Abstract

The expected growth of traffic demand may lead to a dramatic increase in the network energy consumption, which needs to be handled in order to guarantee scalability and sustainability of the infrastructure. There are many efforts to improve energy efficiency in communication networks, ranging from the component technology to the architectural and service-level approaches. Because data centers and content delivery networks are responsible for the majority of the energy consumption in the information and communication technology sector, in this paper we address network energy efficiency at the architectural and service levels and propose a unified network architecture that provides both intra-data-center and inter-data-center connectivity together with interconnection toward legacy IP networks. The architecture is well suited for the carrier cloud model, where both data-center and telecom infrastructure are owned and operated by the same entity. It is based on the hybrid optical switching (HOS) concept for achieving high network performance and energy efficiency. Therefore, we refer to it as an integrated HOS network. The main advantage of the integration of core and intra-data-center networks comes from the possibility to avoid the energy-inefficient electronic interfaces between data centers and telecom networks. Our results have verified that the integrated HOS network introduces a higher number of benefits in terms of energy efficiency and network delays compared to the conventional nonintegrated solution. At the service level, recent studies demonstrated that the use of distributed video cache servers can be beneficial in reducing energy consumption of intra-data-center and core networks. However, these studies only take into consideration conventional network solutions based on IP electronic switching, which are characterized by relatively high energy consumption. When a more energy-efficient switching technology, such as HOS, is employed, the advantage of using distributed video cache servers becomes less obvious. In this paper we evaluate the impact of video servers employed at the edge nodes of the integrated HOS network to understand whether edge caching could have any benefit for carrier cloud operators utilizing a HOS network architecture. We have demonstrated that if the distributed video cache servers are not properly dimensioned they may have a negative impact on the benefit obtained by the integrated HOS network.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. “SMART2020: Enabling the Low Carbon Economy in the Information Age,” The Climate Group, Global eSustainability Initiative, Tech. Rep., 2008 [Online]. Available: www.smart2020.org .
  2. “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2012–2017,” Cisco White Paper, May 2013.
  3. “Cisco Global Cloud Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2011–2016,” Cisco White Paper, May 2012.
  4. Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, Fourth Quarter 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications part II: Energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 245–260, Mar./Apr. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  6. “Where does power go?” GreenDataProject, 2008 [Online]. Available: http://www.greendataproject.org .
  7. C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1021–1036, Fourth Quarter 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Veisllari, S. Bjornstad, and D. Hjelme, “Experimental demonstration of high throughput, ultra-low delay variation packet/circuit fusion network,” Electron. Lett., vol.  49, no. 2, pp. 141–143, Jan. 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Hybrid optical switching for energy-efficiency and QoS differentiation in core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  5, no. 5, pp. 484–497, May 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, Mar./Apr. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, and M. Casoni, “Hybrid optical switching for data center networks,” J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol.  2014, 139213, 2014.
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2009, paper OThQ5.
  13. C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. Chan, “Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2011, paper OWR3.
  14. C. Chan, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, A. Gygax, and C. Leckie, “Energy efficiency of on-demand video caching systems and user behavior,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B260–B269, Dec. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. Elmirghani, “The impact of content popularity distribution on energy efficient caching,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–6.
  16. D. Cai and S. Natarajan, “The evolution of the carrier cloud networking,” in Proc. IEEE Symp. on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), 2012, pp. 286–291.
  17. A. Autenrieth, J. Elbers, P. Kaczmarek, and P. Kostecki, “Cloud orchestration with SDN/OpenFlow in carrier transport networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–4.
  18. F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” Proc. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010, pp. 1–6.
  19. S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, and D. Wetherall, “Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation,” in Proc. USENIX Symp. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, 2008, pp. 323–336.
  20. A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hulsermann, M. Jager, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spath, C. Gauger, and M. Kohn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.
  21. “Connectivity solutions for the evolving data center,” Emulex White Paper, May 2011.
  22. M. Zink, K. Suh, Y. Gu, and J. Kurose, “Characteristics of YouTube network traffic at a campus network: Measurements, models, and implications,” Comput. Netw., vol.  53, no. 4, pp. 501–514, Mar. 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Braun, A. Klein, G. Carle, H. Reiser, and J. Eisl, “Analyzing caching benefits for YouTube traffic in edge networks: A measurement-based evaluation,” in Proc. IEEE Network Operations and Management Symp. (NOMS), 2012, pp. 311–318.
  24. T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), 2010, pp. 267–280.

2014 (1)

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, and M. Casoni, “Hybrid optical switching for data center networks,” J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol.  2014, 139213, 2014.
[CrossRef]

2013 (2)

R. Veisllari, S. Bjornstad, and D. Hjelme, “Experimental demonstration of high throughput, ultra-low delay variation packet/circuit fusion network,” Electron. Lett., vol.  49, no. 2, pp. 141–143, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Hybrid optical switching for energy-efficiency and QoS differentiation in core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  5, no. 5, pp. 484–497, May 2013.
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1021–1036, Fourth Quarter 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

C. Chan, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, A. Gygax, and C. Leckie, “Energy efficiency of on-demand video caching systems and user behavior,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B260–B269, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications part II: Energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 245–260, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, Fourth Quarter 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Zink, K. Suh, Y. Gu, and J. Kurose, “Characteristics of YouTube network traffic at a campus network: Measurements, models, and implications,” Comput. Netw., vol.  53, no. 4, pp. 501–514, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Akella, A.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), 2010, pp. 267–280.

Aleksic, S.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, and M. Casoni, “Hybrid optical switching for data center networks,” J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol.  2014, 139213, 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Hybrid optical switching for energy-efficiency and QoS differentiation in core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  5, no. 5, pp. 484–497, May 2013.
[CrossRef]

Andriolli, N.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Autenrieth, A.

A. Autenrieth, J. Elbers, P. Kaczmarek, and P. Kostecki, “Cloud orchestration with SDN/OpenFlow in carrier transport networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–4.

Ayre, R.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2009, paper OThQ5.

Baliga, J.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2009, paper OThQ5.

Barry, M.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hulsermann, M. Jager, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spath, C. Gauger, and M. Kohn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Benson, T.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), 2010, pp. 267–280.

Betker, A.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hulsermann, M. Jager, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spath, C. Gauger, and M. Kohn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Bjornstad, S.

R. Veisllari, S. Bjornstad, and D. Hjelme, “Experimental demonstration of high throughput, ultra-low delay variation packet/circuit fusion network,” Electron. Lett., vol.  49, no. 2, pp. 141–143, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Bodamer, S.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hulsermann, M. Jager, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spath, C. Gauger, and M. Kohn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Braun, L.

L. Braun, A. Klein, G. Carle, H. Reiser, and J. Eisl, “Analyzing caching benefits for YouTube traffic in edge networks: A measurement-based evaluation,” in Proc. IEEE Network Operations and Management Symp. (NOMS), 2012, pp. 311–318.

Cai, D.

D. Cai and S. Natarajan, “The evolution of the carrier cloud networking,” in Proc. IEEE Symp. on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), 2012, pp. 286–291.

Carle, G.

L. Braun, A. Klein, G. Carle, H. Reiser, and J. Eisl, “Analyzing caching benefits for YouTube traffic in edge networks: A measurement-based evaluation,” in Proc. IEEE Network Operations and Management Symp. (NOMS), 2012, pp. 311–318.

Casoni, M.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, and M. Casoni, “Hybrid optical switching for data center networks,” J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol.  2014, 139213, 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Hybrid optical switching for energy-efficiency and QoS differentiation in core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  5, no. 5, pp. 484–497, May 2013.
[CrossRef]

Castoldi, P.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Cerutti, I.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Chan, C.

C. Chan, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, A. Gygax, and C. Leckie, “Energy efficiency of on-demand video caching systems and user behavior,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B260–B269, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. Chan, “Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2011, paper OWR3.

Chowdhury, P.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, Fourth Quarter 2010.
[CrossRef]

Eisl, J.

L. Braun, A. Klein, G. Carle, H. Reiser, and J. Eisl, “Analyzing caching benefits for YouTube traffic in edge networks: A measurement-based evaluation,” in Proc. IEEE Network Operations and Management Symp. (NOMS), 2012, pp. 311–318.

Elbers, J.

A. Autenrieth, J. Elbers, P. Kaczmarek, and P. Kostecki, “Cloud orchestration with SDN/OpenFlow in carrier transport networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–4.

El-Gorashi, T.

N. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. Elmirghani, “The impact of content popularity distribution on energy efficient caching,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–6.

Elmirghani, J.

N. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. Elmirghani, “The impact of content popularity distribution on energy efficient caching,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–6.

Fiorani, M.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, and M. Casoni, “Hybrid optical switching for data center networks,” J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol.  2014, 139213, 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Hybrid optical switching for energy-efficiency and QoS differentiation in core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  5, no. 5, pp. 484–497, May 2013.
[CrossRef]

Gauger, C.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hulsermann, M. Jager, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spath, C. Gauger, and M. Kohn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Gerlach, C.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hulsermann, M. Jager, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spath, C. Gauger, and M. Kohn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Gu, Y.

M. Zink, K. Suh, Y. Gu, and J. Kurose, “Characteristics of YouTube network traffic at a campus network: Measurements, models, and implications,” Comput. Netw., vol.  53, no. 4, pp. 501–514, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Gygax, A.

Hinton, K.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2009, paper OThQ5.

Hjelme, D.

R. Veisllari, S. Bjornstad, and D. Hjelme, “Experimental demonstration of high throughput, ultra-low delay variation packet/circuit fusion network,” Electron. Lett., vol.  49, no. 2, pp. 141–143, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Hulsermann, R.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hulsermann, M. Jager, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spath, C. Gauger, and M. Kohn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Iannaccone, G.

S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, and D. Wetherall, “Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation,” in Proc. USENIX Symp. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, 2008, pp. 323–336.

Idzikowski, F.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” Proc. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010, pp. 1–6.

Jager, M.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hulsermann, M. Jager, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spath, C. Gauger, and M. Kohn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Jayasundara, C.

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. Chan, “Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2011, paper OWR3.

Kachris, C.

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1021–1036, Fourth Quarter 2012.
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarek, P.

A. Autenrieth, J. Elbers, P. Kaczmarek, and P. Kostecki, “Cloud orchestration with SDN/OpenFlow in carrier transport networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–4.

Klein, A.

L. Braun, A. Klein, G. Carle, H. Reiser, and J. Eisl, “Analyzing caching benefits for YouTube traffic in edge networks: A measurement-based evaluation,” in Proc. IEEE Network Operations and Management Symp. (NOMS), 2012, pp. 311–318.

Kohn, M.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hulsermann, M. Jager, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spath, C. Gauger, and M. Kohn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Kostecki, P.

A. Autenrieth, J. Elbers, P. Kaczmarek, and P. Kostecki, “Cloud orchestration with SDN/OpenFlow in carrier transport networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–4.

Kurose, J.

M. Zink, K. Suh, Y. Gu, and J. Kurose, “Characteristics of YouTube network traffic at a campus network: Measurements, models, and implications,” Comput. Netw., vol.  53, no. 4, pp. 501–514, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Leckie, C.

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Maltz, D. A.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), 2010, pp. 267–280.

Mukherjee, B.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, Fourth Quarter 2010.
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, S.

D. Cai and S. Natarajan, “The evolution of the carrier cloud networking,” in Proc. IEEE Symp. on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), 2012, pp. 286–291.

Nedevschi, S.

S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, and D. Wetherall, “Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation,” in Proc. USENIX Symp. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, 2008, pp. 323–336.

Nirmalathas, A.

C. Chan, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, A. Gygax, and C. Leckie, “Energy efficiency of on-demand video caching systems and user behavior,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B260–B269, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. Chan, “Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2011, paper OWR3.

Orlowski, S.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” Proc. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010, pp. 1–6.

Osman, N.

N. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. Elmirghani, “The impact of content popularity distribution on energy efficient caching,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–6.

Popa, L.

S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, and D. Wetherall, “Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation,” in Proc. USENIX Symp. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, 2008, pp. 323–336.

Raack, C.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” Proc. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010, pp. 1–6.

Raponi, P.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Ratnasamy, S.

S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, and D. Wetherall, “Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation,” in Proc. USENIX Symp. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, 2008, pp. 323–336.

Reiser, H.

L. Braun, A. Klein, G. Carle, H. Reiser, and J. Eisl, “Analyzing caching benefits for YouTube traffic in edge networks: A measurement-based evaluation,” in Proc. IEEE Network Operations and Management Symp. (NOMS), 2012, pp. 311–318.

Spath, J.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hulsermann, M. Jager, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spath, C. Gauger, and M. Kohn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Suh, K.

M. Zink, K. Suh, Y. Gu, and J. Kurose, “Characteristics of YouTube network traffic at a campus network: Measurements, models, and implications,” Comput. Netw., vol.  53, no. 4, pp. 501–514, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1021–1036, Fourth Quarter 2012.
[CrossRef]

Tornatore, M.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, Fourth Quarter 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications part II: Energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 245–260, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2009, paper OThQ5.

Veisllari, R.

R. Veisllari, S. Bjornstad, and D. Hjelme, “Experimental demonstration of high throughput, ultra-low delay variation packet/circuit fusion network,” Electron. Lett., vol.  49, no. 2, pp. 141–143, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Wetherall, D.

S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, and D. Wetherall, “Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation,” in Proc. USENIX Symp. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, 2008, pp. 323–336.

Woesner, H.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” Proc. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010, pp. 1–6.

Wolisz, A.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” Proc. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010, pp. 1–6.

Wong, E.

C. Chan, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, A. Gygax, and C. Leckie, “Energy efficiency of on-demand video caching systems and user behavior,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B260–B269, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. Chan, “Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2011, paper OWR3.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, Fourth Quarter 2010.
[CrossRef]

Zink, M.

M. Zink, K. Suh, Y. Gu, and J. Kurose, “Characteristics of YouTube network traffic at a campus network: Measurements, models, and implications,” Comput. Netw., vol.  53, no. 4, pp. 501–514, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Netw. (1)

M. Zink, K. Suh, Y. Gu, and J. Kurose, “Characteristics of YouTube network traffic at a campus network: Measurements, models, and implications,” Comput. Netw., vol.  53, no. 4, pp. 501–514, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Veisllari, S. Bjornstad, and D. Hjelme, “Experimental demonstration of high throughput, ultra-low delay variation packet/circuit fusion network,” Electron. Lett., vol.  49, no. 2, pp. 141–143, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (2)

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, Fourth Quarter 2010.
[CrossRef]

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1021–1036, Fourth Quarter 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications part II: Energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 245–260, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Electr. Comput. Eng. (1)

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, and M. Casoni, “Hybrid optical switching for data center networks,” J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol.  2014, 139213, 2014.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (15)

L. Braun, A. Klein, G. Carle, H. Reiser, and J. Eisl, “Analyzing caching benefits for YouTube traffic in edge networks: A measurement-based evaluation,” in Proc. IEEE Network Operations and Management Symp. (NOMS), 2012, pp. 311–318.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), 2010, pp. 267–280.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2009, paper OThQ5.

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. Chan, “Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2011, paper OWR3.

“Where does power go?” GreenDataProject, 2008 [Online]. Available: http://www.greendataproject.org .

“SMART2020: Enabling the Low Carbon Economy in the Information Age,” The Climate Group, Global eSustainability Initiative, Tech. Rep., 2008 [Online]. Available: www.smart2020.org .

“Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2012–2017,” Cisco White Paper, May 2013.

“Cisco Global Cloud Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2011–2016,” Cisco White Paper, May 2012.

N. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. Elmirghani, “The impact of content popularity distribution on energy efficient caching,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–6.

D. Cai and S. Natarajan, “The evolution of the carrier cloud networking,” in Proc. IEEE Symp. on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), 2012, pp. 286–291.

A. Autenrieth, J. Elbers, P. Kaczmarek, and P. Kostecki, “Cloud orchestration with SDN/OpenFlow in carrier transport networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–4.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” Proc. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010, pp. 1–6.

S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, and D. Wetherall, “Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation,” in Proc. USENIX Symp. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, 2008, pp. 323–336.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hulsermann, M. Jager, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Spath, C. Gauger, and M. Kohn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

“Connectivity solutions for the evolving data center,” Emulex White Paper, May 2011.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Representation of the proposed integrated intra-data-center and core network based on hybrid optical switching.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Architecture of the HOS edge node with video cache servers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Interconnection between data center and core network in the nonintegrated HOS architecture.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Energy consumption per bit as a function of the input load. The energy consumption per bit is the ratio between the network power consumption and the network throughput. (a) Overall for core and intra-data-center networks and (b) core and intra-data-center networks shown separately.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Average network delays as a function of the input load for the integrated and the nonintegrated HOS networks. (a) Integrated HOS network and (b) nonintegrated HOS network.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Average data loss rate as a function of the input load.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Energy consumption per bit against the input load for different cache sizes.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Average delays and average data loss rates as a function of the input load for different values of the cache size. (a) Average network delays, (b) packet loss rates, (c) short burst loss rates, and (d) long bursts loss rates.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Power Consumption of the Network Components [9,11]

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PNetwork=i=1NNodePNodei+j=1NDCPDCj,
PNodei=PEdgei+PCorei,
PEdgei=NFEdge,i·NW·(PES+PA)+PCachei,
PCachei=PCT+PToR+NCSi·PCS,
PCorei=PECLi+POSFi,
PECLi=NFCore,i·NW·PGMPLS+PHOS+PSC,
POSFi=NSOAactive,i·PSOA+NMEMSactive,i·PMEMS+NTWCactive,i·PTWC+NFcore,i·(NW·PCIE/R+2·PEDFA).
PDCj=NToRj·PToR+NAggrj·PAgrr+PCorej,
PAggr=NW·(PES+PA).