Abstract

A hybrid free space optics/radio frequency (FSO/RF) technology has recently been proposed as a means of significantly increasing the throughput and reliability of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) for broadband communication. Current network control approaches assume quasi-static communication channels and use the simple protocol model to handle RF network interference. Depending on the application, these assumptions may not be sufficient for optimizing hybrid FSO/RF networks. In this paper, we present network control algorithms based on both nonfading and fading communication channels using the physical interference model for the RF portion of the network. We study the throughput improvement achievable by augmenting the RF WMN with FSO links. We address two questions: given a fixed number of FSO links, where should they be installed to maximize the throughput for given traffic demands, and how should the traffic be routed and scheduled in the hybrid FSO/RF network to achieve this throughput? We formulate these problems as one mixed integer linear program and provide a computationally efficient heuristic for scheduling and routing traffic demands through the hybrid FSO/RF network. The results show that the throughput of the original RF network can be increased dramatically by properly adding FSO links.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Ahdi and S. Subramaniam, “Optimal placement of FSO links in hybrid wireless optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec.2011.
  2. Y. Tang and M. Brandt Pearce, “Link allocation, routing and scheduling of FSO augmented RF wireless mesh networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communication (ICC), June2012.
  3. D. Wang and A. Abouzeid, “Throughput capacity of hybrid radio-frequency and free-space-optical (RF/FSO) multi-hop networks,” in Information Theory and Applications Workshop, Feb.2007.
  4. H. Moradi, M. Falahpour, H. Reafi, P. LoPresti, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Availability modeling of FSO/RF mesh networks through turbulence-induced fading channels,” in INFOCOM IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops, Mar.2010.
  5. V. Rajakumar, M. Smadi, S. Ghosh, T. Todd, and S. Hranilovic, “Interference management in WLAN mesh networks using free-space optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  26, no. 13, pp. 1735–1743, July 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Kashyap and M. Shayman, “Routing and traffic engineering in hybrid RF/FSO networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 2005, pp. 3427–3433.
  7. I. F. Akyildiz and X. Wang, Wireless Mesh Networks, 1st ed. Wiley, 2009.
  8. K. Jain, J. Padhye, V. N. Padmanabhan, and L. Qiu, “Impact of interference on multi-hop wireless network performance,” Wireless Netw., vol.  11, no. 4, pp. 471–487, 2005.
  9. J. Luo, C. Rosenberg, and A. Girard, “Engineering wireless mesh networks: Joint scheduling, routing, power control, and rate adaptation,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 1387–1400, Oct. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Haenggi, “On routing in random Rayleigh fading networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol.  4, no. 4, pp. 1553–1562, July 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. L. Nemhauser and L. A. Wolsey, Integer and Combinatorial Optimization, 1st ed. Wiley, 1999.

2010

J. Luo, C. Rosenberg, and A. Girard, “Engineering wireless mesh networks: Joint scheduling, routing, power control, and rate adaptation,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 1387–1400, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

2008

2005

K. Jain, J. Padhye, V. N. Padmanabhan, and L. Qiu, “Impact of interference on multi-hop wireless network performance,” Wireless Netw., vol.  11, no. 4, pp. 471–487, 2005.

M. Haenggi, “On routing in random Rayleigh fading networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol.  4, no. 4, pp. 1553–1562, July 2005.
[CrossRef]

Abouzeid, A.

D. Wang and A. Abouzeid, “Throughput capacity of hybrid radio-frequency and free-space-optical (RF/FSO) multi-hop networks,” in Information Theory and Applications Workshop, Feb.2007.

Ahdi, F.

F. Ahdi and S. Subramaniam, “Optimal placement of FSO links in hybrid wireless optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec.2011.

Akyildiz, I. F.

I. F. Akyildiz and X. Wang, Wireless Mesh Networks, 1st ed. Wiley, 2009.

Atiquzzaman, M.

H. Moradi, M. Falahpour, H. Reafi, P. LoPresti, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Availability modeling of FSO/RF mesh networks through turbulence-induced fading channels,” in INFOCOM IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops, Mar.2010.

Brandt Pearce, M.

Y. Tang and M. Brandt Pearce, “Link allocation, routing and scheduling of FSO augmented RF wireless mesh networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communication (ICC), June2012.

Falahpour, M.

H. Moradi, M. Falahpour, H. Reafi, P. LoPresti, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Availability modeling of FSO/RF mesh networks through turbulence-induced fading channels,” in INFOCOM IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops, Mar.2010.

Ghosh, S.

Girard, A.

J. Luo, C. Rosenberg, and A. Girard, “Engineering wireless mesh networks: Joint scheduling, routing, power control, and rate adaptation,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 1387–1400, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Haenggi, M.

M. Haenggi, “On routing in random Rayleigh fading networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol.  4, no. 4, pp. 1553–1562, July 2005.
[CrossRef]

Hranilovic, S.

Jain, K.

K. Jain, J. Padhye, V. N. Padmanabhan, and L. Qiu, “Impact of interference on multi-hop wireless network performance,” Wireless Netw., vol.  11, no. 4, pp. 471–487, 2005.

Kashyap, A.

A. Kashyap and M. Shayman, “Routing and traffic engineering in hybrid RF/FSO networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 2005, pp. 3427–3433.

LoPresti, P.

H. Moradi, M. Falahpour, H. Reafi, P. LoPresti, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Availability modeling of FSO/RF mesh networks through turbulence-induced fading channels,” in INFOCOM IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops, Mar.2010.

Luo, J.

J. Luo, C. Rosenberg, and A. Girard, “Engineering wireless mesh networks: Joint scheduling, routing, power control, and rate adaptation,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 1387–1400, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Moradi, H.

H. Moradi, M. Falahpour, H. Reafi, P. LoPresti, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Availability modeling of FSO/RF mesh networks through turbulence-induced fading channels,” in INFOCOM IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops, Mar.2010.

Nemhauser, G. L.

G. L. Nemhauser and L. A. Wolsey, Integer and Combinatorial Optimization, 1st ed. Wiley, 1999.

Padhye, J.

K. Jain, J. Padhye, V. N. Padmanabhan, and L. Qiu, “Impact of interference on multi-hop wireless network performance,” Wireless Netw., vol.  11, no. 4, pp. 471–487, 2005.

Padmanabhan, V. N.

K. Jain, J. Padhye, V. N. Padmanabhan, and L. Qiu, “Impact of interference on multi-hop wireless network performance,” Wireless Netw., vol.  11, no. 4, pp. 471–487, 2005.

Qiu, L.

K. Jain, J. Padhye, V. N. Padmanabhan, and L. Qiu, “Impact of interference on multi-hop wireless network performance,” Wireless Netw., vol.  11, no. 4, pp. 471–487, 2005.

Rajakumar, V.

Reafi, H.

H. Moradi, M. Falahpour, H. Reafi, P. LoPresti, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Availability modeling of FSO/RF mesh networks through turbulence-induced fading channels,” in INFOCOM IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops, Mar.2010.

Rosenberg, C.

J. Luo, C. Rosenberg, and A. Girard, “Engineering wireless mesh networks: Joint scheduling, routing, power control, and rate adaptation,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 1387–1400, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Shayman, M.

A. Kashyap and M. Shayman, “Routing and traffic engineering in hybrid RF/FSO networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 2005, pp. 3427–3433.

Smadi, M.

Subramaniam, S.

F. Ahdi and S. Subramaniam, “Optimal placement of FSO links in hybrid wireless optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec.2011.

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang and M. Brandt Pearce, “Link allocation, routing and scheduling of FSO augmented RF wireless mesh networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communication (ICC), June2012.

Todd, T.

Wang, D.

D. Wang and A. Abouzeid, “Throughput capacity of hybrid radio-frequency and free-space-optical (RF/FSO) multi-hop networks,” in Information Theory and Applications Workshop, Feb.2007.

Wang, X.

I. F. Akyildiz and X. Wang, Wireless Mesh Networks, 1st ed. Wiley, 2009.

Wolsey, L. A.

G. L. Nemhauser and L. A. Wolsey, Integer and Combinatorial Optimization, 1st ed. Wiley, 1999.

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun.

M. Haenggi, “On routing in random Rayleigh fading networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol.  4, no. 4, pp. 1553–1562, July 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

J. Luo, C. Rosenberg, and A. Girard, “Engineering wireless mesh networks: Joint scheduling, routing, power control, and rate adaptation,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 1387–1400, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Wireless Netw.

K. Jain, J. Padhye, V. N. Padmanabhan, and L. Qiu, “Impact of interference on multi-hop wireless network performance,” Wireless Netw., vol.  11, no. 4, pp. 471–487, 2005.

Other

G. L. Nemhauser and L. A. Wolsey, Integer and Combinatorial Optimization, 1st ed. Wiley, 1999.

F. Ahdi and S. Subramaniam, “Optimal placement of FSO links in hybrid wireless optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dec.2011.

Y. Tang and M. Brandt Pearce, “Link allocation, routing and scheduling of FSO augmented RF wireless mesh networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communication (ICC), June2012.

D. Wang and A. Abouzeid, “Throughput capacity of hybrid radio-frequency and free-space-optical (RF/FSO) multi-hop networks,” in Information Theory and Applications Workshop, Feb.2007.

H. Moradi, M. Falahpour, H. Reafi, P. LoPresti, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Availability modeling of FSO/RF mesh networks through turbulence-induced fading channels,” in INFOCOM IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops, Mar.2010.

A. Kashyap and M. Shayman, “Routing and traffic engineering in hybrid RF/FSO networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 2005, pp. 3427–3433.

I. F. Akyildiz and X. Wang, Wireless Mesh Networks, 1st ed. Wiley, 2009.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of an infrastructure WMN.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optimal sum throughput for a 16-node grid network under different traffic demands, RF interference models, number of FSO links, and FSO link capacities.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optimal sum throughput for a 15-node asymmetric network topology with different RF link power and rate assumptions. B=12, CijFSO=200Mbps.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Sum throughput computed versus number of FSO links using the MILP, the upper bound, and the heuristic algorithm for two networks, a 16-node grid network [two RF power levels (20 and 30 dBm) and two RF link rates (100 and 200 Mbps)], and a 28-node asymmetric topology [one RF power level (20 dBm) and data rate (100 Mbps)].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Maximum throughput for a 16-node grid network as a function of the number of FSO links for different πijFSO’s and ρ’s, for CijFSO=1Gbps.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Example network topologies, with dotted lines representing RF links and solid lines representing FSO links: (a) one FSO link and (b) five FSO links. For the FSO subnetwork, rFSO=4km, CijFSO=1Gbps, and πijFSO=0.9. For the RF subnetwork, RijRF=20Mbps, ϕ(20)=10, Pi=30dBm, and ρ=0.5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Throughput as a function of the number of FSO links for the network topologies shown in Fig. 6 and average throughput for 100 randomly generated networks with fixed source and destination and a single demand.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Algorithm 1 Simple Heuristic

Tables Icon

Algorithm 2 Improved Heuristic

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TABLE I 4×4 Grid Network Parameters

Tables Icon

TABLE II Number of ISs for Various Quasi-static RF Channel Models

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

GijPiN0RijRFϕ(RijRF),
Gij=(dijd0)η,
SINRijnonfadingGijPiN0RijRF+k:kiGkjPkϕ(RijRF).
SINRijfading=GijFijPiN0RijRF+k:kiGkjFkjPk,
πijRF=Pr{SINRijfadingϕ(RijRF)}.
πijRF=exp(ϕ(RijRF)N0RijRFPiGij)ki11+ϕ(RijRF)PkPi(dkjdij)η.
maxfij(b),λk,DijFSOb=1BlsiLfsi(b)
lijLfij(b)=ljhLfjh(b),alljsord,b,
lisLfis(b)=0,b,
ldiLfdi(b)=0,b,
fij(b)0and0λk1,b,k,i,j,
k=1Kλk=1,
b=1Bfij(b)(k=1lijRFIkKλkRijRF)+(DijFSOCijFSO),i,j,
DijFSO={1a directed FSO link fromitoj0otherwise,
i,jDijFSO=M.
b=1Bfij(b)(k=1lijRFIkKλkRijRFρ)+(DijFSOCijFSOπijFSO),
0DijFSO1i,j.