Abstract

Backbone networks usually have some excess capacity (EC) to accommodate traffic fluctuations and to avoid early capacity exhaustion. Network operators can exploit EC in optical wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) backbone networks to support survivable traffic grooming, where connection requests are of subwavelength granularity and each provisioned request has to be protected from single-link failures. We investigate novel EC management techniques that can improve network performance, in terms of Service-Level Agreement (SLA) violations and bandwidth blockings, with no requirement of deploying additional capacity. We investigate exploiting and managing EC by the following techniques. i) Preprovisioning: When traffic is light, network resources are reserved by a preprovisioning scheme, i.e., a connection can be provisioned on reserved protected links to increase availability. We show that preprovisioning also decreases connection setup time, an important metric for delay-sensitive services. iiBackup reprovisioning: Since high-availability protection schemes usually consume more resources, connections in our solution can be switched to a protection scheme that provides lower availability (but higher resource efficiency) by reprovisioning backup resources when traffic increases. iiiHold-lightpath: We propose a new “hold-lightpath” scheme to exploit EC. This scheme prevents the termination of pre-established (but unused) resources to increase availability and decrease connection setup time. We compare our techniques with traditional protection schemes for typical daily fluctuating traffic on typical backbone network topologies and find that significant improvements can be achieved in terms of decreasing SLA violations, bandwidth blocking, and connection setup time.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Dikbiyik, L. Sahasrabuddhe, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity to improve robustness of WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 114–124, Feb. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Dikbiyik, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity, part II: Differentiated services under traffic growth,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., submitted. (Preliminary versions of this work were presented at the PS’10 and ANTS’10 conferences.)
  3. K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Ou, K. Zhu, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, H. Zang, and L. Sahasrabuddhe, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  3, no. 1, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. New York, NY: Springer, 2006.
  7. D. Zhou and S. Subramaniam, “Survivability in optical networks,” IEEE Network, vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 16–23, Nov./Dec. 2000.
  8. S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  21, no. 4, pp. 870–883, Apr. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Xu, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “Novel algorithms for shared segment protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 8, pp. 1320–1331, Oct. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Arci, G. Maier, A. Pattavina, D. Petecchi, and M. Tornatore, “Availability models for protection techniques in WDM networks,” in Proc. of Design of Reliable Communication Networks, Oct. 2003, pp. 158–166.
  11. L. Zhou, M. Held, and U. Sennhauser, “Connection availability analysis of shared backup path-protected mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 5, pp. 1111–1119, May 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Song, J. Zhang, and B. Mukherjee, “A comprehensive study on backup-bandwidth reprovisioning after network-state updates in survivable telecom mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 6, pp. 1366–1377, Dec. 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zhang, N. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1111–1119, May 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Simmons, “Cost vs. capacity tradeoff with shared mesh protection in optical-bypass-enabled backbone networks,” in Proc. of Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2007.
  15. E. Bouillet, J. Labourdette, R. Ramamurthy, and S. Chaudhuri, “Lightpath re-optimization in mesh optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 437–447, Apr. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Assi, W. Huo, A. Shami, and N. Ghani, “On the benefits of lightpath reprovisioning in optical mesh networks,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Seoul, South Korea, May 2005.
  17. C. Assi, W. Huo, and A. Shami, “Multiple link failures survivability of optical networks with traffic grooming capability,” Comput. Commun., vol.  29, no. 18, pp. 3900–3912, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Dikbiyik, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity for survivable traffic grooming in optical WDM backbone networks,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Houston, TX, Dec. 2011.
  19. M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Service-centric provisioning in WDM backbone networks for the future Internet,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 12, pp. 1856–1865, June 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Todimala and B. Ramamurthy, “A dynamic partitioning sub-path protection routing technique in WDM mesh networks,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Computer Communications, Washington, DC, Aug. 2002.
  21. C. Labovitz, “What Europeans do at night,” Arbor Networks, 2009 [Online]. Available: http://ddos.arbornetworks.com/2009/08/what-europeans-do-at-night/ .
  22. S. Huang, M. Xia, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable multipath traffic grooming in telecom mesh networks with inverse multiplexing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 8, pp. 545–557, Aug. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Risk-aware provisioning for optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 921–931, June 2011.
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

F. Dikbiyik, L. Sahasrabuddhe, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity to improve robustness of WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 114–124, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Risk-aware provisioning for optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 921–931, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

L. Song, J. Zhang, and B. Mukherjee, “A comprehensive study on backup-bandwidth reprovisioning after network-state updates in survivable telecom mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 6, pp. 1366–1377, Dec. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zhang, N. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1111–1119, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, M. Held, and U. Sennhauser, “Connection availability analysis of shared backup path-protected mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 5, pp. 1111–1119, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Assi, W. Huo, and A. Shami, “Multiple link failures survivability of optical networks with traffic grooming capability,” Comput. Commun., vol.  29, no. 18, pp. 3900–3912, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. Bouillet, J. Labourdette, R. Ramamurthy, and S. Chaudhuri, “Lightpath re-optimization in mesh optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 437–447, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  21, no. 4, pp. 870–883, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

D. Xu, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “Novel algorithms for shared segment protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 8, pp. 1320–1331, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Zhou and S. Subramaniam, “Survivability in optical networks,” IEEE Network, vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 16–23, Nov./Dec. 2000.

Arci, D.

D. Arci, G. Maier, A. Pattavina, D. Petecchi, and M. Tornatore, “Availability models for protection techniques in WDM networks,” in Proc. of Design of Reliable Communication Networks, Oct. 2003, pp. 158–166.

Assi, C.

C. Assi, W. Huo, and A. Shami, “Multiple link failures survivability of optical networks with traffic grooming capability,” Comput. Commun., vol.  29, no. 18, pp. 3900–3912, 2006.
[CrossRef]

C. Assi, W. Huo, A. Shami, and N. Ghani, “On the benefits of lightpath reprovisioning in optical mesh networks,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Seoul, South Korea, May 2005.

Bouillet, E.

E. Bouillet, J. Labourdette, R. Ramamurthy, and S. Chaudhuri, “Lightpath re-optimization in mesh optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 437–447, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Chaudhuri, S.

E. Bouillet, J. Labourdette, R. Ramamurthy, and S. Chaudhuri, “Lightpath re-optimization in mesh optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 437–447, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Dikbiyik, F.

F. Dikbiyik, L. Sahasrabuddhe, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity to improve robustness of WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 114–124, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Dikbiyik, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity, part II: Differentiated services under traffic growth,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., submitted. (Preliminary versions of this work were presented at the PS’10 and ANTS’10 conferences.)

F. Dikbiyik, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity for survivable traffic grooming in optical WDM backbone networks,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Houston, TX, Dec. 2011.

Ghani, N.

C. Assi, W. Huo, A. Shami, and N. Ghani, “On the benefits of lightpath reprovisioning in optical mesh networks,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Seoul, South Korea, May 2005.

Held, M.

Huang, S.

Huo, W.

C. Assi, W. Huo, and A. Shami, “Multiple link failures survivability of optical networks with traffic grooming capability,” Comput. Commun., vol.  29, no. 18, pp. 3900–3912, 2006.
[CrossRef]

C. Assi, W. Huo, A. Shami, and N. Ghani, “On the benefits of lightpath reprovisioning in optical mesh networks,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Seoul, South Korea, May 2005.

Labourdette, J.

E. Bouillet, J. Labourdette, R. Ramamurthy, and S. Chaudhuri, “Lightpath re-optimization in mesh optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 437–447, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Maier, G.

D. Arci, G. Maier, A. Pattavina, D. Petecchi, and M. Tornatore, “Availability models for protection techniques in WDM networks,” in Proc. of Design of Reliable Communication Networks, Oct. 2003, pp. 158–166.

Martel, C.

Martel, C. U.

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Risk-aware provisioning for optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 921–931, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Service-centric provisioning in WDM backbone networks for the future Internet,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 12, pp. 1856–1865, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Matloff, N.

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zhang, N. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1111–1119, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

F. Dikbiyik, L. Sahasrabuddhe, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity to improve robustness of WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 114–124, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Risk-aware provisioning for optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 921–931, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Huang, M. Xia, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable multipath traffic grooming in telecom mesh networks with inverse multiplexing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 8, pp. 545–557, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Service-centric provisioning in WDM backbone networks for the future Internet,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 12, pp. 1856–1865, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

L. Song, J. Zhang, and B. Mukherjee, “A comprehensive study on backup-bandwidth reprovisioning after network-state updates in survivable telecom mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 6, pp. 1366–1377, Dec. 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zhang, N. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1111–1119, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, H. Zang, and L. Sahasrabuddhe, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  3, no. 1, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  21, no. 4, pp. 870–883, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

F. Dikbiyik, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity, part II: Differentiated services under traffic growth,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., submitted. (Preliminary versions of this work were presented at the PS’10 and ANTS’10 conferences.)

F. Dikbiyik, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity for survivable traffic grooming in optical WDM backbone networks,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Houston, TX, Dec. 2011.

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. New York, NY: Springer, 2006.

Ou, C.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, H. Zang, and L. Sahasrabuddhe, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  3, no. 1, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Pattavina, A.

D. Arci, G. Maier, A. Pattavina, D. Petecchi, and M. Tornatore, “Availability models for protection techniques in WDM networks,” in Proc. of Design of Reliable Communication Networks, Oct. 2003, pp. 158–166.

Petecchi, D.

D. Arci, G. Maier, A. Pattavina, D. Petecchi, and M. Tornatore, “Availability models for protection techniques in WDM networks,” in Proc. of Design of Reliable Communication Networks, Oct. 2003, pp. 158–166.

Qiao, C.

D. Xu, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “Novel algorithms for shared segment protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 8, pp. 1320–1331, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, B.

A. Todimala and B. Ramamurthy, “A dynamic partitioning sub-path protection routing technique in WDM mesh networks,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Computer Communications, Washington, DC, Aug. 2002.

Ramamurthy, R.

E. Bouillet, J. Labourdette, R. Ramamurthy, and S. Chaudhuri, “Lightpath re-optimization in mesh optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 437–447, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, S.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

F. Dikbiyik, L. Sahasrabuddhe, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity to improve robustness of WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 114–124, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, H. Zang, and L. Sahasrabuddhe, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  3, no. 1, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  21, no. 4, pp. 870–883, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Sennhauser, U.

Shami, A.

C. Assi, W. Huo, and A. Shami, “Multiple link failures survivability of optical networks with traffic grooming capability,” Comput. Commun., vol.  29, no. 18, pp. 3900–3912, 2006.
[CrossRef]

C. Assi, W. Huo, A. Shami, and N. Ghani, “On the benefits of lightpath reprovisioning in optical mesh networks,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Seoul, South Korea, May 2005.

Simmons, J. M.

J. M. Simmons, “Cost vs. capacity tradeoff with shared mesh protection in optical-bypass-enabled backbone networks,” in Proc. of Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2007.

Song, L.

L. Song, J. Zhang, and B. Mukherjee, “A comprehensive study on backup-bandwidth reprovisioning after network-state updates in survivable telecom mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 6, pp. 1366–1377, Dec. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, S.

D. Zhou and S. Subramaniam, “Survivability in optical networks,” IEEE Network, vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 16–23, Nov./Dec. 2000.

Todimala, A.

A. Todimala and B. Ramamurthy, “A dynamic partitioning sub-path protection routing technique in WDM mesh networks,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Computer Communications, Washington, DC, Aug. 2002.

Tornatore, M.

F. Dikbiyik, L. Sahasrabuddhe, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity to improve robustness of WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 114–124, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Risk-aware provisioning for optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 921–931, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Service-centric provisioning in WDM backbone networks for the future Internet,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 12, pp. 1856–1865, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Arci, G. Maier, A. Pattavina, D. Petecchi, and M. Tornatore, “Availability models for protection techniques in WDM networks,” in Proc. of Design of Reliable Communication Networks, Oct. 2003, pp. 158–166.

F. Dikbiyik, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity for survivable traffic grooming in optical WDM backbone networks,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Houston, TX, Dec. 2011.

F. Dikbiyik, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity, part II: Differentiated services under traffic growth,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., submitted. (Preliminary versions of this work were presented at the PS’10 and ANTS’10 conferences.)

Xia, M.

Xiong, Y.

D. Xu, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “Novel algorithms for shared segment protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 8, pp. 1320–1331, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

D. Xu, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “Novel algorithms for shared segment protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 8, pp. 1320–1331, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, H. Zang, and L. Sahasrabuddhe, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  3, no. 1, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zhang, N. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1111–1119, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

L. Song, J. Zhang, and B. Mukherjee, “A comprehensive study on backup-bandwidth reprovisioning after network-state updates in survivable telecom mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 6, pp. 1366–1377, Dec. 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zhang, N. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1111–1119, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, H. Zang, and L. Sahasrabuddhe, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  3, no. 1, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou and S. Subramaniam, “Survivability in optical networks,” IEEE Network, vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 16–23, Nov./Dec. 2000.

Zhou, L.

Zhu, H.

Zhu, K.

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zhang, N. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1111–1119, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, H. Zang, and L. Sahasrabuddhe, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  3, no. 1, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Commun. (1)

C. Assi, W. Huo, and A. Shami, “Multiple link failures survivability of optical networks with traffic grooming capability,” Comput. Commun., vol.  29, no. 18, pp. 3900–3912, 2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (3)

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

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J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zhang, N. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1111–1119, May 2007.
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F. Dikbiyik, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Exploiting excess capacity for survivable traffic grooming in optical WDM backbone networks,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Houston, TX, Dec. 2011.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simplified grooming node architecture [4].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Six-node partial network with candidate lightpaths to form a connection from node S to node D.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Downtime (normalized by the connection holding time) of the connection protected by (a) PAL and (b) PAC with alternate paths.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Excess capacity management (ECM).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Protection with (a) PAC or PAL and (b) link protection.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Connection request t 1 (1, 5, STS-48c, A t 1 ) is provisioned. (b)  t 1 is terminated and a new connection request t 2 (1, 10, STS-12c, A t 2 ) is provisioned. (c)  t 1 is terminated and lightpaths are held and t 2 is provisioned on these lightpaths and new ones from nodes 5 to 10.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Representative U.S.-wide network and (b) sample traffic variations over a two-day period.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison of (a) SLA violation and (b) BBR.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Penalty results with cost ratios of (a) 1 and (b) 100.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Grooming-port utilization over a two-day period (network load = 100 erlangs).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Link utilization over a two-day period (network load = 100 erlangs).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Downtime reduction gained by preprovisioning and hold-lightpath.

Tables (3)

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Algorithm 1 Preprovisioning

Tables Icon

Algorithm 2 Backup Reprovisioning

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TABLE I Penalty Coefficient ( P t )

Equations (11)

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A η p l = A η w p l + ( 1 A η w p l ) A η b p l ,
U η p l = U η w p l ( U η b p l + 0.5 ( ν V η U ν w p l ) ) ,
A t D PAL = η H t A η w p l + ( 1 A η w p l ) A η b p l ,
A t S PAL = 1 η H t U η p l .
A t D PAC = l L t p A l + ( 1 l L t p A l ) l L t b A l ,
A t S PAC = 1 l L t p U l ( l L t b U l + 0.5 l L t s U l ) ,
C ( e ) = { F ( e ) = 0 1 + ε × ( W ( e ) F ( e ) ) ( o.w. ) ,
ANF t = ( 1 A t ) × h t D T t MTTR ,
UL t = { RHT t / ANF t if ANF t > 0 ( 7 a ) RHT t if ANF t > 0 ( 7 b ) SDT t × RHT t if otherwise ( 7 c ) ,
b B ( 1 + m b ) × M + X b [ ( 1 + m b ) × C + D b ] ,
Penalty = t T b ( δ 1 × P t × B t ) + t T a ( δ 2 × B t × P t × SDT t ) ,