Abstract

Flexible optical networks appear as the most prevalent candidates for next-generation core transport networks. The transition from a fixed to a flexible frequency grid calls for novel spectrum allocation techniques. This work focuses on the notion of dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing and addresses the issue of dynamic cooperative spectrum allocation for flexible optical networks. In order to cope with the dynamicity of the traffic demands, spectrum expansion/contraction (SEC) policies attempt to accommodate incoming requests by means of expanding/contracting the allocations of connections. When spectrum expansion is limited by neighboring connections, appropriate spectrum defragmentation (SD) policies undertake the task of reallocating connections in order to free up the spectrum. In this work, a novel cooperative SEC policy is examined, which takes into consideration the spectrum allocation of neighboring connections. Additionally, a class of cooperative SD policies is proposed, based on the capabilities of current technology. Simulation results from two reference core networks quantify the benefits that can be reaped in terms of blocking rate. Trade-offs with respect to the achieved reduction in blocking rate and the number of reallocated connections during the SD procedure are examined.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (5)

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Time-varying spectrum allocation policies and blocking analysis in flexible optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 13–25, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-varying traffic in FlexGrid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 26–38, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

I. N. Stiakogiannakis and D. I. Kaklamani, “A radio resource management framework for multi-user multi-cell OFDMA networks based on game theory,” Wireless Personal Commun., vol.  69, no. 2, pp. 745–770, Mar. 2013.

R. Wang and B. Mukherjee, “Provisioning in elastic optical networks with non-disruptive defragmentation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 15, pp. 2491–2500, 2013.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, M. Secondini, F. Fresi, N. Sambo, L. Poti, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull defragmentation without traffic disruption in flexible grid optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 125–133, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

2012 (7)

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, Q. Hu, and Y. Pan, “Towards elastic and fine-granular bandwidth allocation in spectrum-sliced optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 11, pp. 906–917, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, July 2012.

X. Wan, N. Hua, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum-flexible transparent optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, pp. 603–613, 2012.
[CrossRef]

E. Palkopoulou, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, E. Varvarigos, and I. Tomkos, “Quantifying spectrum, cost, and energy efficiency in fixed-grid and flex-grid networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 11, pp. B42–B51, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and X. Cao, “Multi-granular optical switching: A classified overview for the past and future,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 3, pp. 698–713, 2012.

L. Guo, W. Hou, J. Wu, and Y. Li, “Multicast multi-granular grooming based on integrated auxiliary grooming graph in optical networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 103–117, Oct. 2012.

2011 (3)

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, “Cognitive radio games,” IEEE Spectrum, vol.  48, no. 4, pp. 40–56, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. Y. Yen, “Finding the k shortest loopless paths in a network,” Manage. Sci., vol.  17, no. 11, pp. 712–716, Jan. 1971.

Angelou, M.

Bai, Y.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Spectrum compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper JTh2A.35.

Berrettini, G.

Buchali, F.

Cao, X.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, Q. Hu, and Y. Pan, “Towards elastic and fine-granular bandwidth allocation in spectrum-sliced optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 11, pp. 906–917, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and X. Cao, “Multi-granular optical switching: A classified overview for the past and future,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 3, pp. 698–713, 2012.

Careglio, D.

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-varying traffic in FlexGrid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 26–38, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Castoldi, P.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Time-varying spectrum allocation policies and blocking analysis in flexible optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 13–25, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

E. Palkopoulou, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, E. Varvarigos, and I. Tomkos, “Quantifying spectrum, cost, and energy efficiency in fixed-grid and flex-grid networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 11, pp. B42–B51, 2012.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in IEEE Global Telecommunication Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec. 2010, pp. 1–6.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Spectrally/bitrate flexible optical network planning,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2010, pp. 1–3.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OTuI5.

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.2.

Comellas, J.

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-varying traffic in FlexGrid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 26–38, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Cugini, F.

Fresi, F.

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.2.

Gerstel, O. A.

O. A. Gerstel, “Flexible use of spectrum and photonic grooming,” in Photonics in Switching, 2010, paper PMD3.

Gu, W.

W. Ju, S. Huang, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic adaptive spectrum defragmentation scheme in elastic optical path networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2012, pp. 20–21.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “Routing and spectrum assignment by means of ant colony optimization in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2012, paper NTu2J.3.

Guo, L.

L. Guo, W. Hou, J. Wu, and Y. Li, “Multicast multi-granular grooming based on integrated auxiliary grooming graph in optical networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 103–117, Oct. 2012.

Hasegawa, H.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-I. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.K.3.

Hirano, A.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-I. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.K.3.

Hou, W.

L. Guo, W. Hou, J. Wu, and Y. Li, “Multicast multi-granular grooming based on integrated auxiliary grooming graph in optical networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 103–117, Oct. 2012.

Hu, Q.

Hua, N.

Huang, S.

W. Ju, S. Huang, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic adaptive spectrum defragmentation scheme in elastic optical path networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2012, pp. 20–21.

Ji, P.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, pp. 1–3.

Ji, P. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, July 2012.

Jinno, M.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-I. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.K.3.

Ju, W.

W. Ju, S. Huang, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic adaptive spectrum defragmentation scheme in elastic optical path networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2012, pp. 20–21.

Jue, J.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, pp. 1–3.

Jue, J. P.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, July 2012.

Kaklamani, D. I.

I. N. Stiakogiannakis and D. I. Kaklamani, “A radio resource management framework for multi-user multi-cell OFDMA networks based on game theory,” Wireless Personal Commun., vol.  69, no. 2, pp. 745–770, Mar. 2013.

Kantarci, B.

N. Naas, B. Kantarci, and H. Mouftah, “Design considerations for energy-efficient multi-granular optical networks,” in 9th Int. Conf. on High Capacity Optical Networks and Enabling Technologies (HONET), 2012, pp. 137–141.

Kim, I.

X. Wang, Q. Zhang, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Utilization entropy for assessing resource fragmentation in optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTh1A.2.

X. Wang, I. Kim, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “A hitless defragmentation method for self-optimizing flexible grid optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper P5.04.

Klekamp, A.

Klinkowski, M.

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-varying traffic in FlexGrid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 26–38, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Klonidis, D.

E. Palkopoulou, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, E. Varvarigos, and I. Tomkos, “Quantifying spectrum, cost, and energy efficiency in fixed-grid and flex-grid networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 11, pp. B42–B51, 2012.
[CrossRef]

I. Tomkos and D. Klonidis, “Dynamic elastic and scalable photonic infrastructures and network architectures,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2011, pp. 1–4.

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.2.

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

L. Guo, W. Hou, J. Wu, and Y. Li, “Multicast multi-granular grooming based on integrated auxiliary grooming graph in optical networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 103–117, Oct. 2012.

Lin, X.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Spectrum compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper JTh2A.35.

Liu, K.

K. Liu, “Cognitive radio games,” IEEE Spectrum, vol.  48, no. 4, pp. 40–56, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Lopez, V.

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-varying traffic in FlexGrid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 26–38, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Lord, A.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.

Matsuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Meloni, G.

Mouftah, H.

N. Naas, B. Kantarci, and H. Mouftah, “Design considerations for energy-efficient multi-granular optical networks,” in 9th Int. Conf. on High Capacity Optical Networks and Enabling Technologies (HONET), 2012, pp. 137–141.

Mukherjee, B.

Naas, N.

N. Naas, B. Kantarci, and H. Mouftah, “Design considerations for energy-efficient multi-granular optical networks,” in 9th Int. Conf. on High Capacity Optical Networks and Enabling Technologies (HONET), 2012, pp. 137–141.

Palacharla, P.

X. Wang, Q. Zhang, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Utilization entropy for assessing resource fragmentation in optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTh1A.2.

X. Wang, I. Kim, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “A hitless defragmentation method for self-optimizing flexible grid optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper P5.04.

Palkopoulou, E.

E. Palkopoulou, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, E. Varvarigos, and I. Tomkos, “Quantifying spectrum, cost, and energy efficiency in fixed-grid and flex-grid networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 11, pp. B42–B51, 2012.
[CrossRef]

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.2.

Pan, Y.

Paolucci, F.

Patel, A.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, pp. 1–3.

Patel, A. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, July 2012.

Peng, T.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Spectrum compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper JTh2A.35.

Poti, L.

Ruiz, M.

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-varying traffic in FlexGrid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 26–38, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Sambo, N.

Sato, K.-I.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-I. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.K.3.

Secondini, M.

Sekiya, M.

X. Wang, I. Kim, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “A hitless defragmentation method for self-optimizing flexible grid optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper P5.04.

X. Wang, Q. Zhang, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Utilization entropy for assessing resource fragmentation in optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTh1A.2.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-I. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.K.3.

Stiakogiannakis, I.

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.2.

Stiakogiannakis, I. N.

I. N. Stiakogiannakis and D. I. Kaklamani, “A radio resource management framework for multi-user multi-cell OFDMA networks based on game theory,” Wireless Personal Commun., vol.  69, no. 2, pp. 745–770, Mar. 2013.

Takagi, T.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-I. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.K.3.

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Time-varying spectrum allocation policies and blocking analysis in flexible optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 13–25, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

E. Palkopoulou, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, E. Varvarigos, and I. Tomkos, “Quantifying spectrum, cost, and energy efficiency in fixed-grid and flex-grid networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 11, pp. B42–B51, 2012.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Spectrally/bitrate flexible optical network planning,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2010, pp. 1–3.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in IEEE Global Telecommunication Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec. 2010, pp. 1–6.

I. Tomkos and D. Klonidis, “Dynamic elastic and scalable photonic infrastructures and network architectures,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2011, pp. 1–4.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OTuI5.

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.2.

Tsukishima, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Varvarigos, E.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Time-varying spectrum allocation policies and blocking analysis in flexible optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 13–25, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

E. Palkopoulou, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, E. Varvarigos, and I. Tomkos, “Quantifying spectrum, cost, and energy efficiency in fixed-grid and flex-grid networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 11, pp. B42–B51, 2012.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in IEEE Global Telecommunication Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec. 2010, pp. 1–6.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Spectrally/bitrate flexible optical network planning,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2010, pp. 1–3.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OTuI5.

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.2.

Varvarigos, E. A.

Velasco, L.

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-varying traffic in FlexGrid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 26–38, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Walkowiak, K.

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Wan, X.

Wang, D.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Spectrum compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper JTh2A.35.

Wang, J.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “Routing and spectrum assignment by means of ant colony optimization in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2012, paper NTu2J.3.

Wang, R.

Wang, T.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, July 2012.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, pp. 1–3.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, I. Kim, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “A hitless defragmentation method for self-optimizing flexible grid optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper P5.04.

X. Wang, Q. Zhang, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Utilization entropy for assessing resource fragmentation in optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTh1A.2.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, Q. Hu, and Y. Pan, “Towards elastic and fine-granular bandwidth allocation in spectrum-sliced optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 11, pp. 906–917, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and X. Cao, “Multi-granular optical switching: A classified overview for the past and future,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 3, pp. 698–713, 2012.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “Routing and spectrum assignment by means of ant colony optimization in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2012, paper NTu2J.3.

Wu, J.

L. Guo, W. Hou, J. Wu, and Y. Li, “Multicast multi-granular grooming based on integrated auxiliary grooming graph in optical networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 103–117, Oct. 2012.

Xu, Z.

W. Ju, S. Huang, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic adaptive spectrum defragmentation scheme in elastic optical path networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2012, pp. 20–21.

Yen, J. Y.

J. Y. Yen, “Finding the k shortest loopless paths in a network,” Manage. Sci., vol.  17, no. 11, pp. 712–716, Jan. 1971.

Yoo, S.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.

Yu, X.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Spectrum compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper JTh2A.35.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, and J. Zhao, “Priority-based defragmentation scheme in spectrum-efficient optical networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Optical Internet (COIN), 2012, pp. 16–17.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, and J. Zhao, “Priority-based defragmentation scheme in spectrum-efficient optical networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Optical Internet (COIN), 2012, pp. 16–17.

W. Ju, S. Huang, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic adaptive spectrum defragmentation scheme in elastic optical path networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2012, pp. 20–21.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Spectrum compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper JTh2A.35.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “Routing and spectrum assignment by means of ant colony optimization in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2012, paper NTu2J.3.

Zhang, Q.

X. Wang, Q. Zhang, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Utilization entropy for assessing resource fragmentation in optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTh1A.2.

X. Wang, I. Kim, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “A hitless defragmentation method for self-optimizing flexible grid optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper P5.04.

Zhao, J.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, and J. Zhao, “Priority-based defragmentation scheme in spectrum-efficient optical networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Optical Internet (COIN), 2012, pp. 16–17.

Zhao, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, and J. Zhao, “Priority-based defragmentation scheme in spectrum-efficient optical networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Optical Internet (COIN), 2012, pp. 16–17.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Spectrum compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper JTh2A.35.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “Routing and spectrum assignment by means of ant colony optimization in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2012, paper NTu2J.3.

Zheng, X.

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

Y. Wang and X. Cao, “Multi-granular optical switching: A classified overview for the past and future,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 3, pp. 698–713, 2012.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Time-varying spectrum allocation policies and blocking analysis in flexible optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 13–25, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-varying traffic in FlexGrid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 26–38, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Spectrum (1)

K. Liu, “Cognitive radio games,” IEEE Spectrum, vol.  48, no. 4, pp. 40–56, 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (3)

Manage. Sci. (1)

J. Y. Yen, “Finding the k shortest loopless paths in a network,” Manage. Sci., vol.  17, no. 11, pp. 712–716, Jan. 1971.

Opt. Switching Networking (1)

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, July 2012.

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

L. Guo, W. Hou, J. Wu, and Y. Li, “Multicast multi-granular grooming based on integrated auxiliary grooming graph in optical networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 103–117, Oct. 2012.

Wireless Personal Commun. (1)

I. N. Stiakogiannakis and D. I. Kaklamani, “A radio resource management framework for multi-user multi-cell OFDMA networks based on game theory,” Wireless Personal Commun., vol.  69, no. 2, pp. 745–770, Mar. 2013.

Other (17)

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Wang, and W. Gu, “Routing and spectrum assignment by means of ant colony optimization in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2012, paper NTu2J.3.

N. Naas, B. Kantarci, and H. Mouftah, “Design considerations for energy-efficient multi-granular optical networks,” in 9th Int. Conf. on High Capacity Optical Networks and Enabling Technologies (HONET), 2012, pp. 137–141.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OTuI5.

“Spectral grids for WDM applications: DWDM frequency grid,” , Feb. 2012.

I. Tomkos and D. Klonidis, “Dynamic elastic and scalable photonic infrastructures and network architectures,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2011, pp. 1–4.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in IEEE Global Telecommunication Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec. 2010, pp. 1–6.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Spectrally/bitrate flexible optical network planning,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2010, pp. 1–3.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, pp. 1–3.

W. Ju, S. Huang, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic adaptive spectrum defragmentation scheme in elastic optical path networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2012, pp. 20–21.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, and J. Zhao, “Priority-based defragmentation scheme in spectrum-efficient optical networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Optical Internet (COIN), 2012, pp. 16–17.

O. A. Gerstel, “Flexible use of spectrum and photonic grooming,” in Photonics in Switching, 2010, paper PMD3.

E. Palkopoulou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, O. Gerstel, and I. Tomkos, “Dynamic cooperative spectrum sharing in elastic networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2013, paper OTu3A.2.

CHRON Project, “Initial network and service control architecture,” , Nov. 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.ict-chron.eu .

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-I. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.K.3.

X. Wang, I. Kim, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “A hitless defragmentation method for self-optimizing flexible grid optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper P5.04.

X. Wang, Q. Zhang, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Utilization entropy for assessing resource fragmentation in optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTh1A.2.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Spectrum compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper JTh2A.35.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Guaranteed blocking probability (Pbl:PcblΨblcD) versus number of slots per fiber (M) versus network load (ρ=cDρc).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

RSA: an illustrative example.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEC: resource allocation parameters.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEC and SD policies (guard-band slots between connections have been omitted for clarity).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Network blocking rate versus network load for (a) DT network with 90 slots per fiber and (b) GEANT network with 190 slots per fiber.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Network blocking rate versus number of slots per fiber for (a) DT network at 866.58E network load and (b) GEANT network at 995.46E network load.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Relative (over FBN) performance gain in network blocking rate versus network load for the DT network with 90 slots per fiber.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Number of requests that achieve reallocation over number of requests that require reallocation versus network load for the DT network with 90 slots per fiber.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Percentage (over arrivals) of requests that require the reallocation of other connections versus network load for the DT network with 90 slots per fiber.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Maximum (solid) and average (dashed) number of connections that are reallocated when a defragmentation policy is applied versus network load for the DT network with 90 slots per fiber.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Notations

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pcbl(ρc,nc)=ρcncnc!i=1ncρcii!,
Pbl=cDλcPcblcDλc.
n^c=min{ncN:Pcbl(ρc,nc)Ψibl}.
Ncr=arg minkD{fk:fc<fk,pcpk},
Ncl=arg maxkD{fk:fc>fk,pcpk}.
Rc={minpc{fNcr}fcGNcrM+1fcNcr=,
Lc={fcmaxpc{fNcl}GNclfc1Ncl=,
r¯c={minpc{fNcrlNcr}(fc+rc)GNcrM+1(fc+rc)Ncr=,
l¯c={(fclc)maxpc{fNcl+rNcl}GNcl(fclc)1Ncl=.
0Δfcr¯c,
0Δfcl¯c.