Abstract

This paper proposes a scheme for pump-wavelength selection in an optical packet switch (OPS) with parametric wavelength converters (PWCs). In this scheme, pump wavelengths can be dynamically changed in all time slots, and more than one PWC is allowed to convert a wavelength in a chained manner. The objective of this scheme is to minimize the packet loss rates of the OPS. This scheme is called dynamic pump-wavelength selection with chained parametric wavelength conversion (DPS-C). DPS-C selects the pump wavelength for each PWC so as to maximize the number of successful requests, which refer to packets that wish to be forwarded to their requested output fibers. A PWC, which has the advantage of multiple wavelength conversion, uses a pump wavelength that can be flexibly chosen to define which wavelengths can be converted from/to. The set of original and converted wavelengths, where the pump wavelength is set in the middle of the two wavelengths, is called the conversion pair. Each PWC supports several conversion pairs. The OPS allows each wavelength to be converted using combinations of available conversion pairs, which are not used by any requests, from more than one PWC. A simulation shows that DPS-C outperforms the conventional scheme in terms of packet loss rates in both uniform and nonuniform traffic patterns.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  26. A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. M. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, and R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Proc. IEEE HPSR, 2002, pp. 69–76.
  27. A. M. Rahmani, A. Afzali-Kusha, and M. Pedram, “NED: A novel synthetic traffic pattern for power/performance analysis of network-on-chips using negative exponential distribution,” J. Low Power Electron., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2009.
  28. E. Oki and N. Yamanaka, “A high-speed ATM switch based on scalable distributed arbitration,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E80-B, no. 9, pp. 1372–1376, 1997.
  29. A. Mekkittikul and N. McKeown, “Scheduling VOQ switches under non-uniform traffic,” Stanford University, , 1997.
  30. E. Oki, Z. Jing, R. Rojas-Cessa, and H. J. Chao, “Concurrent round-robin-based dispatching schemes for Clos-network switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, no. 6, pp. 830–844, 2002.
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

A. M. Rahmani, A. Afzali-Kusha, and M. Pedram, “NED: A novel synthetic traffic pattern for power/performance analysis of network-on-chips using negative exponential distribution,” J. Low Power Electron., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2009.

2008 (2)

C. Okonkwo, R. C. Almeida, R. E. Martin, and K. M. Guild, “Performance analysis of an optical packet switch with shared parametric wavelength converters,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  12, no. 8, pp. 596–598, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, M. Huang, and G. Chang, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion for 4 × 112  Gbit/s polarization multiplexing RZ-QPSK signals,” Opt. Express, vol.  16, no. 26, pp. 21161–21169, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

P. Devgan, R. Tang, V. Grigoryan, and P. Kumar, “Highly efficient multichannel wavelength conversion of DPSK signals,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, no. 10, pp. 3677–3682, 2006.
[CrossRef]

T. Zhang, K. Lu, and J. R. Jue, “Shared fiber delay line buffers in asynchronous optical packet switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 118–127, 2006.
[CrossRef]

J. Yamawaku, E. Yamazaki, A. Takada, T. Morioka, and K. Suzuki, “Field demonstration of up to 640  Gb/s (64 ch × 10  Gb/s) GWP switching networks with a QPM-LN wavelength converter in JGN II test bed,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 529–535, July/Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention-based limited deflection routing protocol in optical burst-switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 1596–1611, 2005
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Kaure, M. Girault, J. Leuthold, J. Honthaas, O. Pellegri, C. Goullancourt, and M. Zirngibl, “16-channel digitally tunable external-cavity laser with nanosecond switching time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 3, pp. 371–373, 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25  GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03  Tbit/s (103 × Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Oki, Z. Jing, R. Rojas-Cessa, and H. J. Chao, “Concurrent round-robin-based dispatching schemes for Clos-network switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, no. 6, pp. 830–844, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

E. Oki, R. Rojas-Cessa, and H. J. Chao, “A pipeline-based approach for maximal-sized matching scheduling in input-buffered switches,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  5, no. 6, pp. 263–265, 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. M. H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, “All-optical wavelength conversion: technologies and applications in DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 86–92, Mar. 2000.
[CrossRef]

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, “All-optical packet-switched networks: A study of contention-resolution schemes in an irregular mesh network with variable-sized packets,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  4233, pp. 235–246, 2000.

1999 (1)

G. Xiao and Y. W. Leung, “Algorithms for allocating wavelength converters in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  7, no. 4, pp. 545–557, Aug. 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. Oki and N. Yamanaka, “A high-speed tandem-crosspoint ATM switch architecture with input and output buffers,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E81-B, no. 2, pp. 215–223, 1998.

1997 (1)

E. Oki and N. Yamanaka, “A high-speed ATM switch based on scalable distributed arbitration,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E80-B, no. 9, pp. 1372–1376, 1997.

Afzali-Kusha, A.

A. M. Rahmani, A. Afzali-Kusha, and M. Pedram, “NED: A novel synthetic traffic pattern for power/performance analysis of network-on-chips using negative exponential distribution,” J. Low Power Electron., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2009.

Almeida, R. C.

C. Okonkwo, R. C. Almeida, R. E. Martin, and K. M. Guild, “Performance analysis of an optical packet switch with shared parametric wavelength converters,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  12, no. 8, pp. 596–598, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Antonakos, J. L.

K. C. Mansfield and J. L. Antonakos, Computer Networking from LANs to WANs: Hardware, Software, and Security. Boston, MA: Course Technology, Cengage Learning, 2010.

Asobe, M.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25  GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03  Tbit/s (103 × Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Beldianu, S. F.

S. F. Beldianu, R. Rojas-Cessa, E. Oki, and S. G. Ziavras, “Re-configurable parallel match evaluators applied to scheduling schemes for input-queued packet switches,” in Proc. IEEE ICCCN, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Bernasconi, P.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: The IRIS project,” in Proc. OFC, 2010, pp. 1–3.

Bianco, A.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. M. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, and R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Proc. IEEE HPSR, 2002, pp. 69–76.

Chang, G.

Chao, H. J.

E. Oki, Z. Jing, R. Rojas-Cessa, and H. J. Chao, “Concurrent round-robin-based dispatching schemes for Clos-network switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, no. 6, pp. 830–844, 2002.
[CrossRef]

E. Oki, R. Rojas-Cessa, and H. J. Chao, “A pipeline-based approach for maximal-sized matching scheduling in input-buffered switches,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  5, no. 6, pp. 263–265, 2001.
[CrossRef]

R. Rojas-Cessa, E. Oki, Z. Jing, and H. J. Chao, “CIXB-1: Combined input-one-cell-crosspoint buffered switch,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop of HPSR, Dallas, TX, May 2001, pp. 324–329.

Chikama, T.

S. Watanabe, S. Takeda, and T. Chikama, “Interband wavelength conversion of 320  Gb/s (32 × 10  Gb/s) WDM signal using a polarization-insensitive fiber four-wave mixer,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 1998, pp. 85–86.

Devgan, P.

Dixit, S.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, “All-optical packet-switched networks: A study of contention-resolution schemes in an irregular mesh network with variable-sized packets,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  4233, pp. 235–246, 2000.

Elmirghani, J. M. H.

J. M. H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, “All-optical wavelength conversion: technologies and applications in DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 86–92, Mar. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Franceschinis, M.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. M. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, and R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Proc. IEEE HPSR, 2002, pp. 69–76.

Furukawa, H.

H. Furukawa, N. Wada, N. Takezawa, K. Nashimoto, and T. Miyazaki, “640 (2 × 32λ × 10)  Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed, wide-colored optical packet switching achieved by polarization-independent high-speed PLZT switch,” in Proc. of Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, pp. 1–3.

Ghisolfi, S.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. M. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, and R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Proc. IEEE HPSR, 2002, pp. 69–76.

Girault, M.

M. Kaure, M. Girault, J. Leuthold, J. Honthaas, O. Pellegri, C. Goullancourt, and M. Zirngibl, “16-channel digitally tunable external-cavity laser with nanosecond switching time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 3, pp. 371–373, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Goullancourt, C.

M. Kaure, M. Girault, J. Leuthold, J. Honthaas, O. Pellegri, C. Goullancourt, and M. Zirngibl, “16-channel digitally tunable external-cavity laser with nanosecond switching time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 3, pp. 371–373, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Grigoryan, V.

Gripp, J.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: The IRIS project,” in Proc. OFC, 2010, pp. 1–3.

Guild, K. M.

C. Okonkwo, R. C. Almeida, R. E. Martin, and K. M. Guild, “Performance analysis of an optical packet switch with shared parametric wavelength converters,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  12, no. 8, pp. 596–598, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Hill, A. M.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. M. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, and R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Proc. IEEE HPSR, 2002, pp. 69–76.

Honthaas, J.

M. Kaure, M. Girault, J. Leuthold, J. Honthaas, O. Pellegri, C. Goullancourt, and M. Zirngibl, “16-channel digitally tunable external-cavity laser with nanosecond switching time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 3, pp. 371–373, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Hung, N. T.

Jing, Z.

E. Oki, Z. Jing, R. Rojas-Cessa, and H. J. Chao, “Concurrent round-robin-based dispatching schemes for Clos-network switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, no. 6, pp. 830–844, 2002.
[CrossRef]

R. Rojas-Cessa, E. Oki, Z. Jing, and H. J. Chao, “CIXB-1: Combined input-one-cell-crosspoint buffered switch,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop of HPSR, Dallas, TX, May 2001, pp. 324–329.

Jue, J. R.

T. Zhang, K. Lu, and J. R. Jue, “Shared fiber delay line buffers in asynchronous optical packet switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 118–127, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Kaure, M.

M. Kaure, M. Girault, J. Leuthold, J. Honthaas, O. Pellegri, C. Goullancourt, and M. Zirngibl, “16-channel digitally tunable external-cavity laser with nanosecond switching time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 3, pp. 371–373, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention-based limited deflection routing protocol in optical burst-switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 1596–1611, 2005
[CrossRef]

Kishi, N.

Kitsuwan, N.

Kumar, P.

Lee, S.

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention-based limited deflection routing protocol in optical burst-switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 1596–1611, 2005
[CrossRef]

LeGrange, J. D.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: The IRIS project,” in Proc. OFC, 2010, pp. 1–3.

Leonardi, E.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. M. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, and R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Proc. IEEE HPSR, 2002, pp. 69–76.

Leung, Y. W.

G. Xiao and Y. W. Leung, “Algorithms for allocating wavelength converters in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  7, no. 4, pp. 545–557, Aug. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

M. Kaure, M. Girault, J. Leuthold, J. Honthaas, O. Pellegri, C. Goullancourt, and M. Zirngibl, “16-channel digitally tunable external-cavity laser with nanosecond switching time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 3, pp. 371–373, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Liang, Z.

Lu, K.

T. Zhang, K. Lu, and J. R. Jue, “Shared fiber delay line buffers in asynchronous optical packet switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 118–127, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Mansfield, K. C.

K. C. Mansfield and J. L. Antonakos, Computer Networking from LANs to WANs: Hardware, Software, and Security. Boston, MA: Course Technology, Cengage Learning, 2010.

Martin, R. E.

C. Okonkwo, R. C. Almeida, R. E. Martin, and K. M. Guild, “Performance analysis of an optical packet switch with shared parametric wavelength converters,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  12, no. 8, pp. 596–598, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, M.

McKeown, N.

A. Mekkittikul and N. McKeown, “Scheduling VOQ switches under non-uniform traffic,” Stanford University, , 1997.

Mekkittikul, A.

A. Mekkittikul and N. McKeown, “Scheduling VOQ switches under non-uniform traffic,” Stanford University, , 1997.

Miyazaki, T.

H. Furukawa, N. Wada, N. Takezawa, K. Nashimoto, and T. Miyazaki, “640 (2 × 32λ × 10)  Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed, wide-colored optical packet switching achieved by polarization-independent high-speed PLZT switch,” in Proc. of Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, pp. 1–3.

Miyazawa, H.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25  GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03  Tbit/s (103 × Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Morioka, T.

J. Yamawaku, E. Yamazaki, A. Takada, T. Morioka, and K. Suzuki, “Field demonstration of up to 640  Gb/s (64 ch × 10  Gb/s) GWP switching networks with a QPM-LN wavelength converter in JGN II test bed,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 529–535, July/Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25  GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03  Tbit/s (103 × Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Mouftah, H. T.

J. M. H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, “All-optical wavelength conversion: technologies and applications in DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 86–92, Mar. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, “All-optical packet-switched networks: A study of contention-resolution schemes in an irregular mesh network with variable-sized packets,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  4233, pp. 235–246, 2000.

Nashimoto, K.

H. Furukawa, N. Wada, N. Takezawa, K. Nashimoto, and T. Miyazaki, “640 (2 × 32λ × 10)  Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed, wide-colored optical packet switching achieved by polarization-independent high-speed PLZT switch,” in Proc. of Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, pp. 1–3.

Neilson, D. T.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: The IRIS project,” in Proc. OFC, 2010, pp. 1–3.

Neri, F.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. M. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, and R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Proc. IEEE HPSR, 2002, pp. 69–76.

Ohara, T.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25  GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03  Tbit/s (103 × Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Oki, E.

N. Kitsuwan, N. T. Hung, M. Matsuura, N. Kishi, and E. Oki, “Recursive parametric wavelength conversion scheme for optical packet switch,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 11, pp. 1659–1670, 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Kitsuwan and E. Oki, “Optical packet switch based on dynamic pump wavelength selection,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 2, pp. 162–171, 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Kitsuwan, R. Rojas-Cessa, M. Matsuura, and E. Oki, “Performance of optical packet switches based on parametric wavelength converters,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 8, pp. 558–569, 2010.
[CrossRef]

E. Oki, Z. Jing, R. Rojas-Cessa, and H. J. Chao, “Concurrent round-robin-based dispatching schemes for Clos-network switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, no. 6, pp. 830–844, 2002.
[CrossRef]

E. Oki, R. Rojas-Cessa, and H. J. Chao, “A pipeline-based approach for maximal-sized matching scheduling in input-buffered switches,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  5, no. 6, pp. 263–265, 2001.
[CrossRef]

E. Oki and N. Yamanaka, “A high-speed tandem-crosspoint ATM switch architecture with input and output buffers,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E81-B, no. 2, pp. 215–223, 1998.

E. Oki and N. Yamanaka, “A high-speed ATM switch based on scalable distributed arbitration,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E80-B, no. 9, pp. 1372–1376, 1997.

R. Rojas-Cessa, E. Oki, Z. Jing, and H. J. Chao, “CIXB-1: Combined input-one-cell-crosspoint buffered switch,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop of HPSR, Dallas, TX, May 2001, pp. 324–329.

N. Kitsuwan and E. Oki, “Dynamic pump-wavelength selection for optical packet switch with recursive parametric wavelength conversion,” in Proc. IEEE HPSR, June 2012.

S. F. Beldianu, R. Rojas-Cessa, E. Oki, and S. G. Ziavras, “Re-configurable parallel match evaluators applied to scheduling schemes for input-queued packet switches,” in Proc. IEEE ICCCN, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Okonkwo, C.

C. Okonkwo, R. C. Almeida, R. E. Martin, and K. M. Guild, “Performance analysis of an optical packet switch with shared parametric wavelength converters,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  12, no. 8, pp. 596–598, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Pedram, M.

A. M. Rahmani, A. Afzali-Kusha, and M. Pedram, “NED: A novel synthetic traffic pattern for power/performance analysis of network-on-chips using negative exponential distribution,” J. Low Power Electron., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2009.

Pellegri, O.

M. Kaure, M. Girault, J. Leuthold, J. Honthaas, O. Pellegri, C. Goullancourt, and M. Zirngibl, “16-channel digitally tunable external-cavity laser with nanosecond switching time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 3, pp. 371–373, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Rahmani, A. M.

A. M. Rahmani, A. Afzali-Kusha, and M. Pedram, “NED: A novel synthetic traffic pattern for power/performance analysis of network-on-chips using negative exponential distribution,” J. Low Power Electron., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2009.

Rojas-Cessa, R.

N. Kitsuwan, R. Rojas-Cessa, M. Matsuura, and E. Oki, “Performance of optical packet switches based on parametric wavelength converters,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 8, pp. 558–569, 2010.
[CrossRef]

E. Oki, Z. Jing, R. Rojas-Cessa, and H. J. Chao, “Concurrent round-robin-based dispatching schemes for Clos-network switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, no. 6, pp. 830–844, 2002.
[CrossRef]

E. Oki, R. Rojas-Cessa, and H. J. Chao, “A pipeline-based approach for maximal-sized matching scheduling in input-buffered switches,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  5, no. 6, pp. 263–265, 2001.
[CrossRef]

S. F. Beldianu, R. Rojas-Cessa, E. Oki, and S. G. Ziavras, “Re-configurable parallel match evaluators applied to scheduling schemes for input-queued packet switches,” in Proc. IEEE ICCCN, 2009, pp. 1–6.

R. Rojas-Cessa, E. Oki, Z. Jing, and H. J. Chao, “CIXB-1: Combined input-one-cell-crosspoint buffered switch,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop of HPSR, Dallas, TX, May 2001, pp. 324–329.

Sato, K.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25  GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03  Tbit/s (103 × Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. M.

J. M. Simmons, “Analysis of wavelength conversion in all-optical express backbone networks,” in Proc. OFC, Mar. 2002.

Simsarian, J. E.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: The IRIS project,” in Proc. OFC, 2010, pp. 1–3.

Song, J.

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention-based limited deflection routing protocol in optical burst-switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 1596–1611, 2005
[CrossRef]

Sriram, K.

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention-based limited deflection routing protocol in optical burst-switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 1596–1611, 2005
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

J. Yamawaku, E. Yamazaki, A. Takada, T. Morioka, and K. Suzuki, “Field demonstration of up to 640  Gb/s (64 ch × 10  Gb/s) GWP switching networks with a QPM-LN wavelength converter in JGN II test bed,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 529–535, July/Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25  GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03  Tbit/s (103 × Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

J. Yamawaku, E. Yamazaki, A. Takada, T. Morioka, and K. Suzuki, “Field demonstration of up to 640  Gb/s (64 ch × 10  Gb/s) GWP switching networks with a QPM-LN wavelength converter in JGN II test bed,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 529–535, July/Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25  GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03  Tbit/s (103 × Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25  GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03  Tbit/s (103 × Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Takeda, S.

S. Watanabe, S. Takeda, and T. Chikama, “Interband wavelength conversion of 320  Gb/s (32 × 10  Gb/s) WDM signal using a polarization-insensitive fiber four-wave mixer,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 1998, pp. 85–86.

Takezawa, N.

H. Furukawa, N. Wada, N. Takezawa, K. Nashimoto, and T. Miyazaki, “640 (2 × 32λ × 10)  Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed, wide-colored optical packet switching achieved by polarization-independent high-speed PLZT switch,” in Proc. of Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, pp. 1–3.

Tang, R.

Wada, N.

H. Furukawa, N. Wada, N. Takezawa, K. Nashimoto, and T. Miyazaki, “640 (2 × 32λ × 10)  Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed, wide-colored optical packet switching achieved by polarization-independent high-speed PLZT switch,” in Proc. of Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, pp. 1–3.

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe, S. Takeda, and T. Chikama, “Interband wavelength conversion of 320  Gb/s (32 × 10  Gb/s) WDM signal using a polarization-insensitive fiber four-wave mixer,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 1998, pp. 85–86.

Webb, R.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. M. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, and R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Proc. IEEE HPSR, 2002, pp. 69–76.

Xiao, G.

G. Xiao and Y. W. Leung, “Algorithms for allocating wavelength converters in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  7, no. 4, pp. 545–557, Aug. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

Yamanaka, N.

E. Oki and N. Yamanaka, “A high-speed tandem-crosspoint ATM switch architecture with input and output buffers,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E81-B, no. 2, pp. 215–223, 1998.

E. Oki and N. Yamanaka, “A high-speed ATM switch based on scalable distributed arbitration,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E80-B, no. 9, pp. 1372–1376, 1997.

Yamawaku, J.

J. Yamawaku, E. Yamazaki, A. Takada, T. Morioka, and K. Suzuki, “Field demonstration of up to 640  Gb/s (64 ch × 10  Gb/s) GWP switching networks with a QPM-LN wavelength converter in JGN II test bed,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 529–535, July/Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25  GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03  Tbit/s (103 × Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, E.

J. Yamawaku, E. Yamazaki, A. Takada, T. Morioka, and K. Suzuki, “Field demonstration of up to 640  Gb/s (64 ch × 10  Gb/s) GWP switching networks with a QPM-LN wavelength converter in JGN II test bed,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 529–535, July/Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Yao, S.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, “All-optical packet-switched networks: A study of contention-resolution schemes in an irregular mesh network with variable-sized packets,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  4233, pp. 235–246, 2000.

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, “All-optical packet-switched networks: A study of contention-resolution schemes in an irregular mesh network with variable-sized packets,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  4233, pp. 235–246, 2000.

Yu, J.

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, K. Lu, and J. R. Jue, “Shared fiber delay line buffers in asynchronous optical packet switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 118–127, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Ziavras, S. G.

S. F. Beldianu, R. Rojas-Cessa, E. Oki, and S. G. Ziavras, “Re-configurable parallel match evaluators applied to scheduling schemes for input-queued packet switches,” in Proc. IEEE ICCCN, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Zirngibl, M.

M. Kaure, M. Girault, J. Leuthold, J. Honthaas, O. Pellegri, C. Goullancourt, and M. Zirngibl, “16-channel digitally tunable external-cavity laser with nanosecond switching time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 3, pp. 371–373, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25  GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03  Tbit/s (103 × Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (2)

E. Oki, R. Rojas-Cessa, and H. J. Chao, “A pipeline-based approach for maximal-sized matching scheduling in input-buffered switches,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  5, no. 6, pp. 263–265, 2001.
[CrossRef]

C. Okonkwo, R. C. Almeida, R. E. Martin, and K. M. Guild, “Performance analysis of an optical packet switch with shared parametric wavelength converters,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  12, no. 8, pp. 596–598, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. M. H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, “All-optical wavelength conversion: technologies and applications in DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 86–92, Mar. 2000.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

T. Zhang, K. Lu, and J. R. Jue, “Shared fiber delay line buffers in asynchronous optical packet switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 118–127, 2006.
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention-based limited deflection routing protocol in optical burst-switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  23, no. 8, pp. 1596–1611, 2005
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Yamawaku, E. Yamazaki, A. Takada, T. Morioka, and K. Suzuki, “Field demonstration of up to 640  Gb/s (64 ch × 10  Gb/s) GWP switching networks with a QPM-LN wavelength converter in JGN II test bed,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 529–535, July/Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Kaure, M. Girault, J. Leuthold, J. Honthaas, O. Pellegri, C. Goullancourt, and M. Zirngibl, “16-channel digitally tunable external-cavity laser with nanosecond switching time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 3, pp. 371–373, 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (2)

G. Xiao and Y. W. Leung, “Algorithms for allocating wavelength converters in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  7, no. 4, pp. 545–557, Aug. 1999.
[CrossRef]

E. Oki, Z. Jing, R. Rojas-Cessa, and H. J. Chao, “Concurrent round-robin-based dispatching schemes for Clos-network switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, no. 6, pp. 830–844, 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun. (2)

E. Oki and N. Yamanaka, “A high-speed ATM switch based on scalable distributed arbitration,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E80-B, no. 9, pp. 1372–1376, 1997.

E. Oki and N. Yamanaka, “A high-speed tandem-crosspoint ATM switch architecture with input and output buffers,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E81-B, no. 2, pp. 215–223, 1998.

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Low Power Electron. (1)

A. M. Rahmani, A. Afzali-Kusha, and M. Pedram, “NED: A novel synthetic traffic pattern for power/performance analysis of network-on-chips using negative exponential distribution,” J. Low Power Electron., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2009.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, “All-optical packet-switched networks: A study of contention-resolution schemes in an irregular mesh network with variable-sized packets,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  4233, pp. 235–246, 2000.

Other (10)

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: The IRIS project,” in Proc. OFC, 2010, pp. 1–3.

J. M. Simmons, “Analysis of wavelength conversion in all-optical express backbone networks,” in Proc. OFC, Mar. 2002.

K. C. Mansfield and J. L. Antonakos, Computer Networking from LANs to WANs: Hardware, Software, and Security. Boston, MA: Course Technology, Cengage Learning, 2010.

R. Rojas-Cessa, E. Oki, Z. Jing, and H. J. Chao, “CIXB-1: Combined input-one-cell-crosspoint buffered switch,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop of HPSR, Dallas, TX, May 2001, pp. 324–329.

S. F. Beldianu, R. Rojas-Cessa, E. Oki, and S. G. Ziavras, “Re-configurable parallel match evaluators applied to scheduling schemes for input-queued packet switches,” in Proc. IEEE ICCCN, 2009, pp. 1–6.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. M. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, and R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Proc. IEEE HPSR, 2002, pp. 69–76.

H. Furukawa, N. Wada, N. Takezawa, K. Nashimoto, and T. Miyazaki, “640 (2 × 32λ × 10)  Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed, wide-colored optical packet switching achieved by polarization-independent high-speed PLZT switch,” in Proc. of Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, pp. 1–3.

A. Mekkittikul and N. McKeown, “Scheduling VOQ switches under non-uniform traffic,” Stanford University, , 1997.

N. Kitsuwan and E. Oki, “Dynamic pump-wavelength selection for optical packet switch with recursive parametric wavelength conversion,” in Proc. IEEE HPSR, June 2012.

S. Watanabe, S. Takeda, and T. Chikama, “Interband wavelength conversion of 320  Gb/s (32 × 10  Gb/s) WDM signal using a polarization-insensitive fiber four-wave mixer,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 1998, pp. 85–86.

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Example of wavelength conversion pairs in PWC.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Architecture of (a) SPA and (b) DPS switches.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Example of pump-wavelength generation for a DPS switch.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Example of (a) recursive and (b) cascaded conversions.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Setting pump wavelengths for PWCs. M, number of PWCs; λ1, lowest transmission wavelength; λw, highest transmission wavelength.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Example of converting λ4 to λ6 via two PWCs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Example of matching algorithm for SPA-C.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Example of matching algorithm for DPS.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Conversion from wth wavelength to wth wavelength.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Example of matching algorithm for DPS-C.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Packet loss rates of DPS-C with different maximum numbers of conversion stages (W=32 and ρ=0.5).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Packet loss rates of DPS-C with different numbers of PWCs (N=16, W=32, ρ=0.5, and S=2).

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Packet loss rates of DPS-C with different traffic loads (N=16, W=32, M=5, and S=2).

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Packet loss rates of DPS-C with different numbers of input/output fibers (W=32, M=5, ρ=0.5, and S=2).

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Packet loss rates of DPS-C with different numbers of transmission wavelengths (N=16, M=5, ρ=0.5, and S=2).

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Packet loss rates of DPS-C with unbalanced traffic (N=16, W=32, M=5, ρ=0.5, and S=2).

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Packet loss rates of DPS-C with diagonal traffic (N=16, W=32, M=5, ρ=0.5, and S=2).

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Packet loss rates of DPS-C with PO2 traffic (N=16, W=32, M=5, ρ=0.5, and S=2).

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Packet loss rates of DPS-C with hotspot traffic (N=16, W=32, M=5, ρ=0.5, and S=2).

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Dependency of traffic load (N=4, W=4, M=2, and S=2).

Fig. 21.
Fig. 21.

Dependency of number of PWCs (N=4, W=4, ρ=0.3, and S=2).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Comparison of Optical Switches With PWC-Based Wavelength Conversion

Tables Icon

TABLE II Symbols Used in This Paper

Tables Icon

TABLE III Pump-Wavelength Index of Each RCC(i,w,{d},j,w) for the Decision of PWC1

Tables Icon

TABLE IV Index Pump Wavelength of Each RCC(i,w,{d},j,w) for the Decision of PWC2

Equations (24)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

pm=argmaxpmCpm.
ρi,j={ρ(α+1αN)ifi=jρ1αNotherwise.
ρi,j={dρifi=j(1d)ρifj=i+1MODN0otherwise.
ρi,j=ρ(d1d000d1d01d00d).
ρi,j=ρ(12112212312N12212312412112N12112212N1).
ρi,j={hρifjis the specific output fiber1hρN1otherwise.
maxIm1wim2OC(I,m1,wi,m2,O).
Im1wim2C(I,m1,wi,m2,O)1,oX,wcY,
m1wim2OC(I,m1,wi,m2,O)1,iX,wY,
Iwim2OC(I,m,wi,m2,O)+Im1wiOC(I,m1,wi,m,O)B(p),mZ,
C(I,m1,wi,m2,O)=0,I,O{X,Y},m1,m2Z,wiY,wi=wc,
C(I,m1,wi,M+1,O)=0,I,O{X,Y},m1Z,wiY,wiwc,
C(I1,m1,wi,m21,O1)+C(I2,m1,w,m22,O2)1,I1,I2,O1,O2{X,Y},m1Z,m21,m22Q,w,wiY,I1=(i1,w),I2=(i2,wi),
C(I1,m11,wi,m2,O1)+C(I2,m12,wc,m2,O2)1,I1,I2,O1,O2{X,Y},m11,m12,m2Z,wc,wiY,O1=(o1,wc),O2=(o2,wi),
C(I1,m,wi,m2,O1)+C(I2,m1,wi,m,O2)1,I1,I2,O1,O2{X,Y},m,m1Z,m2Q,w,wiY,I1=(i1,w),O2=(o2,w),
C(I1,m1,wi1,m21,O1)+C(I2,m1,wi2,m22,O2)2,I1,I2,O1,O2{X,Y},wi1,wi2Y,m1Z,m21,m22Q,w1+wi12=w2+wi22,I1=(i1,w1),I2=(i2,w2),O1=(o1,wc1),O2=(o2,wc2),w1wi1,w2wi2,w1w2,wi1wi2,w1wi2,
C(I1,m11,wi1,m2,O1)+C(I2,m12,wi2,m2,O2)2,I1,I2,O1,O2{X,Y},wi1,wi2Y,m11,m12,m2Z,wi1+wc12=wi2+wc22,I1=(i1,w1),I2=(i2,w2),O1=(o1,wc1),O2=(o2,wc2),wi1wc1,wi2wc2,wi1wi2,wc1wc2,wi1wc2,
C(I1,m,wi1,m21,O1)+C(I2,m12,wi2,m,O2)2,I1,I2,O1,O2{X,Y},wi1,wi2Y,m,m12Z,m21Q,w1+wi12=wi2+wc22,I1=(i1,w1),I2=(i2,w2),O1=(o1,wc1),O2=(o2,wc2)w1wi1,wi2wc2,w1wi2,wi1wc2,w1wc2,
C(I1,m1,wi1,m21,O1)+C(I2,m1,wi2,m22,O2)1,I1,I2,O1,O2{X,Y},wi1,wi2Y,m1Z,m21,m22Q,w1+wi12w2+wi22,I1=(i1,w1),I2=(i2,w2),O1=(o1,wc1),O2=(o2,wc2),
C(I1,m11,wi1,m2,O1)+C(I2,m12,wi2,m2,O2)1,I1,I2,O1,O2{X,Y},wi1,wi2Y,m11,m12,m2Z,wi1+wc12wi2+wc22,I1=(i1,w1),I2=(i2,w2),O1=(o1,wc1),O2=(o2,wc2),
C(I1,m,wi1,m21,O1)+C(I2,m12,wi2,m,O2)1,I1,I2,O1,O2{X,Y},wi1,wi2Y,m,m12Z,m21Q,w1+wi12wi2+wc22,I1=(i1,w1),I2=(i2,w2),O1=(o1,wc1),O2=(o2,wc2),
C(I1,m1,wi,m21,O1)+C(I2,m1,wi,m22,O2)1,I1,I2,O1,O2{X,Y},wiY,m1Z,m21,m22Q,I1=(i1,w),I2=(i2,w),O1=(o1,wc1),O2=(o2,wc2)i1i2orm21m22oro1o2orwc1wc2,
C(I1,m11,wi,m2,O1)+C(I2,m12,wi,m2,O2)1,I1,I2,O1,O2{X,Y},wiY,m11,m12,m2Z,I1=(i1,w1),I2=(i2,w2),O1=(o1,wc),O2=(o2,wc),i1i2orw1w2orm11m12oro1o2,
C(I1,m,wi,m21,O1)+C(I2,m12,w,m,O2)1,I1,I2,O1,O2{X,Y},wiY,m,m12Z,m21Q,I1=(i1,w),O2=(o2,wi),