Abstract

The spectrum fragmentation effect in elastic optical networks is one of their main limitations. Multiple techniques have been proposed to address this problem, with the split spectrum approach (SSA) being a very interesting candidate among them. This technique is based on splitting a demand into smaller sub-demands when a blocking situation arises. In split-spectrum-enabled networks, the route, spectrum, and modulation level assignment (RSMLA) problem that appears in elastic optical networks is further complicated due to the signal splitting operation. In this paper we present novel mechanisms to optimally attack this problem; various possible implementations of the SSA are also discussed. We highlight the benefits of the proposed mechanisms through illustrative results and compare the various implementation solutions in terms of average network cost.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Wang and B. Mukherjee, “Spectrum management in heterogeneous bandwidth networks,” in Proc. of GLOBECOM, Dec. 2012.
  4. Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 1798–1804, Jan. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. of European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.
  6. M. Xia, R. Proietti, S. Dahlfort, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Split spectrum: A multi-channel approach to elastic optical networking,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 28, pp. 29143–29148, Dec. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Jinno, H. Takara, Y. Sone, K. Yonenaga, and A. Hirano, “Multiflow optical transponder for efficient multilayer optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 56–65, May 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Chen, A. Jukan, and A. Gumaste, “Multipath de-fragmentation: Achieving better spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Apr. 2013.
  9. S. Thiagarajan, M. Frankel, and D. Boertjes, “Spectrum efficient super-channels in dynamic flexible grid networks—A blocking analysis,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI6.
  10. W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, M. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic multi-path service provisioning under differential delay constraint in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 158–161, Jan. 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Zhu, W. Lu, L. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “Dynamic service provisioning in elastic optical networks with hybrid single-/multi-path routing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 15–22, Jan. 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Pagès, J. Perelló, and S. Spadaro, “Lightpath fragmentation for efficient spectrum utilization in dynamic elastic optical networks,” in Proc. of Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.
  13. I. Hussain, Z. Pan, M. Sosa, B. Basch, S. Liu, A. G. Malis, and A. Dhillon, “Generalized label for super-channel assignment on flexible grid,” IETF draft, Oct. 2013.
  14. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, May 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multigranular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OMW3.
  16. Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Apr. 2011.
  17. M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Wan, N. Hua, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum-flexible transparent optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, pp. 603–613, Aug. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 177–186, Dec. 2012.
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, M. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic multi-path service provisioning under differential delay constraint in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 158–161, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, W. Lu, L. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “Dynamic service provisioning in elastic optical networks with hybrid single-/multi-path routing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 15–22, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 1798–1804, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Xia, R. Proietti, S. Dahlfort, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Split spectrum: A multi-channel approach to elastic optical networking,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 28, pp. 29143–29148, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, Y. Sone, K. Yonenaga, and A. Hirano, “Multiflow optical transponder for efficient multilayer optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 56–65, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Wan, N. Hua, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum-flexible transparent optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, pp. 603–613, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 177–186, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Amaya, N.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multigranular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OMW3.

Ansari, N.

Basch, B.

I. Hussain, Z. Pan, M. Sosa, B. Basch, S. Liu, A. G. Malis, and A. Dhillon, “Generalized label for super-channel assignment on flexible grid,” IETF draft, Oct. 2013.

Boertjes, D.

S. Thiagarajan, M. Frankel, and D. Boertjes, “Spectrum efficient super-channels in dynamic flexible grid networks—A blocking analysis,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI6.

Cao, X.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Apr. 2011.

Chang, S.

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. of European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, A. Jukan, and A. Gumaste, “Multipath de-fragmentation: Achieving better spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Apr. 2013.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

Comellas, J.

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 177–186, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Dahlfort, S.

Dhillon, A.

I. Hussain, Z. Pan, M. Sosa, B. Basch, S. Liu, A. G. Malis, and A. Dhillon, “Generalized label for super-channel assignment on flexible grid,” IETF draft, Oct. 2013.

Frankel, M.

S. Thiagarajan, M. Frankel, and D. Boertjes, “Spectrum efficient super-channels in dynamic flexible grid networks—A blocking analysis,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI6.

Geisler, D. J.

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 1798–1804, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. of European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Gong, L.

W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, M. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic multi-path service provisioning under differential delay constraint in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 158–161, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Gumaste, A.

X. Chen, A. Jukan, and A. Gumaste, “Multipath de-fragmentation: Achieving better spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Apr. 2013.

Hirano, A.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, Y. Sone, K. Yonenaga, and A. Hirano, “Multiflow optical transponder for efficient multilayer optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 56–65, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

Hua, N.

Hussain, I.

I. Hussain, Z. Pan, M. Sosa, B. Basch, S. Liu, A. G. Malis, and A. Dhillon, “Generalized label for super-channel assignment on flexible grid,” IETF draft, Oct. 2013.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, Y. Sone, K. Yonenaga, and A. Hirano, “Multiflow optical transponder for efficient multilayer optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 56–65, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Jukan, A.

X. Chen, A. Jukan, and A. Gumaste, “Multipath de-fragmentation: Achieving better spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Apr. 2013.

Klinkowski, M.

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 177–186, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

Liu, S.

I. Hussain, Z. Pan, M. Sosa, B. Basch, S. Liu, A. G. Malis, and A. Dhillon, “Generalized label for super-channel assignment on flexible grid,” IETF draft, Oct. 2013.

Lord, A.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multigranular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OMW3.

Lu, W.

Z. Zhu, W. Lu, L. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “Dynamic service provisioning in elastic optical networks with hybrid single-/multi-path routing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 15–22, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, M. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic multi-path service provisioning under differential delay constraint in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 158–161, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Malis, A. G.

I. Hussain, Z. Pan, M. Sosa, B. Basch, S. Liu, A. G. Malis, and A. Dhillon, “Generalized label for super-channel assignment on flexible grid,” IETF draft, Oct. 2013.

Matsuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Muhammad, I.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multigranular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OMW3.

Mukherjee, B.

R. Wang and B. Mukherjee, “Spectrum management in heterogeneous bandwidth networks,” in Proc. of GLOBECOM, Dec. 2012.

Nejabati, R.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multigranular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OMW3.

Pagès, A.

A. Pagès, J. Perelló, and S. Spadaro, “Lightpath fragmentation for efficient spectrum utilization in dynamic elastic optical networks,” in Proc. of Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

Pan, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Apr. 2011.

Pan, Z.

I. Hussain, Z. Pan, M. Sosa, B. Basch, S. Liu, A. G. Malis, and A. Dhillon, “Generalized label for super-channel assignment on flexible grid,” IETF draft, Oct. 2013.

Perelló, J.

A. Pagès, J. Perelló, and S. Spadaro, “Lightpath fragmentation for efficient spectrum utilization in dynamic elastic optical networks,” in Proc. of Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

Proietti, R.

Ruiz, M.

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 177–186, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Simeonidou, D.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multigranular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OMW3.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, Y. Sone, K. Yonenaga, and A. Hirano, “Multiflow optical transponder for efficient multilayer optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 56–65, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Sosa, M.

I. Hussain, Z. Pan, M. Sosa, B. Basch, S. Liu, A. G. Malis, and A. Dhillon, “Generalized label for super-channel assignment on flexible grid,” IETF draft, Oct. 2013.

Spadaro, S.

A. Pagès, J. Perelló, and S. Spadaro, “Lightpath fragmentation for efficient spectrum utilization in dynamic elastic optical networks,” in Proc. of Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, Y. Sone, K. Yonenaga, and A. Hirano, “Multiflow optical transponder for efficient multilayer optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 56–65, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Thiagarajan, S.

S. Thiagarajan, M. Frankel, and D. Boertjes, “Spectrum efficient super-channels in dynamic flexible grid networks—A blocking analysis,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI6.

Tomkos, I.

Tsukishima, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Varvarigos, E. A.

Velasco, L.

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 177–186, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Walkowiak, K.

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Wan, X.

Wang, R.

R. Wang and B. Mukherjee, “Spectrum management in heterogeneous bandwidth networks,” in Proc. of GLOBECOM, Dec. 2012.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Apr. 2011.

Wen, K.

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 1798–1804, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. of European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.

Xia, M.

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 1798–1804, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. of European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.

Yonenaga, K.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, Y. Sone, K. Yonenaga, and A. Hirano, “Multiflow optical transponder for efficient multilayer optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 56–65, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 1798–1804, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Xia, R. Proietti, S. Dahlfort, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Split spectrum: A multi-channel approach to elastic optical networking,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 28, pp. 29143–29148, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. of European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.

Zervas, G. S.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multigranular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OMW3.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, M.

W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, M. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic multi-path service provisioning under differential delay constraint in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 158–161, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

Zhou, X.

W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, M. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic multi-path service provisioning under differential delay constraint in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 158–161, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y. R.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multigranular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OMW3.

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, W. Lu, L. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “Dynamic service provisioning in elastic optical networks with hybrid single-/multi-path routing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 15–22, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, M. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic multi-path service provisioning under differential delay constraint in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 158–161, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (2)

W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, M. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic multi-path service provisioning under differential delay constraint in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 1, pp. 158–161, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, Y. Sone, K. Yonenaga, and A. Hirano, “Multiflow optical transponder for efficient multilayer optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 56–65, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Photonic Network Commun. (1)

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 177–186, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

X. Chen, A. Jukan, and A. Gumaste, “Multipath de-fragmentation: Achieving better spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Apr. 2013.

S. Thiagarajan, M. Frankel, and D. Boertjes, “Spectrum efficient super-channels in dynamic flexible grid networks—A blocking analysis,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI6.

R. Wang and B. Mukherjee, “Spectrum management in heterogeneous bandwidth networks,” in Proc. of GLOBECOM, Dec. 2012.

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. of European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.

A. Pagès, J. Perelló, and S. Spadaro, “Lightpath fragmentation for efficient spectrum utilization in dynamic elastic optical networks,” in Proc. of Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

I. Hussain, Z. Pan, M. Sosa, B. Basch, S. Liu, A. G. Malis, and A. Dhillon, “Generalized label for super-channel assignment on flexible grid,” IETF draft, Oct. 2013.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multigranular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OMW3.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Apr. 2011.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Example of BV-TSP-based SSA implementation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Architecture of a MF-TSP.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SSRSMLA mechanism pseudo-code.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

H-SSRSMLA mechanism pseudo-code.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

BBR in DT/320 (top) and EON/320 (bottom) scenarios.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

BBR in single-path (top) and multi-path (bottom) cases.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Cost comparison in DT/320 (top) and EON/320 (bottom) scenarios.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Supported Modulation Formats

Tables Icon

TABLE II H-SSRSMLA Versus SSRSMLA

Equations (16)

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S=(Bm+G)/Fw.
S=i=1H(Bmi+G)/Fw,
Tp=0.5i=1|F|1|zp,izp,i+1|.
Tp=0.5(zp,1+zp,|F|+i=1|F|1|zp,izp,i+1|).
Tp=0.5(zp,1+zp,|F|+i=1|F|1(zp,i22zp,izp,i+1+zp,i+12)).
Tp=i=1|F|zp,ii=1|F|1zp,izp,i+1.
minα1Hmax|Pd|pPdhpPp+β2|F||Pd|pPdhpTp+γ1|C|pPdhpcCpSc(1+ϵfc)xp,c+δAmax{Rm},
RdpPdcCpRcxp,c,
A=pPdcCpRcxp,cRd,
ypxp,c,pPd,cCp,pPdypLmax,
pPdPpHmax,TSPs/ϕ,TSPt/ϕ,FLmax/(1ϕ),
pPecCfxp,c1,eE,fF,
Pp=cCpxp,c,pPd,
Tp=i=1|F|zp,ii=1|F|1wp,i,i+1,pPd,
zp,f=1,pPd,fFpu,zp,f=cCfxp,c,pPd,fFFpu,
wp,i,i+1zp,i,zp,i+1,wp,i,i+1zp,i+zp,i+11,pPd,i=1,,|F|1.