Abstract

Content-based services are gaining tremendous popularity recently with the proliferation of a wide range of contents. Traditionally, hosting and distribution of these ubiquitous contents are accomplished using content distribution networks (CDNs). CDNs distribute contents in multiple hosting locations for load balancing, availability, and easy access. However, scalability and cost of CDNs are becoming major challenges due to the increase of content-based services. To combat these problems, peer-to-peer (P2P) systems are being considered in combination with CDN to complement each other in a hybrid system. Research works and practical deployments have shown that hybrid CDN–P2P systems are feasible, inexpensive, and scalable. However, P2P-based content distribution systems are known to consume more system-wide energy than traditional CDNs. Hence, energy efficiency of such a hybrid system must be taken into consideration before wider implementation. In our study, we analyze the energy consumption of a hybrid CDN–P2P system in an IP-over-WDM network and show that, due to its hybrid nature, it is possible to exploit the P2P system to significantly reduce load on the CDN and at the same time constrain—and in some cases reduce—energy consumption. We propose energy-aware as well as energy-unaware content source selection mechanisms to help service providers achieve this win–win situation. Using simulations, we show that, for example, in case of a moderately popular content the server load can be reduced by 30%–40% while reducing the system-wide energy consumption by 10%–20% when compared with a traditional CDN.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

2011 (4)

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. A. Chan, “Improving energy efficiency of video on demand services,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 11, pp. 870–880, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, R. Weidmann, and A. Gladisch, “Energy consumption of telecommunication networks and related improvement options,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 285–295, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Tucker, “Green optical communications—Part II: Energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 261–274, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Xu, S. S. Kulkarni, C. Rosenberg, and H.-K. Chai, “Analysis of a CDN–P2P hybrid architecture for cost-effective streaming media distribution,” Multimed. Syst., vol.  11, pp. 383–399, 2006.

B. M. Moreno, C. E. P. Salvador, M. E. Domingo, I. A. Peña, and V. R. Extremera, “On content delivery network implementation,” Comput. Commun., vol.  29, pp. 2396–2412, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Vakali and G. Pallis, “Content delivery networks: Status and trends,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol.  7, no. 6, pp. 68–74, Nov./Dec. 2003.

Adhikari, V.

V. Adhikari, Y. Guo, F. Hao, M. Varvello, V. Hilt, M. Steiner, and Z.-L. Zhang, “Unreeling Netflix: Understanding and improving multi-CDN movie delivery,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2012, pp. 1620–1628.

Ahn, Y.-Y.

M. Cha, H. Kwak, P. Rodriguez, Y.-Y. Ahn, and S. Moon, “I tube, you tube, everybody tubes: Analyzing the world’s largest user generated content video system,” in Proc. 7th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement, Aug. 2007.

Al-Fares, M.

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Oct. 2008, pp. 63–74.

Ayre, R.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2009, paper OThQ5.

Balakrishnan, H.

A. Qureshi, R. Weber, H. Balakrishnan, J. Guttag, and B. Maggs, “Cutting the electric bill for Internet-scale systems,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, New York, 2009, pp. 123–134.

Baliga, J.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2009, paper OThQ5.

Banerjee, S.

B. Heller, S. Seetharaman, P. Mahadevan, Y. Yiakoumis, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and N. McKeown, “ElasticTree: Saving energy in data center networks,” in Proc. 7th USENIX Conf. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, Apr. 2010.

P. Mahadevan, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and P. Ranganathan, “A power benchmarking framework for network devices,” in Proc. IFIP-TC Networking Conf., 2009, pp. 795–808.

Barford, P.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2008, pp. 457–465.

Bianchini, R.

K. Le, R. Bianchini, M. Martonosi, and T. D. Nguyen, “Cost and energy-aware load distribution across data centers,” Proc. of HotPower, Oct. 2009.

Braynard, R. L.

V. Jacobson, D. K. Smetters, J. D. Thornton, M. F. Plass, N. H. Briggs, and R. L. Braynard, “Networking named content,” in Proc. Conf. on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies (CoNEXT), 2009, pp. 1–12.

Briggs, N. H.

V. Jacobson, D. K. Smetters, J. D. Thornton, M. F. Plass, N. H. Briggs, and R. L. Braynard, “Networking named content,” in Proc. Conf. on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies (CoNEXT), 2009, pp. 1–12.

Cha, M.

M. Cha, H. Kwak, P. Rodriguez, Y.-Y. Ahn, and S. Moon, “I tube, you tube, everybody tubes: Analyzing the world’s largest user generated content video system,” in Proc. 7th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement, Aug. 2007.

Chabarek, J.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2008, pp. 457–465.

Chai, H.-K.

D. Xu, S. S. Kulkarni, C. Rosenberg, and H.-K. Chai, “Analysis of a CDN–P2P hybrid architecture for cost-effective streaming media distribution,” Multimed. Syst., vol.  11, pp. 383–399, 2006.

Chan, C. A.

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. A. Chan, “Improving energy efficiency of video on demand services,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 11, pp. 870–880, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. A. Chan, “Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2011, paper OWR3.

Chowdhury, P.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient content distribution over telecom network infrastructure,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2011.

Diot, C.

V. Valancius, N. Laoutaris, L. L. Massoulié, C. Diot, and P. Rodriguez, “Greening the Internet with nano data centers,” in Proc. Conf. on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies (CoNEXT), Dec. 2009, pp. 37–48.

M. May, C. Diot, P. L. Guyadec, F. Picconi, J. Roussel, and A. Soule, “Service hosting gateways: A platform for distributed service deployment in end user homes,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2011, pp. 476–477.

Domingo, M. E.

B. M. Moreno, C. E. P. Salvador, M. E. Domingo, I. A. Peña, and V. R. Extremera, “On content delivery network implementation,” Comput. Commun., vol.  29, pp. 2396–2412, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Estan, C.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2008, pp. 457–465.

Extremera, V. R.

B. M. Moreno, C. E. P. Salvador, M. E. Domingo, I. A. Peña, and V. R. Extremera, “On content delivery network implementation,” Comput. Commun., vol.  29, pp. 2396–2412, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, A.

A. Feldmann, A. Gladisch, M. Kind, C. Lange, G. Smaragdakis, and F.-J. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. Conf. on Telecommunications, Media and Internet Techno-Economics (CTTE), June 2010.

Gladisch, A.

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, R. Weidmann, and A. Gladisch, “Energy consumption of telecommunication networks and related improvement options,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 285–295, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Feldmann, A. Gladisch, M. Kind, C. Lange, G. Smaragdakis, and F.-J. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. Conf. on Telecommunications, Media and Internet Techno-Economics (CTTE), June 2010.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, and B. Mukherjee, “Should ISPs adopt hybrid CDN–P2P in IP-over-WDM networks: An energy-efficiency perspective?” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2012.

C. Lange and A. Gladisch, “Limits of energy efficiency improvements by load-adaptive telecommunication network operation,” in Proc. Conf. on Telecommunications, Media and Internet Techno-Economics (CTTE), May 2011.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient content distribution over telecom network infrastructure,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2011.

Guo, Y.

V. Adhikari, Y. Guo, F. Hao, M. Varvello, V. Hilt, M. Steiner, and Z.-L. Zhang, “Unreeling Netflix: Understanding and improving multi-CDN movie delivery,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2012, pp. 1620–1628.

Guttag, J.

A. Qureshi, R. Weber, H. Balakrishnan, J. Guttag, and B. Maggs, “Cutting the electric bill for Internet-scale systems,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, New York, 2009, pp. 123–134.

Guyadec, P. L.

M. May, C. Diot, P. L. Guyadec, F. Picconi, J. Roussel, and A. Soule, “Service hosting gateways: A platform for distributed service deployment in end user homes,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2011, pp. 476–477.

Hao, F.

V. Adhikari, Y. Guo, F. Hao, M. Varvello, V. Hilt, M. Steiner, and Z.-L. Zhang, “Unreeling Netflix: Understanding and improving multi-CDN movie delivery,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2012, pp. 1620–1628.

Harada, S.

T. Mori, N. Kamiyama, S. Harada, H. Hasegawa, and R. Kawahara, “Improving deployability of peer-assisted CDN platform with incentive,” in Proc. IEEE Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec. 2009.

Hasegawa, H.

T. Mori, N. Kamiyama, S. Harada, H. Hasegawa, and R. Kawahara, “Improving deployability of peer-assisted CDN platform with incentive,” in Proc. IEEE Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec. 2009.

Heller, B.

B. Heller, S. Seetharaman, P. Mahadevan, Y. Yiakoumis, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and N. McKeown, “ElasticTree: Saving energy in data center networks,” in Proc. 7th USENIX Conf. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, Apr. 2010.

Hilt, V.

V. Adhikari, Y. Guo, F. Hao, M. Varvello, V. Hilt, M. Steiner, and Z.-L. Zhang, “Unreeling Netflix: Understanding and improving multi-CDN movie delivery,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2012, pp. 1620–1628.

U. Lee, I. Rimac, and V. Hilt, “Greening the Internet with content-centric networking,” in Proc. e-Energy, 2010, pp. 179–182.

Hinton, K.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2009, paper OThQ5.

Huang, C.

C. Huang, A. Wang, J. Li, and K. W. Ross, “Understanding hybrid CDN–P2P: Why Limelight needs its own red swoosh,” in Proc. 18th Int. Workshop on NOSSDAV, May 2008, pp. 75–80.

C. Huang, J. Li, and K. W. Ross, “Peer-assisted VoD: Making Internet video distribution cheap,” in Proc. Int. Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), Feb. 2007.

J. Wang, C. Huang, and J. Li, “On ISP-friendly rate allocation for peer-assisted VoD,” in Proc. 16th ACM Int. Conf. on Multimedia, Oct. 2008, pp. 279–288.

C. Huang, J. Li, and K. W. Ross, “Can Internet video-on-demand be profitable?” in Proc. SIGCOMM, Aug. 2007, pp. 133–144.

Iekel-Johnson, S.

C. Labovitz, S. Iekel-Johnson, D. McPherson, J. Oberheide, F. Jahanian, and M. Karir, “ATLAS Internet Observatory 2009 Annual Report,” 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.nanog.org/meetings/nanog47/presentations/Monday/Labovitz_ObserveReport_N47_Mon.pdf .

Ip, E.

Jacobson, V.

V. Jacobson, D. K. Smetters, J. D. Thornton, M. F. Plass, N. H. Briggs, and R. L. Braynard, “Networking named content,” in Proc. Conf. on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies (CoNEXT), 2009, pp. 1–12.

Jahanian, F.

C. Labovitz, S. Iekel-Johnson, D. McPherson, J. Oberheide, F. Jahanian, and M. Karir, “ATLAS Internet Observatory 2009 Annual Report,” 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.nanog.org/meetings/nanog47/presentations/Monday/Labovitz_ObserveReport_N47_Mon.pdf .

Jayasundara, C.

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. A. Chan, “Improving energy efficiency of video on demand services,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 11, pp. 870–880, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. A. Chan, “Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2011, paper OWR3.

Kamiyama, N.

T. Mori, N. Kamiyama, S. Harada, H. Hasegawa, and R. Kawahara, “Improving deployability of peer-assisted CDN platform with incentive,” in Proc. IEEE Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec. 2009.

Karir, M.

C. Labovitz, S. Iekel-Johnson, D. McPherson, J. Oberheide, F. Jahanian, and M. Karir, “ATLAS Internet Observatory 2009 Annual Report,” 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.nanog.org/meetings/nanog47/presentations/Monday/Labovitz_ObserveReport_N47_Mon.pdf .

Kawahara, R.

T. Mori, N. Kamiyama, S. Harada, H. Hasegawa, and R. Kawahara, “Improving deployability of peer-assisted CDN platform with incentive,” in Proc. IEEE Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec. 2009.

Kilper, D.

D. Kilper, “Energy efficient networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2011, paper OWI5.

Kind, M.

A. Feldmann, A. Gladisch, M. Kind, C. Lange, G. Smaragdakis, and F.-J. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. Conf. on Telecommunications, Media and Internet Techno-Economics (CTTE), June 2010.

Kosiankowski, D.

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, R. Weidmann, and A. Gladisch, “Energy consumption of telecommunication networks and related improvement options,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 285–295, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, A.

H. Xie, Y. R. Yang, A. Krishnamurthy, Y. G. Liu, and A. Silberschatz, “P4P: Provider portal for applications,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Conf. on Data Communication, Oct. 2008, pp. 351–362.

Kulkarni, S. S.

D. Xu, S. S. Kulkarni, C. Rosenberg, and H.-K. Chai, “Analysis of a CDN–P2P hybrid architecture for cost-effective streaming media distribution,” Multimed. Syst., vol.  11, pp. 383–399, 2006.

Kwak, H.

M. Cha, H. Kwak, P. Rodriguez, Y.-Y. Ahn, and S. Moon, “I tube, you tube, everybody tubes: Analyzing the world’s largest user generated content video system,” in Proc. 7th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement, Aug. 2007.

Labovitz, C.

C. Labovitz, S. Iekel-Johnson, D. McPherson, J. Oberheide, F. Jahanian, and M. Karir, “ATLAS Internet Observatory 2009 Annual Report,” 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.nanog.org/meetings/nanog47/presentations/Monday/Labovitz_ObserveReport_N47_Mon.pdf .

Lange, C.

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, R. Weidmann, and A. Gladisch, “Energy consumption of telecommunication networks and related improvement options,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 285–295, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Feldmann, A. Gladisch, M. Kind, C. Lange, G. Smaragdakis, and F.-J. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. Conf. on Telecommunications, Media and Internet Techno-Economics (CTTE), June 2010.

C. Lange and A. Gladisch, “Limits of energy efficiency improvements by load-adaptive telecommunication network operation,” in Proc. Conf. on Telecommunications, Media and Internet Techno-Economics (CTTE), May 2011.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, and B. Mukherjee, “Should ISPs adopt hybrid CDN–P2P in IP-over-WDM networks: An energy-efficiency perspective?” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2012.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient content distribution over telecom network infrastructure,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2011.

Laoutaris, N.

V. Valancius, N. Laoutaris, L. L. Massoulié, C. Diot, and P. Rodriguez, “Greening the Internet with nano data centers,” in Proc. Conf. on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies (CoNEXT), Dec. 2009, pp. 37–48.

Le, K.

K. Le, R. Bianchini, M. Martonosi, and T. D. Nguyen, “Cost and energy-aware load distribution across data centers,” Proc. of HotPower, Oct. 2009.

Lee, U.

U. Lee, I. Rimac, and V. Hilt, “Greening the Internet with content-centric networking,” in Proc. e-Energy, 2010, pp. 179–182.

Li, B.

H. Yin, X. Liu, T. Zhan, V. Sekar, F. Qiu, C. Lin, H. Zhang, and B. Li, “Design and deployment of a hybrid CDN–P2P system for live video streaming: Experiences with LiveSky,” in Proc. 17th ACM Int. Conf. on Multimedia, Oct. 2009, pp. 25–34.

Li, J.

C. Huang, A. Wang, J. Li, and K. W. Ross, “Understanding hybrid CDN–P2P: Why Limelight needs its own red swoosh,” in Proc. 18th Int. Workshop on NOSSDAV, May 2008, pp. 75–80.

C. Huang, J. Li, and K. W. Ross, “Peer-assisted VoD: Making Internet video distribution cheap,” in Proc. Int. Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), Feb. 2007.

C. Huang, J. Li, and K. W. Ross, “Can Internet video-on-demand be profitable?” in Proc. SIGCOMM, Aug. 2007, pp. 133–144.

J. Wang, C. Huang, and J. Li, “On ISP-friendly rate allocation for peer-assisted VoD,” in Proc. 16th ACM Int. Conf. on Multimedia, Oct. 2008, pp. 279–288.

Lin, C.

H. Yin, X. Liu, T. Zhan, V. Sekar, F. Qiu, C. Lin, H. Zhang, and B. Li, “Design and deployment of a hybrid CDN–P2P system for live video streaming: Experiences with LiveSky,” in Proc. 17th ACM Int. Conf. on Multimedia, Oct. 2009, pp. 25–34.

Liu, X.

H. Yin, X. Liu, T. Zhan, V. Sekar, F. Qiu, C. Lin, H. Zhang, and B. Li, “Design and deployment of a hybrid CDN–P2P system for live video streaming: Experiences with LiveSky,” in Proc. 17th ACM Int. Conf. on Multimedia, Oct. 2009, pp. 25–34.

Liu, Y. G.

H. Xie, Y. R. Yang, A. Krishnamurthy, Y. G. Liu, and A. Silberschatz, “P4P: Provider portal for applications,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Conf. on Data Communication, Oct. 2008, pp. 351–362.

Loukissas, A.

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Oct. 2008, pp. 63–74.

Maggs, B.

A. Qureshi, R. Weber, H. Balakrishnan, J. Guttag, and B. Maggs, “Cutting the electric bill for Internet-scale systems,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, New York, 2009, pp. 123–134.

Mahadevan, P.

P. Mahadevan, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and P. Ranganathan, “A power benchmarking framework for network devices,” in Proc. IFIP-TC Networking Conf., 2009, pp. 795–808.

B. Heller, S. Seetharaman, P. Mahadevan, Y. Yiakoumis, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and N. McKeown, “ElasticTree: Saving energy in data center networks,” in Proc. 7th USENIX Conf. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, Apr. 2010.

Mandal, U.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, and B. Mukherjee, “Should ISPs adopt hybrid CDN–P2P in IP-over-WDM networks: An energy-efficiency perspective?” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2012.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient content distribution over telecom network infrastructure,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2011.

Martonosi, M.

K. Le, R. Bianchini, M. Martonosi, and T. D. Nguyen, “Cost and energy-aware load distribution across data centers,” Proc. of HotPower, Oct. 2009.

Massoulié, L. L.

V. Valancius, N. Laoutaris, L. L. Massoulié, C. Diot, and P. Rodriguez, “Greening the Internet with nano data centers,” in Proc. Conf. on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies (CoNEXT), Dec. 2009, pp. 37–48.

May, M.

M. May, C. Diot, P. L. Guyadec, F. Picconi, J. Roussel, and A. Soule, “Service hosting gateways: A platform for distributed service deployment in end user homes,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2011, pp. 476–477.

McKeown, N.

B. Heller, S. Seetharaman, P. Mahadevan, Y. Yiakoumis, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and N. McKeown, “ElasticTree: Saving energy in data center networks,” in Proc. 7th USENIX Conf. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, Apr. 2010.

McPherson, D.

C. Labovitz, S. Iekel-Johnson, D. McPherson, J. Oberheide, F. Jahanian, and M. Karir, “ATLAS Internet Observatory 2009 Annual Report,” 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.nanog.org/meetings/nanog47/presentations/Monday/Labovitz_ObserveReport_N47_Mon.pdf .

Moon, S.

M. Cha, H. Kwak, P. Rodriguez, Y.-Y. Ahn, and S. Moon, “I tube, you tube, everybody tubes: Analyzing the world’s largest user generated content video system,” in Proc. 7th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement, Aug. 2007.

Moreno, B. M.

B. M. Moreno, C. E. P. Salvador, M. E. Domingo, I. A. Peña, and V. R. Extremera, “On content delivery network implementation,” Comput. Commun., vol.  29, pp. 2396–2412, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Mori, T.

T. Mori, N. Kamiyama, S. Harada, H. Hasegawa, and R. Kawahara, “Improving deployability of peer-assisted CDN platform with incentive,” in Proc. IEEE Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec. 2009.

Mukherjee, B.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient content distribution over telecom network infrastructure,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2011.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, and B. Mukherjee, “Should ISPs adopt hybrid CDN–P2P in IP-over-WDM networks: An energy-efficiency perspective?” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2012.

Nag, A.

Nguyen, T. D.

K. Le, R. Bianchini, M. Martonosi, and T. D. Nguyen, “Cost and energy-aware load distribution across data centers,” Proc. of HotPower, Oct. 2009.

Nirmalathas, A.

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. A. Chan, “Improving energy efficiency of video on demand services,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 11, pp. 870–880, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. A. Chan, “Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2011, paper OWR3.

Oberheide, J.

C. Labovitz, S. Iekel-Johnson, D. McPherson, J. Oberheide, F. Jahanian, and M. Karir, “ATLAS Internet Observatory 2009 Annual Report,” 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.nanog.org/meetings/nanog47/presentations/Monday/Labovitz_ObserveReport_N47_Mon.pdf .

Pallis, G.

A. Vakali and G. Pallis, “Content delivery networks: Status and trends,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol.  7, no. 6, pp. 68–74, Nov./Dec. 2003.

Peña, I. A.

B. M. Moreno, C. E. P. Salvador, M. E. Domingo, I. A. Peña, and V. R. Extremera, “On content delivery network implementation,” Comput. Commun., vol.  29, pp. 2396–2412, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Picconi, F.

M. May, C. Diot, P. L. Guyadec, F. Picconi, J. Roussel, and A. Soule, “Service hosting gateways: A platform for distributed service deployment in end user homes,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2011, pp. 476–477.

Plass, M. F.

V. Jacobson, D. K. Smetters, J. D. Thornton, M. F. Plass, N. H. Briggs, and R. L. Braynard, “Networking named content,” in Proc. Conf. on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies (CoNEXT), 2009, pp. 1–12.

Qiu, F.

H. Yin, X. Liu, T. Zhan, V. Sekar, F. Qiu, C. Lin, H. Zhang, and B. Li, “Design and deployment of a hybrid CDN–P2P system for live video streaming: Experiences with LiveSky,” in Proc. 17th ACM Int. Conf. on Multimedia, Oct. 2009, pp. 25–34.

Qureshi, A.

A. Qureshi, R. Weber, H. Balakrishnan, J. Guttag, and B. Maggs, “Cutting the electric bill for Internet-scale systems,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, New York, 2009, pp. 123–134.

Ranganathan, P.

P. Mahadevan, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and P. Ranganathan, “A power benchmarking framework for network devices,” in Proc. IFIP-TC Networking Conf., 2009, pp. 795–808.

Rimac, I.

U. Lee, I. Rimac, and V. Hilt, “Greening the Internet with content-centric networking,” in Proc. e-Energy, 2010, pp. 179–182.

Rodriguez, P.

V. Valancius, N. Laoutaris, L. L. Massoulié, C. Diot, and P. Rodriguez, “Greening the Internet with nano data centers,” in Proc. Conf. on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies (CoNEXT), Dec. 2009, pp. 37–48.

M. Cha, H. Kwak, P. Rodriguez, Y.-Y. Ahn, and S. Moon, “I tube, you tube, everybody tubes: Analyzing the world’s largest user generated content video system,” in Proc. 7th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement, Aug. 2007.

Rosenberg, C.

D. Xu, S. S. Kulkarni, C. Rosenberg, and H.-K. Chai, “Analysis of a CDN–P2P hybrid architecture for cost-effective streaming media distribution,” Multimed. Syst., vol.  11, pp. 383–399, 2006.

Ross, K. W.

C. Huang, J. Li, and K. W. Ross, “Peer-assisted VoD: Making Internet video distribution cheap,” in Proc. Int. Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), Feb. 2007.

C. Huang, J. Li, and K. W. Ross, “Can Internet video-on-demand be profitable?” in Proc. SIGCOMM, Aug. 2007, pp. 133–144.

C. Huang, A. Wang, J. Li, and K. W. Ross, “Understanding hybrid CDN–P2P: Why Limelight needs its own red swoosh,” in Proc. 18th Int. Workshop on NOSSDAV, May 2008, pp. 75–80.

Rouskas, G.

E. Yetginer and G. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec. 2009.

Roussel, J.

M. May, C. Diot, P. L. Guyadec, F. Picconi, J. Roussel, and A. Soule, “Service hosting gateways: A platform for distributed service deployment in end user homes,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2011, pp. 476–477.

Salvador, C. E. P.

B. M. Moreno, C. E. P. Salvador, M. E. Domingo, I. A. Peña, and V. R. Extremera, “On content delivery network implementation,” Comput. Commun., vol.  29, pp. 2396–2412, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Seetharaman, S.

B. Heller, S. Seetharaman, P. Mahadevan, Y. Yiakoumis, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and N. McKeown, “ElasticTree: Saving energy in data center networks,” in Proc. 7th USENIX Conf. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, Apr. 2010.

Sekar, V.

H. Yin, X. Liu, T. Zhan, V. Sekar, F. Qiu, C. Lin, H. Zhang, and B. Li, “Design and deployment of a hybrid CDN–P2P system for live video streaming: Experiences with LiveSky,” in Proc. 17th ACM Int. Conf. on Multimedia, Oct. 2009, pp. 25–34.

Sharma, P.

B. Heller, S. Seetharaman, P. Mahadevan, Y. Yiakoumis, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and N. McKeown, “ElasticTree: Saving energy in data center networks,” in Proc. 7th USENIX Conf. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, Apr. 2010.

P. Mahadevan, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and P. Ranganathan, “A power benchmarking framework for network devices,” in Proc. IFIP-TC Networking Conf., 2009, pp. 795–808.

Silberschatz, A.

H. Xie, Y. R. Yang, A. Krishnamurthy, Y. G. Liu, and A. Silberschatz, “P4P: Provider portal for applications,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Conf. on Data Communication, Oct. 2008, pp. 351–362.

Smaragdakis, G.

A. Feldmann, A. Gladisch, M. Kind, C. Lange, G. Smaragdakis, and F.-J. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. Conf. on Telecommunications, Media and Internet Techno-Economics (CTTE), June 2010.

Smetters, D. K.

V. Jacobson, D. K. Smetters, J. D. Thornton, M. F. Plass, N. H. Briggs, and R. L. Braynard, “Networking named content,” in Proc. Conf. on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies (CoNEXT), 2009, pp. 1–12.

Sommers, J.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2008, pp. 457–465.

Soule, A.

M. May, C. Diot, P. L. Guyadec, F. Picconi, J. Roussel, and A. Soule, “Service hosting gateways: A platform for distributed service deployment in end user homes,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2011, pp. 476–477.

Steiner, M.

V. Adhikari, Y. Guo, F. Hao, M. Varvello, V. Hilt, M. Steiner, and Z.-L. Zhang, “Unreeling Netflix: Understanding and improving multi-CDN movie delivery,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2012, pp. 1620–1628.

Thornton, J. D.

V. Jacobson, D. K. Smetters, J. D. Thornton, M. F. Plass, N. H. Briggs, and R. L. Braynard, “Networking named content,” in Proc. Conf. on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies (CoNEXT), 2009, pp. 1–12.

Tornatore, M.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tsiang, D.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2008, pp. 457–465.

Tucker, R.

R. Tucker, “Green optical communications—Part II: Energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 261–274, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2009, paper OThQ5.

Vahdat, A.

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Oct. 2008, pp. 63–74.

Vakali, A.

A. Vakali and G. Pallis, “Content delivery networks: Status and trends,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol.  7, no. 6, pp. 68–74, Nov./Dec. 2003.

Valancius, V.

V. Valancius, N. Laoutaris, L. L. Massoulié, C. Diot, and P. Rodriguez, “Greening the Internet with nano data centers,” in Proc. Conf. on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies (CoNEXT), Dec. 2009, pp. 37–48.

Varvello, M.

V. Adhikari, Y. Guo, F. Hao, M. Varvello, V. Hilt, M. Steiner, and Z.-L. Zhang, “Unreeling Netflix: Understanding and improving multi-CDN movie delivery,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2012, pp. 1620–1628.

Wang, A.

C. Huang, A. Wang, J. Li, and K. W. Ross, “Understanding hybrid CDN–P2P: Why Limelight needs its own red swoosh,” in Proc. 18th Int. Workshop on NOSSDAV, May 2008, pp. 75–80.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, C. Huang, and J. Li, “On ISP-friendly rate allocation for peer-assisted VoD,” in Proc. 16th ACM Int. Conf. on Multimedia, Oct. 2008, pp. 279–288.

Wang, T.

Weber, R.

A. Qureshi, R. Weber, H. Balakrishnan, J. Guttag, and B. Maggs, “Cutting the electric bill for Internet-scale systems,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, New York, 2009, pp. 123–134.

Weidmann, R.

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, R. Weidmann, and A. Gladisch, “Energy consumption of telecommunication networks and related improvement options,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 285–295, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Westphal, F.-J.

A. Feldmann, A. Gladisch, M. Kind, C. Lange, G. Smaragdakis, and F.-J. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. Conf. on Telecommunications, Media and Internet Techno-Economics (CTTE), June 2010.

Wong, E.

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. A. Chan, “Improving energy efficiency of video on demand services,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 11, pp. 870–880, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. A. Chan, “Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2011, paper OWR3.

Wright, S.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2008, pp. 457–465.

Xie, H.

H. Xie, Y. R. Yang, A. Krishnamurthy, Y. G. Liu, and A. Silberschatz, “P4P: Provider portal for applications,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Conf. on Data Communication, Oct. 2008, pp. 351–362.

Xu, D.

D. Xu, S. S. Kulkarni, C. Rosenberg, and H.-K. Chai, “Analysis of a CDN–P2P hybrid architecture for cost-effective streaming media distribution,” Multimed. Syst., vol.  11, pp. 383–399, 2006.

Yang, Y. R.

H. Xie, Y. R. Yang, A. Krishnamurthy, Y. G. Liu, and A. Silberschatz, “P4P: Provider portal for applications,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Conf. on Data Communication, Oct. 2008, pp. 351–362.

Yetginer, E.

E. Yetginer and G. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec. 2009.

Yiakoumis, Y.

B. Heller, S. Seetharaman, P. Mahadevan, Y. Yiakoumis, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and N. McKeown, “ElasticTree: Saving energy in data center networks,” in Proc. 7th USENIX Conf. on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, Apr. 2010.

Yin, H.

H. Yin, X. Liu, T. Zhan, V. Sekar, F. Qiu, C. Lin, H. Zhang, and B. Li, “Design and deployment of a hybrid CDN–P2P system for live video streaming: Experiences with LiveSky,” in Proc. 17th ACM Int. Conf. on Multimedia, Oct. 2009, pp. 25–34.

Zhan, T.

H. Yin, X. Liu, T. Zhan, V. Sekar, F. Qiu, C. Lin, H. Zhang, and B. Li, “Design and deployment of a hybrid CDN–P2P system for live video streaming: Experiences with LiveSky,” in Proc. 17th ACM Int. Conf. on Multimedia, Oct. 2009, pp. 25–34.

Zhang, H.

H. Yin, X. Liu, T. Zhan, V. Sekar, F. Qiu, C. Lin, H. Zhang, and B. Li, “Design and deployment of a hybrid CDN–P2P system for live video streaming: Experiences with LiveSky,” in Proc. 17th ACM Int. Conf. on Multimedia, Oct. 2009, pp. 25–34.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.-L.

V. Adhikari, Y. Guo, F. Hao, M. Varvello, V. Hilt, M. Steiner, and Z.-L. Zhang, “Unreeling Netflix: Understanding and improving multi-CDN movie delivery,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2012, pp. 1620–1628.

Comput. Commun. (1)

B. M. Moreno, C. E. P. Salvador, M. E. Domingo, I. A. Peña, and V. R. Extremera, “On content delivery network implementation,” Comput. Commun., vol.  29, pp. 2396–2412, 2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Internet Comput. (1)

A. Vakali and G. Pallis, “Content delivery networks: Status and trends,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol.  7, no. 6, pp. 68–74, Nov./Dec. 2003.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, R. Weidmann, and A. Gladisch, “Energy consumption of telecommunication networks and related improvement options,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 285–295, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Tucker, “Green optical communications—Part II: Energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 261–274, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Multimed. Syst. (1)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

System architecture.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Network equipment architecture.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ideal and measured power consumption of a network device.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Expected load on SN compared to CDN-only system.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Local CDNs with SNs in a U.S.-wide IP backbone network.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Percentage of CDN energy for average peer share duration = 30 min .

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Percentage of CDN energy for average peer share duration = 1 h .

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Percentage of CDN energy for average peer share duration = 2 h .

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Percentage of CDN energy for average peer share duration = 5 h .

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Percentage of CDN server load for non-proportional power consumption.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Percentage of CDN server load for proportional power consumption.

Tables (3)

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Algorithm 1 Minimize Server Bandwidth (MSB)

Tables Icon

Algorithm 2 Minimize Instantaneous Energy (MIE)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Sample Network and Data Center Equipment Power Values

Equations (17)

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f ( x ) = { P F + x ( P Max P F ) , if x > 0 0 , otherwise .
f ( x ) = { P F + C x × ( P Max P F ) C , if x > 0 0 , otherwise ,
f Z ( z ) = ( f X * f Y ) ( z ) = f X ( z y ) · f Y ( y ) d y = β e β ( z L ) , z L .
E [ Z ] = L z · f Z ( z ) d z = β L + 1 β = 1 γ ,
p ( k ) = ( λ / γ ) k e ( λ / γ ) k ! = ρ k e ρ k ! ,
k 0 = α c ^ .
k 0 = α c ^ + λ L .
p ¯ ( k 0 ) = p ( k k 0 ) = k = k 0 ρ k e ρ k ! = 1 k = 0 k 0 1 ρ k e ρ k ! .
min n l d l θ n × ( P n F × Y n l + P n A × b × u l r ( i X i n r l + i X n i r l ) ) + r ψ × ( h A h r 1 ) ,
i X i j r l k X j k r l { 1 , if j = m ( r ) = A j r l , if j H r l r R and l = 0 , otherwise ,
r u l r × X i j r l c i j b , ( i , j ) E and l ,
h H r l A h r l c ^ , r R and l ,
r u l r × A h r l B h b , h , l ,
Y n l 1 M r u l r × ( i X i n r l + i X n i r l ) , n , l ,
Y n l M r u l r × ( i X i n r l + i X n i r l ) , n , l ,
A h r 1 M l u l r × A h r l , r , h ,
A h r M l u l r × A h r l , r , h .