Abstract

As energy consumption has become a major concern of networks, traffic grooming studies on Internet protocol over wavelength division multiplexing (IP-over-WDM) networks have been revisited for energy-efficient optical network applications. Traffic grooming techniques can save on the number of installed lightpaths and corresponding IP router line cards at the cost of traffic processing overhead. Energy awareness in networking device development has initiated improvement of the energy–traffic proportionality of networking devices. Accordingly, networks will consist of networking devices with a wide range of energy–traffic proportionalities. Therefore, previously known traffic grooming techniques may not achieve energy-efficient networking in high energy–traffic proportional networks. Moreover, the traffic grooming technique tends to prefer longer paths, which are responsible for longer transmission delays. These two concerns trigger investigation of new aspects of heuristic traffic grooming algorithms for green and low delay optical networks consisting of network devices with diverse energy–traffic proportionalities. This paper demonstrates that a heuristic traffic grooming algorithm enhanced by comparison with direct bypass routing improves both energy and delay performances in a high energy–traffic proportionality regime. A hottest-first sorting policy in flow provisioning can further improve delay performance even in a low energy–traffic proportionality regime.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

J. K.-K. Rhee, C. Lee, J. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Won, and J. Choi, “Power and cost reduction by hybrid optical packet switching with shared memory buffering,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 102–110, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

L. A. Barroso and U. Hölzle, “The case for energy-proportional computing,” Computer, vol.  40, no. 12, pp. 33–37, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

R. Dutta and G. Rouskas, “On optimal traffic grooming in WDM rings,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 110–121, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Abts, D.

D. Abts, M. Marty, P. Wells, P. Klausler, and H. Liu, “Energy proportional datacenter networks,” in ACM Int. Symp. on Computer Architecture, Saint-Malo, France, 2010.

Ayre, R. W. A.

Baliga, J.

Banerjee, S.

P. Mahadevan, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and P. Ranganathan, “A power benchmarking framework for network devices,” in Proc. Int. IFIP Networking Conf., Aachen, Germany, May 2009.

Barford, P.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Phoenix, AZ, Apr. 2008.

Barroso, L. A.

L. A. Barroso and U. Hölzle, “The case for energy-proportional computing,” Computer, vol.  40, no. 12, pp. 33–37, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Chabarek, J.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Phoenix, AZ, Apr. 2008.

Choi, J.

J. K.-K. Rhee, C. Lee, J. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Won, and J. Choi, “Power and cost reduction by hybrid optical packet switching with shared memory buffering,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 102–110, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. K.-K. Rhee, C. Lee, J. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Won, and J. Choi, “Power and cost reduction by hybrid optical packet switching with shared memory buffering,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 102–110, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, P.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Dutta, R.

R. Dutta and G. Rouskas, “On optimal traffic grooming in WDM rings,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 110–121, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: A changing role in green optical networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, Honolulu, HI, Dec. 2009.

Estan, C.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Phoenix, AZ, Apr. 2008.

Gupta, M.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in ACM SIGCOMM, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 2003.

Hinton, K.

Hölzle, U.

L. A. Barroso and U. Hölzle, “The case for energy-proportional computing,” Computer, vol.  40, no. 12, pp. 33–37, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: A changing role in green optical networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, Honolulu, HI, Dec. 2009.

Kim, J.

J. K.-K. Rhee, C. Lee, J. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Won, and J. Choi, “Power and cost reduction by hybrid optical packet switching with shared memory buffering,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 102–110, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Klausler, P.

D. Abts, M. Marty, P. Wells, P. Klausler, and H. Liu, “Energy proportional datacenter networks,” in ACM Int. Symp. on Computer Architecture, Saint-Malo, France, 2010.

Lee, C.

Y. Kim, C. Lee, J. K.-K. Rhee, and S. Lee, “IP-over-WDM cross-layer design for green optical networking with energy proportionality consideration,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 13, pp. 2088–2096, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. K.-K. Rhee, C. Lee, J. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Won, and J. Choi, “Power and cost reduction by hybrid optical packet switching with shared memory buffering,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 102–110, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Lee and J. K.-K. Rhee, “Heated-flow-first traffic grooming for power and delay aware optical network,” in Photonics in Switching, Ajaccio, France, Sept. 2012.

Lee, S.

Liu, H.

D. Abts, M. Marty, P. Wells, P. Klausler, and H. Liu, “Energy proportional datacenter networks,” in ACM Int. Symp. on Computer Architecture, Saint-Malo, France, 2010.

Mahadevan, P.

P. Mahadevan, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and P. Ranganathan, “A power benchmarking framework for network devices,” in Proc. Int. IFIP Networking Conf., Aachen, Germany, May 2009.

Marty, M.

D. Abts, M. Marty, P. Wells, P. Klausler, and H. Liu, “Energy proportional datacenter networks,” in ACM Int. Symp. on Computer Architecture, Saint-Malo, France, 2010.

Mukherjee, B.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Parthiban, R.

Ranganathan, P.

P. Mahadevan, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and P. Ranganathan, “A power benchmarking framework for network devices,” in Proc. Int. IFIP Networking Conf., Aachen, Germany, May 2009.

Rhee, J. K.-K.

Y. Kim, C. Lee, J. K.-K. Rhee, and S. Lee, “IP-over-WDM cross-layer design for green optical networking with energy proportionality consideration,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 13, pp. 2088–2096, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. K.-K. Rhee, C. Lee, J. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Won, and J. Choi, “Power and cost reduction by hybrid optical packet switching with shared memory buffering,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 102–110, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Lee and J. K.-K. Rhee, “Heated-flow-first traffic grooming for power and delay aware optical network,” in Photonics in Switching, Ajaccio, France, Sept. 2012.

Rouskas, G.

R. Dutta and G. Rouskas, “On optimal traffic grooming in WDM rings,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 110–121, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

E. Yetginer and G. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, Honolulu, HI, Dec. 2009.

Seshadri, D.

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: A changing role in green optical networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, Honolulu, HI, Dec. 2009.

Sharma, P.

P. Mahadevan, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and P. Ranganathan, “A power benchmarking framework for network devices,” in Proc. Int. IFIP Networking Conf., Aachen, Germany, May 2009.

Shen, G.

Singh, S.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in ACM SIGCOMM, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 2003.

Sommers, J.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Phoenix, AZ, Apr. 2008.

Sorin, W. V.

Tornatore, M.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Tsiang, D.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Phoenix, AZ, Apr. 2008.

Tucker, R.

Tucker, R. S.

Wells, P.

D. Abts, M. Marty, P. Wells, P. Klausler, and H. Liu, “Energy proportional datacenter networks,” in ACM Int. Symp. on Computer Architecture, Saint-Malo, France, 2010.

Won, Y.

J. K.-K. Rhee, C. Lee, J. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Won, and J. Choi, “Power and cost reduction by hybrid optical packet switching with shared memory buffering,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 102–110, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

Wright, S.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Phoenix, AZ, Apr. 2008.

Yetginer, E.

E. Yetginer and G. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, Honolulu, HI, Dec. 2009.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, K.

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Computer (1)

L. A. Barroso and U. Hölzle, “The case for energy-proportional computing,” Computer, vol.  40, no. 12, pp. 33–37, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. K.-K. Rhee, C. Lee, J. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Won, and J. Choi, “Power and cost reduction by hybrid optical packet switching with shared memory buffering,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 102–110, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

R. Dutta and G. Rouskas, “On optimal traffic grooming in WDM rings,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 110–121, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Switching Networking (1)

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: A changing role in green optical networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, Honolulu, HI, Dec. 2009.

D. Abts, M. Marty, P. Wells, P. Klausler, and H. Liu, “Energy proportional datacenter networks,” in ACM Int. Symp. on Computer Architecture, Saint-Malo, France, 2010.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in ACM SIGCOMM, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 2003.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Phoenix, AZ, Apr. 2008.

P. Mahadevan, P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and P. Ranganathan, “A power benchmarking framework for network devices,” in Proc. Int. IFIP Networking Conf., Aachen, Germany, May 2009.

E. Yetginer and G. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, Honolulu, HI, Dec. 2009.

C. Lee and J. K.-K. Rhee, “Heated-flow-first traffic grooming for power and delay aware optical network,” in Photonics in Switching, Ajaccio, France, Sept. 2012.

NIST, “Knapsack problem,” 2010 [Online]. Available: http://www.nist.gov/dads/HTML/knapsackProblem.html .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Energy consumption of ideal and practical devices with respect to the traffic load.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

System architecture schematics for an IP-over-WDM network with different traffic grooming methods. Lightpath establishments of direct bypass (flows 1 and 4), hop-by-hop (flow 2), and multihop bypass (flow 3) are illustrated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Test network models of (a) 6-node and 8-link butterfly network and (b) 14-node and 22-link NSFNET.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Energy consumption evaluations by the proposed heaviest-first and comparison algorithm, hottest-first and comparison algorithm, and heaviest-first algorithm, and ILP energy optimization at EPIs of 8% and 100% are presented in (a) and (b) for a butterfly network and (c) and (d) for an NSFNET, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Delay evaluations of the algorithms at EPIs of 8% and 100% in a butterfly network and an NSFNET.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Description of the Heaviest-First and Comparison Traffic Grooming Algorithm

Tables Icon

TABLE II Description of the Hottest-First and Comparison Traffic Grooming Algorithm

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

EPI=EmaxEidleEmax×100%.
En=lpLPn(Eidlelinecard+ρlpevaryinglinecard).
Emaxlinecard=Eidlelinecard+ρmaxevaryinglinecard,
Elinecard(ρ)=Eidlelinecard+ρevaryinglinecard.
Elinecard(ρ,γ)=(1γ)Emaxlinecard+γρρmaxEmaxlinecard,
Enetwork=lpLP((1γ)Emaxlinecard+(ρlp/ρmax)γEmaxlinecard)+EEDFAlL(dl/80+1)Il,