Abstract

This work proposes a new approach to power passive optical network (PON) extenders using the power-over-fiber technique, turning them virtually passive. This approach eliminates the batteries in the remote sites, improving the reliability and the security of the system. The limits and the perspectives for this approach are discussed in this work. The performance of fiber powered semiconductor optical amplifiers based on the extender is shown with a 10 gigabit passive optical network (XG-PON)/gigabit passive optical network (G-PON) system setup using a 132 splitter and 50 km reach. The conventional method to power the extenders is also presented for the sake of comparison with the proposed power-over-fiber technique.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (4)

2011 (2)

B. Schrenk, F. B. Bo, J. Bauwelinck, J. Prat, and J. A. Lazaro, “Energy-efficient optical access networks supported by a noise-powered extender box,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 480–488, Mar.–Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Schrenk, J. Bauwelinck, F. B. Bo, J. A. Lazaro, X.-Z. Qiu, P. Chanclou, and J. Prat, “High customer density PON with passive amplification through distributed pump for >1:1000 tree split,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 13, pp. 1951–1957, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

C. Lange, R. Hülsermann, D. Kosiankowski, F. Geilhardt, and A. Gladisch, “Effects of network node consolidation in optical access and aggregation networks on costs and power consumption,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7621, 76210F, Jan.2010.

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2004 (1)

1993 (1)

T. C. Banwell, R. C. Estes, L. A. Reith, P. W. Shumate, and E. M. Vogel, “Powering the fiber loop optically-a cost analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  11, no. 3, pp. 481–494, Mar. 1993.
[CrossRef]

Algora, C.

R. Pena and C. Algora, “Evaluation of the limiting efficiencies of photovoltaic converters under monochromatic illumination,” in Spanish Conf. on Electron Devices, Feb. 2007, pp. 274–276.

Andre, P. S.

P. S. Andre, M. J. N. Lima, N. Fernandes, M. Granada, J. Cang, R. Lan, and X.-J. Xin, “Power over fiber in Raman amplified optical networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Telecommunication, Graz, Austria, June 2011, pp. 311–314.

Appathurai, S.

Au, D.

B. Zhu, D. Au, F. Khan, and Y. Li, “Coexistence of 10G-PON and G-PON reach extension to 50-km with entirely passive fiber plant,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011.

Baekelandt, B.

J. Bauwelinck, B. Schrenk, F. Bonada, B. Baekelandt, J. A. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, J. Prat, and X. Z. Qiu, “Full-duplex 10 Gb/s transmission in ultra-dense PONs with tree splits >1:1k and noise-powered extender box,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.4.

Balaban, A.

A. Balaban and A. Pitts, “Powering the emerging full service access networks (FSAN)—The last mile challenge,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunication Energy Conf., Berlin, Germany, Sept.2005, pp. 137–143.

Banwell, T. C.

T. C. Banwell, R. C. Estes, L. A. Reith, P. W. Shumate, and E. M. Vogel, “Powering the fiber loop optically-a cost analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  11, no. 3, pp. 481–494, Mar. 1993.
[CrossRef]

Bauwelinck, J.

B. Schrenk, F. B. Bo, J. Bauwelinck, J. Prat, and J. A. Lazaro, “Energy-efficient optical access networks supported by a noise-powered extender box,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 480–488, Mar.–Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Schrenk, J. Bauwelinck, F. B. Bo, J. A. Lazaro, X.-Z. Qiu, P. Chanclou, and J. Prat, “High customer density PON with passive amplification through distributed pump for >1:1000 tree split,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 13, pp. 1951–1957, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Bauwelinck, B. Schrenk, F. Bonada, B. Baekelandt, J. A. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, J. Prat, and X. Z. Qiu, “Full-duplex 10 Gb/s transmission in ultra-dense PONs with tree splits >1:1k and noise-powered extender box,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.4.

Beleffi, G. M. T.

Bo, F. B.

B. Schrenk, J. Bauwelinck, F. B. Bo, J. A. Lazaro, X.-Z. Qiu, P. Chanclou, and J. Prat, “High customer density PON with passive amplification through distributed pump for >1:1000 tree split,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 13, pp. 1951–1957, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Schrenk, F. B. Bo, J. Bauwelinck, J. Prat, and J. A. Lazaro, “Energy-efficient optical access networks supported by a noise-powered extender box,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 480–488, Mar.–Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Bonada, F.

B. Schrenk, J. A. Lazaro, D. Klonidis, F. Bonada, F. Saliou, V. Polo, E. Lopez, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, L. Costa, A. Teixeira, S. Chatzi, I. Tomkos, G. M. T. Beleffi, D. Leino, R. Soila, S. Spirou, G. de Valicourt, R. Brenot, C. Kazmierski, and J. Prat, “Demonstration of a remotely dual-pumped long-reach PON for flexible deployment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 7, pp. 953–961, Apr. 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Bauwelinck, B. Schrenk, F. Bonada, B. Baekelandt, J. A. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, J. Prat, and X. Z. Qiu, “Full-duplex 10 Gb/s transmission in ultra-dense PONs with tree splits >1:1k and noise-powered extender box,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.4.

F. Saliou, P. Chanclou, N. Genay, J. A. Lazaro, F. Bonada, A. Othmani, and Y. Zhou, “Single SOA to extend simultaneously the optical budget of coexisting G-PON and 10G-PON,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.5.

Brenot, R.

Cang, J.

P. S. Andre, M. J. N. Lima, N. Fernandes, M. Granada, J. Cang, R. Lan, and X.-J. Xin, “Power over fiber in Raman amplified optical networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Telecommunication, Graz, Austria, June 2011, pp. 311–314.

Chanclou, P.

B. Schrenk, J. A. Lazaro, D. Klonidis, F. Bonada, F. Saliou, V. Polo, E. Lopez, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, L. Costa, A. Teixeira, S. Chatzi, I. Tomkos, G. M. T. Beleffi, D. Leino, R. Soila, S. Spirou, G. de Valicourt, R. Brenot, C. Kazmierski, and J. Prat, “Demonstration of a remotely dual-pumped long-reach PON for flexible deployment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 7, pp. 953–961, Apr. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Schrenk, J. Bauwelinck, F. B. Bo, J. A. Lazaro, X.-Z. Qiu, P. Chanclou, and J. Prat, “High customer density PON with passive amplification through distributed pump for >1:1000 tree split,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 13, pp. 1951–1957, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Le Guyader, F. Saliou, L. Guillo, M. Le Roux, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and J. Pascal, “Dual reach extender based on optical amplification for G-PON and symmetrical 10G-PON systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.2.

J. Bauwelinck, B. Schrenk, F. Bonada, B. Baekelandt, J. A. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, J. Prat, and X. Z. Qiu, “Full-duplex 10 Gb/s transmission in ultra-dense PONs with tree splits >1:1k and noise-powered extender box,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.4.

F. Saliou, P. Chanclou, N. Genay, J. A. Lazaro, F. Bonada, A. Othmani, and Y. Zhou, “Single SOA to extend simultaneously the optical budget of coexisting G-PON and 10G-PON,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.5.

F. Saliou, R. Xia, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, T. von Lerber, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Kuppers, “Reach extenders based on optical amplification for XG-PON1 optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, paper Th.12.C.4.

Charbonnier, B.

B. Le Guyader, F. Saliou, L. Guillo, M. Le Roux, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and J. Pascal, “Dual reach extender based on optical amplification for G-PON and symmetrical 10G-PON systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.2.

Chatzi, S.

Cheng, N.

N. Cheng, Z. Liao, S. Liu, and F. Effenberger, “Gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers for reach extension of coexisted G-PON and XG-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA,Mar. 2011, paper NTuD7.

Costa, L.

Davey, R. P.

de Paiva, G. E. R.

J. B. Rosolem, G. E. R. de Paiva, and U. R. Duarte, “R-SOA based extender for XG-PON/G-PON applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Opt. Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar.2012, paper OM3I.3.

de Valicourt, G.

Duarte, U. R.

J. B. Rosolem, G. E. R. de Paiva, and U. R. Duarte, “R-SOA based extender for XG-PON/G-PON applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Opt. Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar.2012, paper OM3I.3.

Effenberger, F.

N. Cheng, Z. Liao, S. Liu, and F. Effenberger, “Gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers for reach extension of coexisted G-PON and XG-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA,Mar. 2011, paper NTuD7.

Estes, R. C.

T. C. Banwell, R. C. Estes, L. A. Reith, P. W. Shumate, and E. M. Vogel, “Powering the fiber loop optically-a cost analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  11, no. 3, pp. 481–494, Mar. 1993.
[CrossRef]

Farrow, K.

D. Nesset, K. Farrow, P. Wright, and D. Menashe, “Raman amplifier module for G-PON reach extension,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.3.

Fernandes, N.

P. S. Andre, M. J. N. Lima, N. Fernandes, M. Granada, J. Cang, R. Lan, and X.-J. Xin, “Power over fiber in Raman amplified optical networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Telecommunication, Graz, Austria, June 2011, pp. 311–314.

Ferreira, P.

J. P. Pereira and P. Ferreira, “Infrastructure sharing as an opportunity to promote competition in local access networks,” J. Comput. Networks Commun., vol.  2012, 409817, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Floridia, C.

Geilhardt, F.

C. Lange, R. Hülsermann, D. Kosiankowski, F. Geilhardt, and A. Gladisch, “Effects of network node consolidation in optical access and aggregation networks on costs and power consumption,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7621, 76210F, Jan.2010.

Genay, N.

F. Saliou, P. Chanclou, N. Genay, J. A. Lazaro, F. Bonada, A. Othmani, and Y. Zhou, “Single SOA to extend simultaneously the optical budget of coexisting G-PON and 10G-PON,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.5.

Gladisch, A.

C. Lange, R. Hülsermann, D. Kosiankowski, F. Geilhardt, and A. Gladisch, “Effects of network node consolidation in optical access and aggregation networks on costs and power consumption,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7621, 76210F, Jan.2010.

Granada, M.

P. S. Andre, M. J. N. Lima, N. Fernandes, M. Granada, J. Cang, R. Lan, and X.-J. Xin, “Power over fiber in Raman amplified optical networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Telecommunication, Graz, Austria, June 2011, pp. 311–314.

Grossman, D. B.

Guillo, L.

B. Le Guyader, F. Saliou, L. Guillo, M. Le Roux, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and J. Pascal, “Dual reach extender based on optical amplification for G-PON and symmetrical 10G-PON systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.2.

Honkanen, S.

F. Saliou, R. Xia, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, T. von Lerber, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Kuppers, “Reach extenders based on optical amplification for XG-PON1 optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, paper Th.12.C.4.

Hülsermann, R.

C. Lange, R. Hülsermann, D. Kosiankowski, F. Geilhardt, and A. Gladisch, “Effects of network node consolidation in optical access and aggregation networks on costs and power consumption,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7621, 76210F, Jan.2010.

Iannone, P.

P. Iannone and K. Reichmann, “Strategic and tactical uses for extended PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optical Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008.

Jang, Y.

K. Kim, J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J. Lee, and Y. Jang, “Low-cost, low-power, high-capacity 3R OEO-type reach extender for a long-reach TDMA-PON,” ETRI J., vol.  34, no. 3, pp. 352–360, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

Kazmierski, C.

Kelly, A. E.

Khan, F.

B. Zhu, D. Au, F. Khan, and Y. Li, “Coexistence of 10G-PON and G-PON reach extension to 50-km with entirely passive fiber plant,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011.

Kim, K.

K. Kim, J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J. Lee, and Y. Jang, “Low-cost, low-power, high-capacity 3R OEO-type reach extender for a long-reach TDMA-PON,” ETRI J., vol.  34, no. 3, pp. 352–360, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

Klonidis, D.

Kosiankowski, D.

C. Lange, R. Hülsermann, D. Kosiankowski, F. Geilhardt, and A. Gladisch, “Effects of network node consolidation in optical access and aggregation networks on costs and power consumption,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7621, 76210F, Jan.2010.

Kuhn, D.

D. Kuhn, E. Lo, and T. Robbins, “Powering issues in an optical fibre customer access network,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunication Energy Conf., Kyoto, Japan, Nov. 1991, pp. 51–58.

Kuppers, F.

F. Saliou, R. Xia, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, T. von Lerber, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Kuppers, “Reach extenders based on optical amplification for XG-PON1 optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, paper Th.12.C.4.

Kurokawa, T.

Lan, R.

P. S. Andre, M. J. N. Lima, N. Fernandes, M. Granada, J. Cang, R. Lan, and X.-J. Xin, “Power over fiber in Raman amplified optical networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Telecommunication, Graz, Austria, June 2011, pp. 311–314.

Lange, C.

C. Lange, R. Hülsermann, D. Kosiankowski, F. Geilhardt, and A. Gladisch, “Effects of network node consolidation in optical access and aggregation networks on costs and power consumption,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7621, 76210F, Jan.2010.

Lazaro, J. A.

B. Schrenk, J. A. Lazaro, D. Klonidis, F. Bonada, F. Saliou, V. Polo, E. Lopez, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, L. Costa, A. Teixeira, S. Chatzi, I. Tomkos, G. M. T. Beleffi, D. Leino, R. Soila, S. Spirou, G. de Valicourt, R. Brenot, C. Kazmierski, and J. Prat, “Demonstration of a remotely dual-pumped long-reach PON for flexible deployment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 7, pp. 953–961, Apr. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Schrenk, F. B. Bo, J. Bauwelinck, J. Prat, and J. A. Lazaro, “Energy-efficient optical access networks supported by a noise-powered extender box,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 480–488, Mar.–Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Schrenk, J. Bauwelinck, F. B. Bo, J. A. Lazaro, X.-Z. Qiu, P. Chanclou, and J. Prat, “High customer density PON with passive amplification through distributed pump for >1:1000 tree split,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 13, pp. 1951–1957, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Bauwelinck, B. Schrenk, F. Bonada, B. Baekelandt, J. A. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, J. Prat, and X. Z. Qiu, “Full-duplex 10 Gb/s transmission in ultra-dense PONs with tree splits >1:1k and noise-powered extender box,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.4.

F. Saliou, P. Chanclou, N. Genay, J. A. Lazaro, F. Bonada, A. Othmani, and Y. Zhou, “Single SOA to extend simultaneously the optical budget of coexisting G-PON and 10G-PON,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.5.

Le, Q. T.

B. Schrenk, J. A. Lazaro, D. Klonidis, F. Bonada, F. Saliou, V. Polo, E. Lopez, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, L. Costa, A. Teixeira, S. Chatzi, I. Tomkos, G. M. T. Beleffi, D. Leino, R. Soila, S. Spirou, G. de Valicourt, R. Brenot, C. Kazmierski, and J. Prat, “Demonstration of a remotely dual-pumped long-reach PON for flexible deployment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 7, pp. 953–961, Apr. 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Saliou, R. Xia, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, T. von Lerber, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Kuppers, “Reach extenders based on optical amplification for XG-PON1 optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, paper Th.12.C.4.

Le Guyader, B.

B. Le Guyader, F. Saliou, L. Guillo, M. Le Roux, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and J. Pascal, “Dual reach extender based on optical amplification for G-PON and symmetrical 10G-PON systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.2.

Le Roux, M.

B. Le Guyader, F. Saliou, L. Guillo, M. Le Roux, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and J. Pascal, “Dual reach extender based on optical amplification for G-PON and symmetrical 10G-PON systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.2.

Lee, J.

K. Kim, J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J. Lee, and Y. Jang, “Low-cost, low-power, high-capacity 3R OEO-type reach extender for a long-reach TDMA-PON,” ETRI J., vol.  34, no. 3, pp. 352–360, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

K. Kim, J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J. Lee, and Y. Jang, “Low-cost, low-power, high-capacity 3R OEO-type reach extender for a long-reach TDMA-PON,” ETRI J., vol.  34, no. 3, pp. 352–360, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. L.

K. L. Lee, J. L. Riding, A. V. Tran, and R. S. Tucker, “Extended-reach gigabit passive optical network for rural areas using distributed Raman,” in Proc. OptoElectron. Communication Conf., Hong Kong, China, July 2009.

Lee, S.

K. Kim, J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J. Lee, and Y. Jang, “Low-cost, low-power, high-capacity 3R OEO-type reach extender for a long-reach TDMA-PON,” ETRI J., vol.  34, no. 3, pp. 352–360, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

Leino, D.

Li, Y.

B. Zhu, D. Au, F. Khan, and Y. Li, “Coexistence of 10G-PON and G-PON reach extension to 50-km with entirely passive fiber plant,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011.

Liao, Z.

N. Cheng, Z. Liao, S. Liu, and F. Effenberger, “Gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers for reach extension of coexisted G-PON and XG-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA,Mar. 2011, paper NTuD7.

Lima, M. J. N.

P. S. Andre, M. J. N. Lima, N. Fernandes, M. Granada, J. Cang, R. Lan, and X.-J. Xin, “Power over fiber in Raman amplified optical networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Telecommunication, Graz, Austria, June 2011, pp. 311–314.

Liu, S.

N. Cheng, Z. Liao, S. Liu, and F. Effenberger, “Gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers for reach extension of coexisted G-PON and XG-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA,Mar. 2011, paper NTuD7.

Lo, E.

D. Kuhn, E. Lo, and T. Robbins, “Powering issues in an optical fibre customer access network,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunication Energy Conf., Kyoto, Japan, Nov. 1991, pp. 51–58.

Lopez, E.

Mattila, M.

F. Saliou, R. Xia, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, T. von Lerber, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Kuppers, “Reach extenders based on optical amplification for XG-PON1 optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, paper Th.12.C.4.

Menashe, D.

D. Nesset, K. Farrow, P. Wright, and D. Menashe, “Raman amplifier module for G-PON reach extension,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.3.

Miyakawa, H.

Nesset, D.

R. P. Davey, D. B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks (invited tutorial),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 3, pp. 273–291, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Nesset, K. Farrow, P. Wright, and D. Menashe, “Raman amplifier module for G-PON reach extension,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.3.

Nishimura, K.

M. Oishi, T. Tsuritani, and K. Nishimura, “Extended-reach 10G/1G-EPON over 80 km and 1024 split with optical amplifier-based hybrid repeater,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.1.

Oishi, M.

M. Oishi, T. Tsuritani, and K. Nishimura, “Extended-reach 10G/1G-EPON over 80 km and 1024 split with optical amplifier-based hybrid repeater,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.1.

Othmani, A.

F. Saliou, P. Chanclou, N. Genay, J. A. Lazaro, F. Bonada, A. Othmani, and Y. Zhou, “Single SOA to extend simultaneously the optical budget of coexisting G-PON and 10G-PON,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.5.

Pascal, J.

B. Le Guyader, F. Saliou, L. Guillo, M. Le Roux, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and J. Pascal, “Dual reach extender based on optical amplification for G-PON and symmetrical 10G-PON systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.2.

Payne, D. B.

Pena, R.

R. Pena and C. Algora, “Evaluation of the limiting efficiencies of photovoltaic converters under monochromatic illumination,” in Spanish Conf. on Electron Devices, Feb. 2007, pp. 274–276.

Pereira, J. P.

J. P. Pereira and P. Ferreira, “Infrastructure sharing as an opportunity to promote competition in local access networks,” J. Comput. Networks Commun., vol.  2012, 409817, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Pitts, A.

A. Balaban and A. Pitts, “Powering the emerging full service access networks (FSAN)—The last mile challenge,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunication Energy Conf., Berlin, Germany, Sept.2005, pp. 137–143.

Pla, D.

J. Prat and D. Pla, “Remote amplification in high-density passive optical networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Barcelona, Spain, July 2005, pp. 409–412.

Polo, V.

Prat, J.

B. Schrenk, J. A. Lazaro, D. Klonidis, F. Bonada, F. Saliou, V. Polo, E. Lopez, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, L. Costa, A. Teixeira, S. Chatzi, I. Tomkos, G. M. T. Beleffi, D. Leino, R. Soila, S. Spirou, G. de Valicourt, R. Brenot, C. Kazmierski, and J. Prat, “Demonstration of a remotely dual-pumped long-reach PON for flexible deployment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 7, pp. 953–961, Apr. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Schrenk, J. Bauwelinck, F. B. Bo, J. A. Lazaro, X.-Z. Qiu, P. Chanclou, and J. Prat, “High customer density PON with passive amplification through distributed pump for >1:1000 tree split,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 13, pp. 1951–1957, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Schrenk, F. B. Bo, J. Bauwelinck, J. Prat, and J. A. Lazaro, “Energy-efficient optical access networks supported by a noise-powered extender box,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 480–488, Mar.–Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Bauwelinck, B. Schrenk, F. Bonada, B. Baekelandt, J. A. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, J. Prat, and X. Z. Qiu, “Full-duplex 10 Gb/s transmission in ultra-dense PONs with tree splits >1:1k and noise-powered extender box,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.4.

J. Prat and D. Pla, “Remote amplification in high-density passive optical networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Barcelona, Spain, July 2005, pp. 409–412.

Qiu, X. Z.

J. Bauwelinck, B. Schrenk, F. Bonada, B. Baekelandt, J. A. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, J. Prat, and X. Z. Qiu, “Full-duplex 10 Gb/s transmission in ultra-dense PONs with tree splits >1:1k and noise-powered extender box,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.4.

Qiu, X.-Z.

Rafel, A.

Rasztovits-Wiech, M.

Reichmann, K.

P. Iannone and K. Reichmann, “Strategic and tactical uses for extended PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optical Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008.

Reith, L. A.

T. C. Banwell, R. C. Estes, L. A. Reith, P. W. Shumate, and E. M. Vogel, “Powering the fiber loop optically-a cost analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  11, no. 3, pp. 481–494, Mar. 1993.
[CrossRef]

Riding, J. L.

K. L. Lee, J. L. Riding, A. V. Tran, and R. S. Tucker, “Extended-reach gigabit passive optical network for rural areas using distributed Raman,” in Proc. OptoElectron. Communication Conf., Hong Kong, China, July 2009.

Robbins, T.

D. Kuhn, E. Lo, and T. Robbins, “Powering issues in an optical fibre customer access network,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunication Energy Conf., Kyoto, Japan, Nov. 1991, pp. 51–58.

Rosolem, J. B.

J. B. Rosolem and C. Floridia, “Power control and temperature sensing for fiber-powered active sensors,” Appl. Opt., vol.  47, no. 33, pp. 6207–6211, Nov. 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. B. Rosolem, G. E. R. de Paiva, and U. R. Duarte, “R-SOA based extender for XG-PON/G-PON applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Opt. Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar.2012, paper OM3I.3.

Saliou, F.

B. Schrenk, J. A. Lazaro, D. Klonidis, F. Bonada, F. Saliou, V. Polo, E. Lopez, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, L. Costa, A. Teixeira, S. Chatzi, I. Tomkos, G. M. T. Beleffi, D. Leino, R. Soila, S. Spirou, G. de Valicourt, R. Brenot, C. Kazmierski, and J. Prat, “Demonstration of a remotely dual-pumped long-reach PON for flexible deployment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 7, pp. 953–961, Apr. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Le Guyader, F. Saliou, L. Guillo, M. Le Roux, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and J. Pascal, “Dual reach extender based on optical amplification for G-PON and symmetrical 10G-PON systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.2.

F. Saliou, P. Chanclou, N. Genay, J. A. Lazaro, F. Bonada, A. Othmani, and Y. Zhou, “Single SOA to extend simultaneously the optical budget of coexisting G-PON and 10G-PON,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.5.

F. Saliou, R. Xia, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, T. von Lerber, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Kuppers, “Reach extenders based on optical amplification for XG-PON1 optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, paper Th.12.C.4.

Schrenk, B.

B. Schrenk, J. A. Lazaro, D. Klonidis, F. Bonada, F. Saliou, V. Polo, E. Lopez, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, L. Costa, A. Teixeira, S. Chatzi, I. Tomkos, G. M. T. Beleffi, D. Leino, R. Soila, S. Spirou, G. de Valicourt, R. Brenot, C. Kazmierski, and J. Prat, “Demonstration of a remotely dual-pumped long-reach PON for flexible deployment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 7, pp. 953–961, Apr. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Schrenk, J. Bauwelinck, F. B. Bo, J. A. Lazaro, X.-Z. Qiu, P. Chanclou, and J. Prat, “High customer density PON with passive amplification through distributed pump for >1:1000 tree split,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 13, pp. 1951–1957, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Schrenk, F. B. Bo, J. Bauwelinck, J. Prat, and J. A. Lazaro, “Energy-efficient optical access networks supported by a noise-powered extender box,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 480–488, Mar.–Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Bauwelinck, B. Schrenk, F. Bonada, B. Baekelandt, J. A. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, J. Prat, and X. Z. Qiu, “Full-duplex 10 Gb/s transmission in ultra-dense PONs with tree splits >1:1k and noise-powered extender box,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.4.

Shumate, P. W.

T. C. Banwell, R. C. Estes, L. A. Reith, P. W. Shumate, and E. M. Vogel, “Powering the fiber loop optically-a cost analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  11, no. 3, pp. 481–494, Mar. 1993.
[CrossRef]

Soila, R.

Spirou, S.

Tanaka, Y.

Teixeira, A.

Tervonen, A.

F. Saliou, R. Xia, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, T. von Lerber, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Kuppers, “Reach extenders based on optical amplification for XG-PON1 optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, paper Th.12.C.4.

Tomkos, I.

Tran, A. V.

K. L. Lee, J. L. Riding, A. V. Tran, and R. S. Tucker, “Extended-reach gigabit passive optical network for rural areas using distributed Raman,” in Proc. OptoElectron. Communication Conf., Hong Kong, China, July 2009.

Tsuritani, T.

M. Oishi, T. Tsuritani, and K. Nishimura, “Extended-reach 10G/1G-EPON over 80 km and 1024 split with optical amplifier-based hybrid repeater,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.1.

Tucker, R. S.

K. L. Lee, J. L. Riding, A. V. Tran, and R. S. Tucker, “Extended-reach gigabit passive optical network for rural areas using distributed Raman,” in Proc. OptoElectron. Communication Conf., Hong Kong, China, July 2009.

Vogel, E. M.

T. C. Banwell, R. C. Estes, L. A. Reith, P. W. Shumate, and E. M. Vogel, “Powering the fiber loop optically-a cost analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  11, no. 3, pp. 481–494, Mar. 1993.
[CrossRef]

von Lerber, T.

F. Saliou, R. Xia, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, T. von Lerber, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Kuppers, “Reach extenders based on optical amplification for XG-PON1 optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, paper Th.12.C.4.

Weiershausen, W.

F. Saliou, R. Xia, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, T. von Lerber, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Kuppers, “Reach extenders based on optical amplification for XG-PON1 optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, paper Th.12.C.4.

Werthen, J.-G.

J.-G. Werthen, “Powering next generation networks by laser light over fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008.

Wright, P.

D. Nesset, K. Farrow, P. Wright, and D. Menashe, “Raman amplifier module for G-PON reach extension,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.3.

Xia, R.

F. Saliou, R. Xia, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, T. von Lerber, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Kuppers, “Reach extenders based on optical amplification for XG-PON1 optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, paper Th.12.C.4.

Xin, X.-J.

P. S. Andre, M. J. N. Lima, N. Fernandes, M. Granada, J. Cang, R. Lan, and X.-J. Xin, “Power over fiber in Raman amplified optical networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Telecommunication, Graz, Austria, June 2011, pp. 311–314.

Yang, S.-H.

Zhou, Y.

F. Saliou, P. Chanclou, N. Genay, J. A. Lazaro, F. Bonada, A. Othmani, and Y. Zhou, “Single SOA to extend simultaneously the optical budget of coexisting G-PON and 10G-PON,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.5.

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, “Entirely passive coexisting 10G-PON and G-PON compatible reach extender using Raman amplification,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 3, pp. 2290–2296, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, D. Au, F. Khan, and Y. Li, “Coexistence of 10G-PON and G-PON reach extension to 50-km with entirely passive fiber plant,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011.

Appl. Opt. (2)

ETRI J. (1)

K. Kim, J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J. Lee, and Y. Jang, “Low-cost, low-power, high-capacity 3R OEO-type reach extender for a long-reach TDMA-PON,” ETRI J., vol.  34, no. 3, pp. 352–360, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Schrenk, F. B. Bo, J. Bauwelinck, J. Prat, and J. A. Lazaro, “Energy-efficient optical access networks supported by a noise-powered extender box,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 480–488, Mar.–Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Networks Commun. (1)

J. P. Pereira and P. Ferreira, “Infrastructure sharing as an opportunity to promote competition in local access networks,” J. Comput. Networks Commun., vol.  2012, 409817, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Lange, R. Hülsermann, D. Kosiankowski, F. Geilhardt, and A. Gladisch, “Effects of network node consolidation in optical access and aggregation networks on costs and power consumption,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7621, 76210F, Jan.2010.

Other (21)

J. B. Rosolem, G. E. R. de Paiva, and U. R. Duarte, “R-SOA based extender for XG-PON/G-PON applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Opt. Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar.2012, paper OM3I.3.

D. Kuhn, E. Lo, and T. Robbins, “Powering issues in an optical fibre customer access network,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunication Energy Conf., Kyoto, Japan, Nov. 1991, pp. 51–58.

“Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (G-PON): Reach extension,” , 2008.

J.-G. Werthen, “Powering next generation networks by laser light over fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008.

P. S. Andre, M. J. N. Lima, N. Fernandes, M. Granada, J. Cang, R. Lan, and X.-J. Xin, “Power over fiber in Raman amplified optical networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Telecommunication, Graz, Austria, June 2011, pp. 311–314.

S. Hopper, “Cost of FTTH powering,” Alpha White Paper [Online]. Available: http://www.alpha.com/Media/Documents/FTTH%20Powering%20040817.pdf .

K. Borders, “Designing line power networks for FTTH applications,” Alpha White Paper [Online]. Available: http://www.alpha.ca/web2/download/whitepapers/WP-20120718%20Designing%20Line%20Power%20Networks.pdf .

A. Balaban and A. Pitts, “Powering the emerging full service access networks (FSAN)—The last mile challenge,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunication Energy Conf., Berlin, Germany, Sept.2005, pp. 137–143.

R. Pena and C. Algora, “Evaluation of the limiting efficiencies of photovoltaic converters under monochromatic illumination,” in Spanish Conf. on Electron Devices, Feb. 2007, pp. 274–276.

“40-gigabit-capable passive optical networks (NG-PON2): Physical media dependent (PMD) layer specification,” (Draft), Sept. 2012.

P. Iannone and K. Reichmann, “Strategic and tactical uses for extended PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optical Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008.

K. L. Lee, J. L. Riding, A. V. Tran, and R. S. Tucker, “Extended-reach gigabit passive optical network for rural areas using distributed Raman,” in Proc. OptoElectron. Communication Conf., Hong Kong, China, July 2009.

B. Zhu, D. Au, F. Khan, and Y. Li, “Coexistence of 10G-PON and G-PON reach extension to 50-km with entirely passive fiber plant,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011.

D. Nesset, K. Farrow, P. Wright, and D. Menashe, “Raman amplifier module for G-PON reach extension,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.3.

F. Saliou, P. Chanclou, N. Genay, J. A. Lazaro, F. Bonada, A. Othmani, and Y. Zhou, “Single SOA to extend simultaneously the optical budget of coexisting G-PON and 10G-PON,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.5.

N. Cheng, Z. Liao, S. Liu, and F. Effenberger, “Gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers for reach extension of coexisted G-PON and XG-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA,Mar. 2011, paper NTuD7.

F. Saliou, R. Xia, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, T. von Lerber, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Kuppers, “Reach extenders based on optical amplification for XG-PON1 optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, paper Th.12.C.4.

M. Oishi, T. Tsuritani, and K. Nishimura, “Extended-reach 10G/1G-EPON over 80 km and 1024 split with optical amplifier-based hybrid repeater,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.1.

B. Le Guyader, F. Saliou, L. Guillo, M. Le Roux, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and J. Pascal, “Dual reach extender based on optical amplification for G-PON and symmetrical 10G-PON systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu1J.2.

J. Prat and D. Pla, “Remote amplification in high-density passive optical networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Barcelona, Spain, July 2005, pp. 409–412.

J. Bauwelinck, B. Schrenk, F. Bonada, B. Baekelandt, J. A. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, J. Prat, and X. Z. Qiu, “Full-duplex 10 Gb/s transmission in ultra-dense PONs with tree splits >1:1k and noise-powered extender box,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, paper Tu.5.B.4.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Powering techniques used to power a PON extender: (a) copper wiring and local electrical powering, (b) PoF technique diagram, and (c) extender remotely powered by the CO or by a remote node.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation of the power delivered to the extender as a function of the link distance D.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Proposed fiber powered extender.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Electrical characterization of the proposed extender.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Signal gain as a function of the PSup: (a) Pin=12dBm, (b) Pin=15dBm, (c) Pin=18dBm, and (d) Pin=21dBm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Setup proposed for systemic evaluation.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Performance evaluation of the proposed system for (a) XG-PON upstream, (b) XG-PON downstream, (c) G-PON upstream, and (d) G-PON downstream.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Output power spectrum of the extender placed at 50 km from the OLT.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Performance evaluation in terms of BER measured in (a) OLT and (b) ONT.

Equations (6)

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PExt=PLD·αFiber·ηPV,
αFiber=10(L·αdB/10),
PLDPMaxFiber.
ηPV=100·VExt·IExtPSup%,
LExt=VExt/IExt.
DMax=(PUPSPEXT)IExt2·CGR,