Abstract

Elastic optical network (EON) technology arises as a promising solution for future high-speed optical transport, since it can provide superior flexibility and scalability in the spectrum allocation for seamlessly supporting diverse services, while following the rapid growth of Internet traffic. This work focuses on lightpath adaptation under time-variable traffic demands in EONs. Specifically, we explore the possibility of utilizing the spectral fragmentation to increase the spectrum allocation (SA) capabilities of EONs. In this context, a heuristic SA algorithm, which intentionally increases the spectral fragmentation in the network, is proposed and validated. In our proposal, the spectrum assigned to each new connection is in the middle of the largest free spectral void over the route, aiming to provide considerable spectral space between adjacent connections. These free spectral spaces are then used to allocate time-varying connections without requiring any lightpath reallocation. The obtained simulation results show a significant improvement in terms of network blocking probability when utilizing the proposed algorithm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Jinno, H. Takara, and B. Kozicki, “Dynamic optical mesh networks: Drivers, challenges and solutions for the future,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 2009, paper 7.7.4.
  4. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI5.
  5. T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI7.
  6. A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation in transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, 2010, paper PDPWG1.
  8. O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. S. Khodashenas, J. Comellas, J. Perelló, and S. Spadaro, “Correlation between traffic granularity and defragmentation periodicity in elastic optical networks,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol., to be published.
  10. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, 2010, paper ONS06.
  11. T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper We.8.D.5.
  12. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Spectrally/bitrate flexible optical network planning,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper We.8.D.3.
  13. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI8.
  15. K. Christodoulopoulos and E. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation policies for time-varying traffic in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. ONDM, 2012, pp. 1–6.
  16. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Time-varying spectrum allocation policies and blocking analysis in flexible optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 13–25, 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Proc. OFC, Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.
  18. F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2012, paper JTh2A.40.
  19. R. Wang and B. Mukherjee, “Provisioning in elastic optical networks with non-disruptive defragmentation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 15, pp. 223–228, 2013.
  20. A. Rosa, C. Cavdar, S. Carvalho, J. Costa, and L. Wosinska, “Spectrum allocation policy modeling for elastic optical networks,” in Proc. HONET, 2012, pp. 242–246.

2013 (2)

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Time-varying spectrum allocation policies and blocking analysis in flexible optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 13–25, 2013.
[CrossRef]

R. Wang and B. Mukherjee, “Provisioning in elastic optical networks with non-disruptive defragmentation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 15, pp. 223–228, 2013.

2012 (2)

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Bottari, G.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2012, paper JTh2A.40.

Bruno, G.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2012, paper JTh2A.40.

Careglio, D.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, S.

A. Rosa, C. Cavdar, S. Carvalho, J. Costa, and L. Wosinska, “Spectrum allocation policy modeling for elastic optical networks,” in Proc. HONET, 2012, pp. 242–246.

Castoldi, P.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2012, paper JTh2A.40.

Castro, A.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Cavdar, C.

A. Rosa, C. Cavdar, S. Carvalho, J. Costa, and L. Wosinska, “Spectrum allocation policy modeling for elastic optical networks,” in Proc. HONET, 2012, pp. 242–246.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Time-varying spectrum allocation policies and blocking analysis in flexible optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 13–25, 2013.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Spectrally/bitrate flexible optical network planning,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper We.8.D.3.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, 2010, paper ONS06.

K. Christodoulopoulos and E. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation policies for time-varying traffic in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. ONDM, 2012, pp. 1–6.

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Proc. OFC, Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI5.

Comellas, J.

P. S. Khodashenas, J. Comellas, J. Perelló, and S. Spadaro, “Correlation between traffic granularity and defragmentation periodicity in elastic optical networks,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol., to be published.

Costa, J.

A. Rosa, C. Cavdar, S. Carvalho, J. Costa, and L. Wosinska, “Spectrum allocation policy modeling for elastic optical networks,” in Proc. HONET, 2012, pp. 242–246.

Cugini, F.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2012, paper JTh2A.40.

Fernández-Palacios, J.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Proc. OFC, Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.

Hasegawa, H.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI7.

Hirano, A.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI7.

Iovanna, P.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2012, paper JTh2A.40.

Ji, P.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI8.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation in transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, 2010, paper PDPWG1.

Jinno, M.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, and B. Kozicki, “Dynamic optical mesh networks: Drivers, challenges and solutions for the future,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 2009, paper 7.7.4.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI7.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

Jue, J.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI8.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation in transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, 2010, paper PDPWG1.

Khodashenas, P. S.

P. S. Khodashenas, J. Comellas, J. Perelló, and S. Spadaro, “Correlation between traffic granularity and defragmentation periodicity in elastic optical networks,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol., to be published.

Klinkowski, M.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Klonidis, D.

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Proc. OFC, Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, and B. Kozicki, “Dynamic optical mesh networks: Drivers, challenges and solutions for the future,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 2009, paper 7.7.4.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI7.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

Lord, A.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

Palkopoulou, E.

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Proc. OFC, Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.

Patel, A.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI8.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation in transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, 2010, paper PDPWG1.

Perelló, J.

P. S. Khodashenas, J. Comellas, J. Perelló, and S. Spadaro, “Correlation between traffic granularity and defragmentation periodicity in elastic optical networks,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol., to be published.

Rosa, A.

A. Rosa, C. Cavdar, S. Carvalho, J. Costa, and L. Wosinska, “Spectrum allocation policy modeling for elastic optical networks,” in Proc. HONET, 2012, pp. 242–246.

Ruiz, M.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Sambo, N.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2012, paper JTh2A.40.

Sato, K.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI7.

Secondini, M.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2012, paper JTh2A.40.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI7.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

Spadaro, S.

P. S. Khodashenas, J. Comellas, J. Perelló, and S. Spadaro, “Correlation between traffic granularity and defragmentation periodicity in elastic optical networks,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol., to be published.

Stiakogiannakis, I.

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Proc. OFC, Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.

Takagi, T.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI7.

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, and B. Kozicki, “Dynamic optical mesh networks: Drivers, challenges and solutions for the future,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 2009, paper 7.7.4.

Tanaka, T.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

Tomkos, I.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Time-varying spectrum allocation policies and blocking analysis in flexible optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 13–25, 2013.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Spectrally/bitrate flexible optical network planning,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper We.8.D.3.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, 2010, paper ONS06.

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Proc. OFC, Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI5.

Tsukishima, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Varvarigos, E.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Time-varying spectrum allocation policies and blocking analysis in flexible optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 13–25, 2013.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Spectrally/bitrate flexible optical network planning,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper We.8.D.3.

K. Christodoulopoulos and E. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation policies for time-varying traffic in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. ONDM, 2012, pp. 1–6.

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Proc. OFC, Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI5.

Varvarigos, E. A.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, 2010, paper ONS06.

Velasco, L.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

Wang, T.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation in transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, 2010, paper PDPWG1.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper OTuI8.

Wosinska, L.

A. Rosa, C. Cavdar, S. Carvalho, J. Costa, and L. Wosinska, “Spectrum allocation policy modeling for elastic optical networks,” in Proc. HONET, 2012, pp. 242–246.

Yoo, B.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Netw. (1)

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

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IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Time-varying spectrum allocation policies and blocking analysis in flexible optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 13–25, 2013.
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K. Christodoulopoulos and E. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation policies for time-varying traffic in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. ONDM, 2012, pp. 1–6.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectrum allocation of an exemplary link with time-varying connections. Two different time instances are displayed in (a) and (b). Free frequency slots between adjacent connections are used to accommodate time-varying traffic changes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustrative example: (a) simple four-node network, (b) spectral status of the candidate path, (c) FS status using the Mid Fit SA approach, and (d) FS status using conventional First Fit SA.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

NSFnet network topology: 14 nodes and 21 fiber links.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Network BP for different offered traffic per node values. The average number of offered connections per node changes from 8 to 15 while the average bit rate per connection is 35Gb/s. (b) Percentage of reallocated connections versus offered traffic per node (only connections requiring expansion are taken into account to compute this percentage).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Network BP for different average bit rate per connection values. The average number of offered connections per node is fixed to 12, while the average bit rate per connection changes from 25 to 60Gb/s. (b) Percentage of reallocated connections versus average bit rate per connection (only connections requiring expansion are taken into account to compute this percentage).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Network BP versus percentage of time-varying connections.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Network BP versus total spectrum per link.