Abstract

Sensor networks that use line-of-sight (LOS) laser links can provide spatially efficient and physically secure connectivity. These features are advantageous for low-power communication networks over short distances in environments where LOS is available and where radio-frequency connectivity must be avoided because of interference, low data rates, or security problems. In order for optical wireless (OW) directional networks to provide viable short-range connectivity, the networks must provide signal coverage over an acceptable field of view and operate with efficient media access protocols to minimize random access times for the independent transmitting nodes within the network. In this paper, we present the performance of a directional media access control protocol applied to a uniquely designed OW sensor network. The protocol was implemented using vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers and microcontrollers. The results are discussed with respect to efficiency of operation and optimized performance.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Fadlullah and M. Kavehrad, “Indoor high-bandwidth optical wireless links for sensor networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 21, pp. 3086–3094, 2010.
  2. S. S. Torkestani, S. Sahuguede, A. Julien-Vergonjanne, and J. P. Cances, “Indoor optical wireless system dedicated to healthcare application in a hospital,” IET Commun., vol.  6, no. 5, pp. 541–547, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. C. O’Brien, G. E. Faulkner, S. Zikic, and N. P. Schmitt, “High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: Measurements and simulations,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CNSDSP), 2008, pp. 68–71.
  5. N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor network for short-range applications,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 78140E, Aug. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Marinos, F. Leonidas, N. Vlissidis, C. Giovanis, G. Pagiatakis, C. Aidinis, C. Vassilopoulos, T. Pistner, N. Schmitt, and J. Klaue, “Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network,” Int. J. Electron., vol.  98, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Perez-Mato, R. Perez-Jimenez, and J. Tristancho, “Optical wireless interface for the ARINC 429 avionics bus: Design and implementation,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., vol.  28, no. 6, pp. 15–21, 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor networking for underwater sensing application,” in 5th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), 2009, pp. 475–480.
  9. D. Kedar and S. Arnon, “Non-line-of-sight optical wireless sensor network operating in multiscattering channel,” Appl. Opt., vol.  45, no. 33, pp. 8454–8461, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. K. Borah, A. C. Boucouvalas, C. C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, and K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw., vol.  91, pp. 1–28, 2012.
  11. R. Xie, W.-H. Yang, and Y.-C. Kim, “Reconfigurable routing protocol for free space optical sensor networks,” Sensors, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 4824–4845, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Sivathasan and D. O’Brien, “Hybrid radio and optical communications for energy-efficient wireless sensor networks,” IETE J. Res., vol.  57, no. 5, pp. 399–407, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Sivathasan and D. O’Brien, “Radio frequency/free space optical and radio frequency-only wireless sensor networks: A comparative study of performance,” IETE J. Res., vol.  56, no. 1, pp. 52–61, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Nadeem, S. Chessa, E. Leitgeb, and S. Zaman, “The effects of weather on the life time of wireless sensor networks using FSO/RF communication,” Radioengineering, vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 262–270, 2010.
  15. U. N. Okorofor and D. Kundur, “On the relevance of node isolation to the K-connectivity of wireless optical sensor networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol.  8, no. 10, pp. 1427–1440, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Desai and S. Milner, “Autonomous reconfiguration in free-space optical sensor networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 1556–1563, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  17. J.-F. Frigon, V. C. M. Leung, and H. C. B. Chan, “Dynamic reservation TDMA protocol for wireless ATM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 370–383, 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Kleinrock and F. A. Tobagi, “Packet switching in radio channels: Part I—carrier sense multiple-access modes and their throughput—delay characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  23, no. 12, pp. 1400–1416, 1975.
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Abramson, “The ALOHA system: Another alternative for computer communications,” in AFIPS Conf. Proc., 1970, vol. 36, pp. 295–298.
  20. L. Roberts, “ALOHA packet system with and without slots and capture,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  5, no. 2, pp. 28–421975.
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

J. Perez-Mato, R. Perez-Jimenez, and J. Tristancho, “Optical wireless interface for the ARINC 429 avionics bus: Design and implementation,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., vol.  28, no. 6, pp. 15–21, 2013.
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

S. S. Torkestani, S. Sahuguede, A. Julien-Vergonjanne, and J. P. Cances, “Indoor optical wireless system dedicated to healthcare application in a hospital,” IET Commun., vol.  6, no. 5, pp. 541–547, 2012.
[CrossRef]

D. K. Borah, A. C. Boucouvalas, C. C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, and K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw., vol.  91, pp. 1–28, 2012.

R. Xie, W.-H. Yang, and Y.-C. Kim, “Reconfigurable routing protocol for free space optical sensor networks,” Sensors, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 4824–4845, 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. Sivathasan and D. O’Brien, “Hybrid radio and optical communications for energy-efficient wireless sensor networks,” IETE J. Res., vol.  57, no. 5, pp. 399–407, 2011.
[CrossRef]

D. Marinos, F. Leonidas, N. Vlissidis, C. Giovanis, G. Pagiatakis, C. Aidinis, C. Vassilopoulos, T. Pistner, N. Schmitt, and J. Klaue, “Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network,” Int. J. Electron., vol.  98, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

J. Fadlullah and M. Kavehrad, “Indoor high-bandwidth optical wireless links for sensor networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 21, pp. 3086–3094, 2010.

O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor network for short-range applications,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 78140E, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Sivathasan and D. O’Brien, “Radio frequency/free space optical and radio frequency-only wireless sensor networks: A comparative study of performance,” IETE J. Res., vol.  56, no. 1, pp. 52–61, 2010.
[CrossRef]

F. Nadeem, S. Chessa, E. Leitgeb, and S. Zaman, “The effects of weather on the life time of wireless sensor networks using FSO/RF communication,” Radioengineering, vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 262–270, 2010.

2009 (1)

U. N. Okorofor and D. Kundur, “On the relevance of node isolation to the K-connectivity of wireless optical sensor networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol.  8, no. 10, pp. 1427–1440, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

A. Desai and S. Milner, “Autonomous reconfiguration in free-space optical sensor networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 1556–1563, 2005.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J.-F. Frigon, V. C. M. Leung, and H. C. B. Chan, “Dynamic reservation TDMA protocol for wireless ATM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 370–383, 2001.
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

L. Kleinrock and F. A. Tobagi, “Packet switching in radio channels: Part I—carrier sense multiple-access modes and their throughput—delay characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  23, no. 12, pp. 1400–1416, 1975.
[CrossRef]

L. Roberts, “ALOHA packet system with and without slots and capture,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  5, no. 2, pp. 28–421975.
[CrossRef]

Abramson, N.

N. Abramson, “The ALOHA system: Another alternative for computer communications,” in AFIPS Conf. Proc., 1970, vol. 36, pp. 295–298.

Agrawal, N.

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor network for short-range applications,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 78140E, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor networking for underwater sensing application,” in 5th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), 2009, pp. 475–480.

Aidinis, C.

D. Marinos, F. Leonidas, N. Vlissidis, C. Giovanis, G. Pagiatakis, C. Aidinis, C. Vassilopoulos, T. Pistner, N. Schmitt, and J. Klaue, “Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network,” Int. J. Electron., vol.  98, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Arnon, S.

Borah, D. K.

D. K. Borah, A. C. Boucouvalas, C. C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, and K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw., vol.  91, pp. 1–28, 2012.

Bouchet, O.

O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Boucouvalas, A. C.

D. K. Borah, A. C. Boucouvalas, C. C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, and K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw., vol.  91, pp. 1–28, 2012.

Cances, J. P.

S. S. Torkestani, S. Sahuguede, A. Julien-Vergonjanne, and J. P. Cances, “Indoor optical wireless system dedicated to healthcare application in a hospital,” IET Commun., vol.  6, no. 5, pp. 541–547, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. C. B.

J.-F. Frigon, V. C. M. Leung, and H. C. B. Chan, “Dynamic reservation TDMA protocol for wireless ATM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 370–383, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Chessa, S.

F. Nadeem, S. Chessa, E. Leitgeb, and S. Zaman, “The effects of weather on the life time of wireless sensor networks using FSO/RF communication,” Radioengineering, vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 262–270, 2010.

Davis, C. C.

D. K. Borah, A. C. Boucouvalas, C. C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, and K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw., vol.  91, pp. 1–28, 2012.

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor network for short-range applications,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 78140E, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor networking for underwater sensing application,” in 5th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), 2009, pp. 475–480.

Desai, A.

A. Desai and S. Milner, “Autonomous reconfiguration in free-space optical sensor networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 1556–1563, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Fadlullah, J.

Faulkner, G. E.

D. C. O’Brien, G. E. Faulkner, S. Zikic, and N. P. Schmitt, “High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: Measurements and simulations,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CNSDSP), 2008, pp. 68–71.

Fernandez, L.

O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Frigon, J.-F.

J.-F. Frigon, V. C. M. Leung, and H. C. B. Chan, “Dynamic reservation TDMA protocol for wireless ATM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 370–383, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Giovanis, C.

D. Marinos, F. Leonidas, N. Vlissidis, C. Giovanis, G. Pagiatakis, C. Aidinis, C. Vassilopoulos, T. Pistner, N. Schmitt, and J. Klaue, “Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network,” Int. J. Electron., vol.  98, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Gueutier, E.

O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Hranilovic, S.

D. K. Borah, A. C. Boucouvalas, C. C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, and K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw., vol.  91, pp. 1–28, 2012.

Julien-Vergonjanne, A.

S. S. Torkestani, S. Sahuguede, A. Julien-Vergonjanne, and J. P. Cances, “Indoor optical wireless system dedicated to healthcare application in a hospital,” IET Commun., vol.  6, no. 5, pp. 541–547, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Kamalakis, T.

O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Kavehrad, M.

Kedar, D.

Kim, Y.-C.

R. Xie, W.-H. Yang, and Y.-C. Kim, “Reconfigurable routing protocol for free space optical sensor networks,” Sensors, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 4824–4845, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Klaue, J.

D. Marinos, F. Leonidas, N. Vlissidis, C. Giovanis, G. Pagiatakis, C. Aidinis, C. Vassilopoulos, T. Pistner, N. Schmitt, and J. Klaue, “Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network,” Int. J. Electron., vol.  98, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Kleinrock, L.

L. Kleinrock and F. A. Tobagi, “Packet switching in radio channels: Part I—carrier sense multiple-access modes and their throughput—delay characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  23, no. 12, pp. 1400–1416, 1975.
[CrossRef]

Kundur, D.

U. N. Okorofor and D. Kundur, “On the relevance of node isolation to the K-connectivity of wireless optical sensor networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol.  8, no. 10, pp. 1427–1440, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Langer, K.

O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, E.

F. Nadeem, S. Chessa, E. Leitgeb, and S. Zaman, “The effects of weather on the life time of wireless sensor networks using FSO/RF communication,” Radioengineering, vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 262–270, 2010.

Leonidas, F.

D. Marinos, F. Leonidas, N. Vlissidis, C. Giovanis, G. Pagiatakis, C. Aidinis, C. Vassilopoulos, T. Pistner, N. Schmitt, and J. Klaue, “Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network,” Int. J. Electron., vol.  98, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Leung, V. C. M.

J.-F. Frigon, V. C. M. Leung, and H. C. B. Chan, “Dynamic reservation TDMA protocol for wireless ATM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 370–383, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Marinos, D.

D. Marinos, F. Leonidas, N. Vlissidis, C. Giovanis, G. Pagiatakis, C. Aidinis, C. Vassilopoulos, T. Pistner, N. Schmitt, and J. Klaue, “Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network,” Int. J. Electron., vol.  98, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Milner, S.

A. Desai and S. Milner, “Autonomous reconfiguration in free-space optical sensor networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 1556–1563, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Milner, S. D.

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor network for short-range applications,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 78140E, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor networking for underwater sensing application,” in 5th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), 2009, pp. 475–480.

Nadeem, F.

F. Nadeem, S. Chessa, E. Leitgeb, and S. Zaman, “The effects of weather on the life time of wireless sensor networks using FSO/RF communication,” Radioengineering, vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 262–270, 2010.

Neokosmidis, I.

O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Nerreter, S.

O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Ntogari, G.

O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D.

S. Sivathasan and D. O’Brien, “Hybrid radio and optical communications for energy-efficient wireless sensor networks,” IETE J. Res., vol.  57, no. 5, pp. 399–407, 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Sivathasan and D. O’Brien, “Radio frequency/free space optical and radio frequency-only wireless sensor networks: A comparative study of performance,” IETE J. Res., vol.  56, no. 1, pp. 52–61, 2010.
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D. C.

D. C. O’Brien, G. E. Faulkner, S. Zikic, and N. P. Schmitt, “High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: Measurements and simulations,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CNSDSP), 2008, pp. 68–71.

Okorofor, U. N.

U. N. Okorofor and D. Kundur, “On the relevance of node isolation to the K-connectivity of wireless optical sensor networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol.  8, no. 10, pp. 1427–1440, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Pagiatakis, G.

D. Marinos, F. Leonidas, N. Vlissidis, C. Giovanis, G. Pagiatakis, C. Aidinis, C. Vassilopoulos, T. Pistner, N. Schmitt, and J. Klaue, “Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network,” Int. J. Electron., vol.  98, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Perez-Jimenez, R.

J. Perez-Mato, R. Perez-Jimenez, and J. Tristancho, “Optical wireless interface for the ARINC 429 avionics bus: Design and implementation,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., vol.  28, no. 6, pp. 15–21, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Perez-Mato, J.

J. Perez-Mato, R. Perez-Jimenez, and J. Tristancho, “Optical wireless interface for the ARINC 429 avionics bus: Design and implementation,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., vol.  28, no. 6, pp. 15–21, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Pistner, T.

D. Marinos, F. Leonidas, N. Vlissidis, C. Giovanis, G. Pagiatakis, C. Aidinis, C. Vassilopoulos, T. Pistner, N. Schmitt, and J. Klaue, “Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network,” Int. J. Electron., vol.  98, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Porcon, P.

O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Roberts, L.

L. Roberts, “ALOHA packet system with and without slots and capture,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  5, no. 2, pp. 28–421975.
[CrossRef]

Sahuguede, S.

S. S. Torkestani, S. Sahuguede, A. Julien-Vergonjanne, and J. P. Cances, “Indoor optical wireless system dedicated to healthcare application in a hospital,” IET Commun., vol.  6, no. 5, pp. 541–547, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, N.

D. Marinos, F. Leonidas, N. Vlissidis, C. Giovanis, G. Pagiatakis, C. Aidinis, C. Vassilopoulos, T. Pistner, N. Schmitt, and J. Klaue, “Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network,” Int. J. Electron., vol.  98, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, N. P.

D. C. O’Brien, G. E. Faulkner, S. Zikic, and N. P. Schmitt, “High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: Measurements and simulations,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CNSDSP), 2008, pp. 68–71.

Sivathasan, S.

S. Sivathasan and D. O’Brien, “Hybrid radio and optical communications for energy-efficient wireless sensor networks,” IETE J. Res., vol.  57, no. 5, pp. 399–407, 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Sivathasan and D. O’Brien, “Radio frequency/free space optical and radio frequency-only wireless sensor networks: A comparative study of performance,” IETE J. Res., vol.  56, no. 1, pp. 52–61, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tobagi, F. A.

L. Kleinrock and F. A. Tobagi, “Packet switching in radio channels: Part I—carrier sense multiple-access modes and their throughput—delay characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  23, no. 12, pp. 1400–1416, 1975.
[CrossRef]

Torkestani, S. S.

S. S. Torkestani, S. Sahuguede, A. Julien-Vergonjanne, and J. P. Cances, “Indoor optical wireless system dedicated to healthcare application in a hospital,” IET Commun., vol.  6, no. 5, pp. 541–547, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Tristancho, J.

J. Perez-Mato, R. Perez-Jimenez, and J. Tristancho, “Optical wireless interface for the ARINC 429 avionics bus: Design and implementation,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., vol.  28, no. 6, pp. 15–21, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Vassilopoulos, C.

D. Marinos, F. Leonidas, N. Vlissidis, C. Giovanis, G. Pagiatakis, C. Aidinis, C. Vassilopoulos, T. Pistner, N. Schmitt, and J. Klaue, “Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network,” Int. J. Electron., vol.  98, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Vlissidis, N.

D. Marinos, F. Leonidas, N. Vlissidis, C. Giovanis, G. Pagiatakis, C. Aidinis, C. Vassilopoulos, T. Pistner, N. Schmitt, and J. Klaue, “Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network,” Int. J. Electron., vol.  98, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Vucic, J.

O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Walewski, J. W.

O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Xie, R.

R. Xie, W.-H. Yang, and Y.-C. Kim, “Reconfigurable routing protocol for free space optical sensor networks,” Sensors, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 4824–4845, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.-H.

R. Xie, W.-H. Yang, and Y.-C. Kim, “Reconfigurable routing protocol for free space optical sensor networks,” Sensors, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 4824–4845, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Yiannopoulos, K.

D. K. Borah, A. C. Boucouvalas, C. C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, and K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw., vol.  91, pp. 1–28, 2012.

Zaman, S.

F. Nadeem, S. Chessa, E. Leitgeb, and S. Zaman, “The effects of weather on the life time of wireless sensor networks using FSO/RF communication,” Radioengineering, vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 262–270, 2010.

Zikic, S.

D. C. O’Brien, G. E. Faulkner, S. Zikic, and N. P. Schmitt, “High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: Measurements and simulations,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CNSDSP), 2008, pp. 68–71.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

L. Roberts, “ALOHA packet system with and without slots and capture,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  5, no. 2, pp. 28–421975.
[CrossRef]

EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw. (1)

D. K. Borah, A. C. Boucouvalas, C. C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, and K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw., vol.  91, pp. 1–28, 2012.

IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. (1)

J. Perez-Mato, R. Perez-Jimenez, and J. Tristancho, “Optical wireless interface for the ARINC 429 avionics bus: Design and implementation,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., vol.  28, no. 6, pp. 15–21, 2013.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

A. Desai and S. Milner, “Autonomous reconfiguration in free-space optical sensor networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 1556–1563, 2005.
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Frigon, V. C. M. Leung, and H. C. B. Chan, “Dynamic reservation TDMA protocol for wireless ATM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 370–383, 2001.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

L. Kleinrock and F. A. Tobagi, “Packet switching in radio channels: Part I—carrier sense multiple-access modes and their throughput—delay characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  23, no. 12, pp. 1400–1416, 1975.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput. (1)

U. N. Okorofor and D. Kundur, “On the relevance of node isolation to the K-connectivity of wireless optical sensor networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol.  8, no. 10, pp. 1427–1440, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IET Commun. (1)

S. S. Torkestani, S. Sahuguede, A. Julien-Vergonjanne, and J. P. Cances, “Indoor optical wireless system dedicated to healthcare application in a hospital,” IET Commun., vol.  6, no. 5, pp. 541–547, 2012.
[CrossRef]

IETE J. Res. (2)

S. Sivathasan and D. O’Brien, “Hybrid radio and optical communications for energy-efficient wireless sensor networks,” IETE J. Res., vol.  57, no. 5, pp. 399–407, 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Sivathasan and D. O’Brien, “Radio frequency/free space optical and radio frequency-only wireless sensor networks: A comparative study of performance,” IETE J. Res., vol.  56, no. 1, pp. 52–61, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Electron. (1)

D. Marinos, F. Leonidas, N. Vlissidis, C. Giovanis, G. Pagiatakis, C. Aidinis, C. Vassilopoulos, T. Pistner, N. Schmitt, and J. Klaue, “Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network,” Int. J. Electron., vol.  98, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor network for short-range applications,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 78140E, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, J. W. Walewski, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, L. Fernandez, J. Vucic, T. Kamalakis, G. Ntogari, I. Neokosmidis, and E. Gueutier, “Wireless optical network for a home network,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  7814, 781406, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Radioengineering (1)

F. Nadeem, S. Chessa, E. Leitgeb, and S. Zaman, “The effects of weather on the life time of wireless sensor networks using FSO/RF communication,” Radioengineering, vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 262–270, 2010.

Sensors (1)

R. Xie, W.-H. Yang, and Y.-C. Kim, “Reconfigurable routing protocol for free space optical sensor networks,” Sensors, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 4824–4845, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor networking for underwater sensing application,” in 5th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), 2009, pp. 475–480.

D. C. O’Brien, G. E. Faulkner, S. Zikic, and N. P. Schmitt, “High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: Measurements and simulations,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CNSDSP), 2008, pp. 68–71.

N. Abramson, “The ALOHA system: Another alternative for computer communications,” in AFIPS Conf. Proc., 1970, vol. 36, pp. 295–298.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

System block diagram of the developed OW hardware for the CHs and sensor nodes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Actual developed OW hardware. The CH, shown on the left, is 57 mm × 57 mm , while the sensor node, shown on the right, is 45 mm × 45 mm . The CH was designed with a single ring of transmitters, and the sensor node had a single transmitter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Two network clusters. The CHs communicate with each other via the network backbone, and the sensor nodes communicate with the CH that is within their FOV.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Flowchart of the OW RA protocol.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Illustration of how the transmission probability is adjusted.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Specifics of each parameterization. Q is the quantity factor. The subscripts denote collisions ( C ), successes ( S ), and timeouts ( T ). M is the modification factor.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Three different experimental network setups for our 10 sensor node and 1 CH prototype network. The three setups represent three different NWBR values.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Total number of SFs required to resolve channel contention for different network loads by NWBR values. The top graph shows results for a NWBR of 10, and the bottom graph shows results for a NWBR of 2. “A1,” “A2,” and “A3” refer to different initial conditions of the implemented DMAC algorithm. “ T SF ” refers to the expected number of SFs, and “Abs. Best” corresponds to the shortest number of SFs.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Expected number of C , T , and M C when CH transmits p opt each SF for three different NWBR values (10, 6, and 2).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Simulation results of the cost function, H , being optimized with all 10 min-terms for three different parameterizations of the RA algorithm as a function of initial transmission probability. The energy consumption is minimized with an initial transmission probability of 1/7 for the window size ( W ) equal to 1.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

RA protocol results in resolving sensor node contention for different NWBR values within a 10 sensor node network.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

PDFs of the NWBR values as detected by the CH. As congestion increases, the probability for larger NWBR values increases. The plotted lines are guides for the eye.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Computed H-optimized p o values using scaled NWBR values from Fig. 12 in Eq. (10) along with the min-term and expected values from Fig. 9.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Numerical Definition of Network Congestion Levels a

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S n = n p ( 1 p ) n 1 .
T SF = 1 S n + 1 S n 1 + 1 S n 2 + + 1 S 1 = j = 1 n 1 S j .
P n Best = S n * S n 1 * S n 2 * * S 1 .
E p = I * V * # 1 bits B ,
E X CH ( A W ( p o ) ) = 5 E p ( T + C ) ,
E X M ( A W ( p o ) ) = E p M c .
E X T ( A W ( p o ) ) = E X CH ( A W ( p o ) ) + E X M ( A W ( p o ) ) .
H ( λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 , , λ N , A W ( p o ) ) = ( X = 1 N λ X ( E X T O X T ) 2 ) ,
H ( { λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 , , λ 10 = 1 } , A W ( p o ) ) = ( X = 1 10 ( E X T O X T ) 2 ) .
H ( A 1 , A 2 , A 3 , , A N , λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 , , λ N , A W ( p o ) ) = ( X = 1 N A X λ X ( E X T O X T ) 2 ) ,