, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, C. Yu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Signed chromatic dispersion monitoring of 100  Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK signal by evaluating the asymmetry ratio of delay tap sampling,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 3149–3157, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tornatore, M.

Turk, M.

M. Turk and A. Pentland, “Eigenfaces for recognition,” J. Cogn. Neurosci., vol.  3, no. 1, pp. 71–86, Mar. 1991.

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Wai, P. K. A.

L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring based on variance of received optical power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 486–488, Apr. 2011.
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A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, F. N. Khan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Analysis of signed chromatic dispersion monitoring by waveform asymmetry for differentially-coherent phase-modulated systems,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 5, pp. 4147–4156, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “OSNR monitoring for RZ-DQPSK systems using half-symbol delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 11, pp. 823–825, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Z. Jian, L. Cheng, Y. Yang, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, C. Yu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Signed chromatic dispersion monitoring of 100  Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK signal by evaluating the asymmetry ratio of delay tap sampling,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 3149–3157, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. K. Qureshi, Z. Jian, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Tunable polarization maintaining fiber Bragg grating based OSNR monitor,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  16, no. 4, pp. 222–224, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Statistical analysis of optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring using delay-tap sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 149–151, Feb. 2010.
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Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  16, no. 1, pp. 20–45, Jan. 2010.
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A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and C. Yu, “Optical performance monitoring,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Eds. Academic, 2008, ch. 7.

Wu, X.

Yang, Y.

Yu, C.

Z. Li, Z. Jian, L. Cheng, Y. Yang, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, C. Yu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Signed chromatic dispersion monitoring of 100  Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK signal by evaluating the asymmetry ratio of delay tap sampling,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 3149–3157, Feb. 2010.
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Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  16, no. 1, pp. 20–45, Jan. 2010.
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A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and C. Yu, “Optical performance monitoring,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Eds. Academic, 2008, ch. 7.

Zhou, Y.

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “Non-data-aided joint bit-rate and modulation format identification for next-generation heterogeneous optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 68–74, Mar. 2014.
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F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Modulation format identification in heterogeneous fiber-optic networks using artificial neural networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 11, pp. 12422–12431, May 2012.
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Zibar, D.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 21, pp. 2129–2132, Nov. 2013.
[CrossRef]

N. G. Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Turin, Sept. 2010, paper P6.11.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Optical modulation format recognition in Stokes space for digital coherent receivers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OTh3B.3.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Statistical analysis of optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring using delay-tap sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 149–151, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental investigation of delay-tap sampling technique for online monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 3, pp. 179–181, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “OSNR monitoring for RZ-DQPSK systems using half-symbol delay-tap sampling technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 11, pp. 823–825, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring based on variance of received optical power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 486–488, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 21, pp. 2129–2132, Nov. 2013.
[CrossRef]

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M. Turk and A. Pentland, “Eigenfaces for recognition,” J. Cogn. Neurosci., vol.  3, no. 1, pp. 71–86, Mar. 1991.

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Netw.

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “Non-data-aided joint bit-rate and modulation format identification for next-generation heterogeneous optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 68–74, Mar. 2014.
[CrossRef]

K. K. Qureshi, Z. Jian, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Tunable polarization maintaining fiber Bragg grating based OSNR monitor,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  16, no. 4, pp. 222–224, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  16, no. 1, pp. 20–45, Jan. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Other

A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and C. Yu, “Optical performance monitoring,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Eds. Academic, 2008, ch. 7.

C. K. Chan, Optical Performance Monitoring. Academic, 2010.

S. D. Dods and T. B. Anderson, “Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2006, paper OThP5.

K. Roberts and C. Laperle, “Flexible transceivers,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, Sept. 2012, paper We.3.A.3.

N. G. Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Turin, Sept. 2010, paper P6.11.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Optical modulation format recognition in Stokes space for digital coherent receivers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OTh3B.3.

I. T. Jolliffe, Principal Component Analysis, 2nd ed. Springer, 2002.

J. E. Jackson, A User’s Guide to Principal Components. Wiley, 2003.

P. Isautier, A. Stark, K. Mehta, R. DeSalvo, and S. E. Ralph, “Autonomous software-defined coherent optical receivers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OTH3B.4.

M. Turk and A. Pentland, “Face recognition using eigenfaces,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Maui, HI, June 1991, pp. 586–591.

VPIsystems, “VPItransmissionMaker.”

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

ADTPs for three modulation formats at two different bit-rates for various combinations of impairments. The left column corresponds to OSNR=20dB and without CD and DGD, whereas the right column corresponds to OSNR=18dB, CD=100ps/nm, and DGD=5ps (α=45°). A tap-delay of 15 ps is used for the generation of all ADTPs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

System setup for joint OPM and BR-MFI using PCA and ADTPs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Eigenvalues λi for a few PCs in descending order. (b) Parameter R as a function of the number of PCs selected.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mean estimation error for (a) OSNR, (b) CD, and (c) DGD as a function of number of PCs selected for three different proportions of reference and testing data. The total number of reference and testing data is 26,208.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effect of number of PCs selected on the overall identification accuracy for three different proportions of reference and testing data.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Effect of transmitter variations and fiber nonlinearity on (a) OSNR estimation, (b) CD estimation, (c) DGD estimation, and (d) overall identification accuracy for a 70%:30% proportion of reference and testing data. The total number of reference and testing data is 26,208.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Identification Accuracies for Various Bit-Rates and Modulation Formats Using Only Two PCs (Normal) and More Than Two PCs (Bold)a

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ψ=1Mi=1Mxi.
C=1Mi=1MyiyiT=YYT.
Cvi=λivifori=1,2,,N2
R=i=1Kλi/i=1N2λi>P,
yk=1Kwkvkwk=vkTyfork=1,2,,K.
Dmin=min(ΩΩjj=1,2,,M),