Abstract

We present a novel client-weighted medium-transparent medium access control (CW-MT-MAC) protocol with enhanced fairness service delivery properties accompanied by a low-loss remote access unit (RAU) architecture for use in indoor, Gbps-capable, 60 GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF) wireless local area networks (WLANs). Our approach relies on incorporating a client-weighted algorithm (CWA) in the optical capacity allocation mechanism employed in the MT-MAC scheme, so as to distribute the available wavelengths to the different antenna units according to the total number of active users served by each individual antenna. The protocol’s throughput and delay fairness characteristics are evaluated and validated through both simulations and analytic modeling for saturated network traffic operational conditions. In addition, extended simulation-based performance analysis for nonsaturated network conditions and for different end-user distributions, traffic loads, and available optical wavelengths at 1 Gbps data rates is presented. Our results confirm that complete throughput equalization can be achieved even for highly varying user population patterns when certain wavelength availability conditions are satisfied. At the same time, the presented scheme manages to equalize the average packet delays amongst packets generated by all RAUs while concurrently dropping the packet delay variation metric that is essential for quality of service delivery. Finally the proposed RAU design reduces insertion losses by almost 14 dB compared to RAU elements used in MT-MAC-compatible bus networks, extending in this way the number of supported RAUs by an order of magnitude and enabling the formation of extended-reach, high-speed RoF WLANs.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013

X. Shen, K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Wu, and J. Lin, “Dynamically reconfigurable radio-over-fiber network with medium access control protocol to provide network access to train passengers,” Sci. China Inf. Sci., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 1–10, Oct. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, H. Wang, and Y. Ji, “Multichannel resource allocation mechanism for 60  GHz radio-over-fiber local access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 254–260, 2013.
[CrossRef]

2012

A. Kanno, P. T. Dat, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, Y. Yasumura, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent radio-over-fiber and millimeter-wave radio seamless transmission system for resilient access networks,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 6, pp. 2196–2204, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

C. Ranaweera, E. Wong, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Next generation optical-wireless converged network architectures,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar.–Apr. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Hajduczenia, M. Toy, E. Mallette, and C. Knittle, “DOCSIS provisioning of EPON (DPoE): Architecture and services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 9, pp. 58–65, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, “VMP: A MAC protocol for EPON-based video-dominated FiWi access networks,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol.  58, no. 3, pp. 440–453, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Ahmed and A. Shami, “RPR-EPON-WiMAX hybrid network: A solution for access and metro networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 3, pp. 173–188, March 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Madamopoulos, S. Peiris, N. Antoniades, D. Richards, B. Pathak, G. Ellinas, R. Dorsinville, and M. A. Ali, “A fully distributed 10G-EPON-based converged fixed-mobile networking transport infrastructure for next generation broadband access,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 5, pp. 366–377, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Scheutzow, and M. Maier, “Survivability analysis of next-generation passive optical networks and fiber-wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol.  60, no. 2, pp. 479–492, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi and M. Maier, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities,” IEEE Network, vol.  25, no. 1, pp. 36–42, Jan–Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

G. Kalfas, N. Pleros, K. Tsagkaris, L. Alonso, and C. Verikoukis, “Saturation throughput performance analysis of a medium-transparent MAC protocol for 60  GHz radio-over-fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 24, pp. 3777–3785, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

A. Stöhr, A. Akrout, R. Buss, B. Charbonnier, F. Dijk, A. Enard, S. Fedderwitz, D. Jäger, M. Huchard, F. Lecoche, J. Marti, R. Sambaraju, A. Steffan, A. Umbach, and M. Weiss, “60  GHz radio-over-fiber technologies for broadband wireless services,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 471–487, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, J. G. Yu, S. Wen, J. Lu, Z. Dong, M. Huang, and G. K. Chang, “A novel scheme for seamless integration of ROF with centralized lightwave OFDM-WDM-PON system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 14, pp. 2786–2791, July 2009.

C.-S. Sum, L. Zhou, R. Funada, W. Junyi, T. Baykas, M. Rahman, and H. Harada, “Virtual time-slot allocation scheme for throughput enhancement in a millimeter-wave multi-Gbps WPAN System,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 8, pp. 1379–1389, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

M. García Larrodé and A. M. J. Koonen, “All-fiber full-duplex multimode wavelength-division-multiplexing network for radio-over-multimode-fiber distribution of broadband wireless services,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.  56, no. 1, pp. 248–255, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Mjeku and N. J. Gomes, “Use of different acknowledgement policies for burst transmission in fiber-fed wireless LANs,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  11, no. 7, pp. 601–603, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

1997

P. F. M. Smulders and L. M. Correia, “Characterisation of propagation in 60  GHz radio channels,” Electron. Commun. Eng. J., vol.  9, no. 2, pp. 73–80, Apr. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, A.

Akrout, A.

Ali, M. A.

Alonso, L.

G. Kalfas, N. Pleros, K. Tsagkaris, L. Alonso, and C. Verikoukis, “Saturation throughput performance analysis of a medium-transparent MAC protocol for 60  GHz radio-over-fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 24, pp. 3777–3785, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Maniotis, G. Kalfas, L. Alonso, C. Verikoukis, and N. Pleros, “Throughput and delay fairness through an agile medium-transparent MAC protocol for 60  GHz fiber-wireless LAN networks,” in Proc. Hybrid Optical-Wireless Access Networks Workshop (WCNC), Paris, France, Apr. 2012.

Antoniades, N.

Assi, C. M.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Bakaul, M.

Baykas, T.

C.-S. Sum, L. Zhou, R. Funada, W. Junyi, T. Baykas, M. Rahman, and H. Harada, “Virtual time-slot allocation scheme for throughput enhancement in a millimeter-wave multi-Gbps WPAN System,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 8, pp. 1379–1389, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Branquinho, O. C.

T. P. C. de Andrade, N. L. S. da Fonseca, L. B. Oliveira, and O. C. Branquinho, “MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks over radio-over-fiber links,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2012, pp. 254–259.

Buss, R.

Chang, G. K.

Charbonnier, B.

Chen, L.

Colle, D.

G. Das, B. Lannoo, D. Pareit, C. Okonkwo, T. Koonen, D. Colle, I. Moerman, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “A new architecture and MAC protocol for flexible radio over fiber home networks,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2009, pp. 1–3.

Cordeiro, C.

C. Cordeiro, “Evaluation of medium access technologies for next generation millimeter-wave WLAN and WPAN,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications Workshops, June 2009, pp. 1–5.

Correia, L. M.

P. F. M. Smulders and L. M. Correia, “Characterisation of propagation in 60  GHz radio channels,” Electron. Commun. Eng. J., vol.  9, no. 2, pp. 73–80, Apr. 1997.
[CrossRef]

da Fonseca, N. L. S.

T. P. C. de Andrade, N. L. S. da Fonseca, L. B. Oliveira, and O. C. Branquinho, “MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks over radio-over-fiber links,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2012, pp. 254–259.

Das, G.

G. Das, B. Lannoo, D. Pareit, C. Okonkwo, T. Koonen, D. Colle, I. Moerman, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “A new architecture and MAC protocol for flexible radio over fiber home networks,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2009, pp. 1–3.

Dat, P. T.

A. Kanno, P. T. Dat, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, Y. Yasumura, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent radio-over-fiber and millimeter-wave radio seamless transmission system for resilient access networks,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 6, pp. 2196–2204, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Davydov, A.

A. Maltsev, A. Sadri, R. Maslennikov, A. Davydov, and A. Khoryaev, “Channel modeling for 60  GHz WLAN systems,” IEEE doc. , July2008.

de Andrade, T. P. C.

T. P. C. de Andrade, N. L. S. da Fonseca, L. B. Oliveira, and O. C. Branquinho, “MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks over radio-over-fiber links,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2012, pp. 254–259.

Demeester, P.

G. Das, B. Lannoo, D. Pareit, C. Okonkwo, T. Koonen, D. Colle, I. Moerman, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “A new architecture and MAC protocol for flexible radio over fiber home networks,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2009, pp. 1–3.

Dijk, F.

Dong, Z.

Dorsinville, R.

Doumith, E. A.

A. Haddad, E. A. Doumith, and M. Gagnaire, “Impairment-aware radio-over-fiber control plane for LTE antenna backhauling,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2012, pp. 2816–2821.

Ellinas, G.

Enard, A.

Fedderwitz, S.

Funada, R.

C.-S. Sum, L. Zhou, R. Funada, W. Junyi, T. Baykas, M. Rahman, and H. Harada, “Virtual time-slot allocation scheme for throughput enhancement in a millimeter-wave multi-Gbps WPAN System,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 8, pp. 1379–1389, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Gagnaire, M.

A. Haddad, E. A. Doumith, and M. Gagnaire, “Impairment-aware radio-over-fiber control plane for LTE antenna backhauling,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2012, pp. 2816–2821.

Gamage, P.

García Larrodé, M.

M. García Larrodé and A. M. J. Koonen, “All-fiber full-duplex multimode wavelength-division-multiplexing network for radio-over-multimode-fiber distribution of broadband wireless services,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.  56, no. 1, pp. 248–255, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Ghazisaidi, N.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, “VMP: A MAC protocol for EPON-based video-dominated FiWi access networks,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol.  58, no. 3, pp. 440–453, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Scheutzow, and M. Maier, “Survivability analysis of next-generation passive optical networks and fiber-wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol.  60, no. 2, pp. 479–492, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi and M. Maier, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities,” IEEE Network, vol.  25, no. 1, pp. 36–42, Jan–Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Gomes, N. J.

M. Mjeku and N. J. Gomes, “Use of different acknowledgement policies for burst transmission in fiber-fed wireless LANs,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  11, no. 7, pp. 601–603, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

M. Mjeku, B. Kalantari Sabet, J. E. Mitchell, and N. J. Gomes, “TCP and UDP performance over fibre-fed IEEE 802.11b networks,” in Proc. 12th Microcoll Colloq. on Microwave Communications, 2007, pp. 89–92.

Haddad, A.

A. Haddad, E. A. Doumith, and M. Gagnaire, “Impairment-aware radio-over-fiber control plane for LTE antenna backhauling,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2012, pp. 2816–2821.

Hajduczenia, M.

M. Hajduczenia, M. Toy, E. Mallette, and C. Knittle, “DOCSIS provisioning of EPON (DPoE): Architecture and services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 9, pp. 58–65, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Harada, H.

C.-S. Sum, L. Zhou, R. Funada, W. Junyi, T. Baykas, M. Rahman, and H. Harada, “Virtual time-slot allocation scheme for throughput enhancement in a millimeter-wave multi-Gbps WPAN System,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 8, pp. 1379–1389, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Hosako, I.

A. Kanno, P. T. Dat, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, Y. Yasumura, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent radio-over-fiber and millimeter-wave radio seamless transmission system for resilient access networks,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 6, pp. 2196–2204, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Huchard, M.

Idrus, S. M.

A. M. Zin, S. M. Idrus, and N. Zulkifli, “Performance of IEEE 802.11 over fiber at MAC layer employing GPON architecture,” in Proc. IEEE 2nd Int. Conf. on Photonics (ICP), Oct. 2011, pp. 1–3.

Jäger, D.

Jaworski, M.

M. Jaworski and M. Klinkowski, “Optical transmission impairments in 60  GHz radio-over-fiber system,” in Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), July 2010, pp. 1–5.

Ji, Y.

Junyi, W.

C.-S. Sum, L. Zhou, R. Funada, W. Junyi, T. Baykas, M. Rahman, and H. Harada, “Virtual time-slot allocation scheme for throughput enhancement in a millimeter-wave multi-Gbps WPAN System,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 8, pp. 1379–1389, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kalantari Sabet, B.

M. Mjeku, B. Kalantari Sabet, J. E. Mitchell, and N. J. Gomes, “TCP and UDP performance over fibre-fed IEEE 802.11b networks,” in Proc. 12th Microcoll Colloq. on Microwave Communications, 2007, pp. 89–92.

Kalfas, G.

Ka-Lun, L.

Kanno, A.

A. Kanno, P. T. Dat, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, Y. Yasumura, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent radio-over-fiber and millimeter-wave radio seamless transmission system for resilient access networks,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 6, pp. 2196–2204, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

A. Kanno, P. T. Dat, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, Y. Yasumura, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent radio-over-fiber and millimeter-wave radio seamless transmission system for resilient access networks,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 6, pp. 2196–2204, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Khoryaev, A.

A. Maltsev, A. Sadri, R. Maslennikov, A. Davydov, and A. Khoryaev, “Channel modeling for 60  GHz WLAN systems,” IEEE doc. , July2008.

Kim, H. B.

H. B. Kim, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “A medium access control protocol for radio over fiber wireless LAN operating in the 60-GHz band,” in Proc. 5th Personal Mobile Communications Conf., Glasgow, Apr. 2003.

Kitayama, K.

A. Kanno, P. T. Dat, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, Y. Yasumura, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent radio-over-fiber and millimeter-wave radio seamless transmission system for resilient access networks,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 6, pp. 2196–2204, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. J. V. Olmos, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Reconfigurable radio-over-fiber networks: Multiple-access functionality directly over the optical layer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.  58, no. 11, pp. 3001–3010, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Klinkowski, M.

M. Jaworski and M. Klinkowski, “Optical transmission impairments in 60  GHz radio-over-fiber system,” in Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), July 2010, pp. 1–5.

Knittle, C.

M. Hajduczenia, M. Toy, E. Mallette, and C. Knittle, “DOCSIS provisioning of EPON (DPoE): Architecture and services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 9, pp. 58–65, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Koonen, A. M. J.

M. García Larrodé and A. M. J. Koonen, “All-fiber full-duplex multimode wavelength-division-multiplexing network for radio-over-multimode-fiber distribution of broadband wireless services,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.  56, no. 1, pp. 248–255, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Koonen, T.

G. Das, B. Lannoo, D. Pareit, C. Okonkwo, T. Koonen, D. Colle, I. Moerman, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “A new architecture and MAC protocol for flexible radio over fiber home networks,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2009, pp. 1–3.

Kuri, T.

A. Kanno, P. T. Dat, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, Y. Yasumura, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent radio-over-fiber and millimeter-wave radio seamless transmission system for resilient access networks,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 6, pp. 2196–2204, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. J. V. Olmos, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Reconfigurable radio-over-fiber networks: Multiple-access functionality directly over the optical layer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.  58, no. 11, pp. 3001–3010, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Lannoo, B.

G. Das, B. Lannoo, D. Pareit, C. Okonkwo, T. Koonen, D. Colle, I. Moerman, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “A new architecture and MAC protocol for flexible radio over fiber home networks,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2009, pp. 1–3.

Lecoche, F.

Lim, C.

C. Ranaweera, E. Wong, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Next generation optical-wireless converged network architectures,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar.–Apr. 2012.
[CrossRef]

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, M. Bakaul, P. Gamage, L. Ka-Lun, Y. Yizhuo, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Fiber-wireless networks and subsystem technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 390–405, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

X. Shen, K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Wu, and J. Lin, “Dynamically reconfigurable radio-over-fiber network with medium access control protocol to provide network access to train passengers,” Sci. China Inf. Sci., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 1–10, Oct. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

Madamopoulos, N.

Maier, M.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, “VMP: A MAC protocol for EPON-based video-dominated FiWi access networks,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol.  58, no. 3, pp. 440–453, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Scheutzow, and M. Maier, “Survivability analysis of next-generation passive optical networks and fiber-wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol.  60, no. 2, pp. 479–492, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi and M. Maier, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities,” IEEE Network, vol.  25, no. 1, pp. 36–42, Jan–Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Mallette, E.

M. Hajduczenia, M. Toy, E. Mallette, and C. Knittle, “DOCSIS provisioning of EPON (DPoE): Architecture and services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 9, pp. 58–65, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Maltsev, A.

A. Maltsev, A. Sadri, R. Maslennikov, A. Davydov, and A. Khoryaev, “Channel modeling for 60  GHz WLAN systems,” IEEE doc. , July2008.

Maniotis, P.

P. Maniotis, G. Kalfas, L. Alonso, C. Verikoukis, and N. Pleros, “Throughput and delay fairness through an agile medium-transparent MAC protocol for 60  GHz fiber-wireless LAN networks,” in Proc. Hybrid Optical-Wireless Access Networks Workshop (WCNC), Paris, France, Apr. 2012.

Marti, J.

Maslennikov, R.

A. Maltsev, A. Sadri, R. Maslennikov, A. Davydov, and A. Khoryaev, “Channel modeling for 60  GHz WLAN systems,” IEEE doc. , July2008.

Mitchell, J. E.

M. Mjeku, B. Kalantari Sabet, J. E. Mitchell, and N. J. Gomes, “TCP and UDP performance over fibre-fed IEEE 802.11b networks,” in Proc. 12th Microcoll Colloq. on Microwave Communications, 2007, pp. 89–92.

Mjeku, M.

M. Mjeku and N. J. Gomes, “Use of different acknowledgement policies for burst transmission in fiber-fed wireless LANs,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  11, no. 7, pp. 601–603, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

M. Mjeku, B. Kalantari Sabet, J. E. Mitchell, and N. J. Gomes, “TCP and UDP performance over fibre-fed IEEE 802.11b networks,” in Proc. 12th Microcoll Colloq. on Microwave Communications, 2007, pp. 89–92.

Moerman, I.

G. Das, B. Lannoo, D. Pareit, C. Okonkwo, T. Koonen, D. Colle, I. Moerman, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “A new architecture and MAC protocol for flexible radio over fiber home networks,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2009, pp. 1–3.

Nirmalathas, A.

C. Ranaweera, E. Wong, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Next generation optical-wireless converged network architectures,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar.–Apr. 2012.
[CrossRef]

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, M. Bakaul, P. Gamage, L. Ka-Lun, Y. Yizhuo, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Fiber-wireless networks and subsystem technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 390–405, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

Okonkwo, C.

G. Das, B. Lannoo, D. Pareit, C. Okonkwo, T. Koonen, D. Colle, I. Moerman, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “A new architecture and MAC protocol for flexible radio over fiber home networks,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2009, pp. 1–3.

Oliveira, L. B.

T. P. C. de Andrade, N. L. S. da Fonseca, L. B. Oliveira, and O. C. Branquinho, “MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks over radio-over-fiber links,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2012, pp. 254–259.

Olmos, J. J. V.

J. J. V. Olmos, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Reconfigurable radio-over-fiber networks: Multiple-access functionality directly over the optical layer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.  58, no. 11, pp. 3001–3010, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Pareit, D.

G. Das, B. Lannoo, D. Pareit, C. Okonkwo, T. Koonen, D. Colle, I. Moerman, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “A new architecture and MAC protocol for flexible radio over fiber home networks,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2009, pp. 1–3.

Pathak, B.

Peiris, S.

Pickavet, M.

G. Das, B. Lannoo, D. Pareit, C. Okonkwo, T. Koonen, D. Colle, I. Moerman, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “A new architecture and MAC protocol for flexible radio over fiber home networks,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2009, pp. 1–3.

Pleros, N.

Rahman, M.

C.-S. Sum, L. Zhou, R. Funada, W. Junyi, T. Baykas, M. Rahman, and H. Harada, “Virtual time-slot allocation scheme for throughput enhancement in a millimeter-wave multi-Gbps WPAN System,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 8, pp. 1379–1389, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ranaweera, C.

C. Ranaweera, E. Wong, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Next generation optical-wireless converged network architectures,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar.–Apr. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Reisslein, M.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, “VMP: A MAC protocol for EPON-based video-dominated FiWi access networks,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol.  58, no. 3, pp. 440–453, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Richards, D.

Sadri, A.

A. Maltsev, A. Sadri, R. Maslennikov, A. Davydov, and A. Khoryaev, “Channel modeling for 60  GHz WLAN systems,” IEEE doc. , July2008.

Sambaraju, R.

Scheutzow, M.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Scheutzow, and M. Maier, “Survivability analysis of next-generation passive optical networks and fiber-wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol.  60, no. 2, pp. 479–492, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

Shami, A.

Shen, X.

X. Shen, K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Wu, and J. Lin, “Dynamically reconfigurable radio-over-fiber network with medium access control protocol to provide network access to train passengers,” Sci. China Inf. Sci., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 1–10, Oct. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Smulders, P. F. M.

P. F. M. Smulders and L. M. Correia, “Characterisation of propagation in 60  GHz radio channels,” Electron. Commun. Eng. J., vol.  9, no. 2, pp. 73–80, Apr. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Steffan, A.

Stöhr, A.

Sum, C.-S.

C.-S. Sum, L. Zhou, R. Funada, W. Junyi, T. Baykas, M. Rahman, and H. Harada, “Virtual time-slot allocation scheme for throughput enhancement in a millimeter-wave multi-Gbps WPAN System,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 8, pp. 1379–1389, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

X. Shen, K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Wu, and J. Lin, “Dynamically reconfigurable radio-over-fiber network with medium access control protocol to provide network access to train passengers,” Sci. China Inf. Sci., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 1–10, Oct. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Toy, M.

M. Hajduczenia, M. Toy, E. Mallette, and C. Knittle, “DOCSIS provisioning of EPON (DPoE): Architecture and services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 9, pp. 58–65, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Tsagkaris, K.

Umbach, A.

Verikoukis, C.

G. Kalfas, N. Pleros, K. Tsagkaris, L. Alonso, and C. Verikoukis, “Saturation throughput performance analysis of a medium-transparent MAC protocol for 60  GHz radio-over-fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 24, pp. 3777–3785, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Maniotis, G. Kalfas, L. Alonso, C. Verikoukis, and N. Pleros, “Throughput and delay fairness through an agile medium-transparent MAC protocol for 60  GHz fiber-wireless LAN networks,” in Proc. Hybrid Optical-Wireless Access Networks Workshop (WCNC), Paris, France, Apr. 2012.

Wang, H.

Waterhouse, R.

Weiss, M.

Wen, S.

Woesner, H.

H. B. Kim, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “A medium access control protocol for radio over fiber wireless LAN operating in the 60-GHz band,” in Proc. 5th Personal Mobile Communications Conf., Glasgow, Apr. 2003.

Wolisz, A.

H. B. Kim, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “A medium access control protocol for radio over fiber wireless LAN operating in the 60-GHz band,” in Proc. 5th Personal Mobile Communications Conf., Glasgow, Apr. 2003.

Wong, E.

C. Ranaweera, E. Wong, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Next generation optical-wireless converged network architectures,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar.–Apr. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

X. Shen, K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Wu, and J. Lin, “Dynamically reconfigurable radio-over-fiber network with medium access control protocol to provide network access to train passengers,” Sci. China Inf. Sci., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 1–10, Oct. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Xu, K.

X. Shen, K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Wu, and J. Lin, “Dynamically reconfigurable radio-over-fiber network with medium access control protocol to provide network access to train passengers,” Sci. China Inf. Sci., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 1–10, Oct. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Yasumura, Y.

A. Kanno, P. T. Dat, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, Y. Yasumura, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent radio-over-fiber and millimeter-wave radio seamless transmission system for resilient access networks,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 6, pp. 2196–2204, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Yizhuo, Y.

Yoshida, Y.

A. Kanno, P. T. Dat, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, Y. Yasumura, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent radio-over-fiber and millimeter-wave radio seamless transmission system for resilient access networks,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 6, pp. 2196–2204, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. G.

Zhou, L.

C.-S. Sum, L. Zhou, R. Funada, W. Junyi, T. Baykas, M. Rahman, and H. Harada, “Virtual time-slot allocation scheme for throughput enhancement in a millimeter-wave multi-Gbps WPAN System,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 8, pp. 1379–1389, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Zin, A. M.

A. M. Zin, S. M. Idrus, and N. Zulkifli, “Performance of IEEE 802.11 over fiber at MAC layer employing GPON architecture,” in Proc. IEEE 2nd Int. Conf. on Photonics (ICP), Oct. 2011, pp. 1–3.

Zulkifli, N.

A. M. Zin, S. M. Idrus, and N. Zulkifli, “Performance of IEEE 802.11 over fiber at MAC layer employing GPON architecture,” in Proc. IEEE 2nd Int. Conf. on Photonics (ICP), Oct. 2011, pp. 1–3.

Electron. Commun. Eng. J.

P. F. M. Smulders and L. M. Correia, “Characterisation of propagation in 60  GHz radio channels,” Electron. Commun. Eng. J., vol.  9, no. 2, pp. 73–80, Apr. 1997.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett.

M. Mjeku and N. J. Gomes, “Use of different acknowledgement policies for burst transmission in fiber-fed wireless LANs,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  11, no. 7, pp. 601–603, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Hajduczenia, M. Toy, E. Mallette, and C. Knittle, “DOCSIS provisioning of EPON (DPoE): Architecture and services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 9, pp. 58–65, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

C.-S. Sum, L. Zhou, R. Funada, W. Junyi, T. Baykas, M. Rahman, and H. Harada, “Virtual time-slot allocation scheme for throughput enhancement in a millimeter-wave multi-Gbps WPAN System,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 8, pp. 1379–1389, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network

N. Ghazisaidi and M. Maier, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities,” IEEE Network, vol.  25, no. 1, pp. 36–42, Jan–Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Ranaweera, E. Wong, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Next generation optical-wireless converged network architectures,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar.–Apr. 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

A. Kanno, P. T. Dat, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, Y. Yasumura, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent radio-over-fiber and millimeter-wave radio seamless transmission system for resilient access networks,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 6, pp. 2196–2204, Dec. 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, “VMP: A MAC protocol for EPON-based video-dominated FiWi access networks,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol.  58, no. 3, pp. 440–453, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

M. García Larrodé and A. M. J. Koonen, “All-fiber full-duplex multimode wavelength-division-multiplexing network for radio-over-multimode-fiber distribution of broadband wireless services,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.  56, no. 1, pp. 248–255, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. J. V. Olmos, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Reconfigurable radio-over-fiber networks: Multiple-access functionality directly over the optical layer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.  58, no. 11, pp. 3001–3010, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Reliab.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Scheutzow, and M. Maier, “Survivability analysis of next-generation passive optical networks and fiber-wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol.  60, no. 2, pp. 479–492, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

J. Opt. Netw.

Sci. China Inf. Sci.

X. Shen, K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Wu, and J. Lin, “Dynamically reconfigurable radio-over-fiber network with medium access control protocol to provide network access to train passengers,” Sci. China Inf. Sci., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 1–10, Oct. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Maltsev, A. Sadri, R. Maslennikov, A. Davydov, and A. Khoryaev, “Channel modeling for 60  GHz WLAN systems,” IEEE doc. , July2008.

P. Maniotis, G. Kalfas, L. Alonso, C. Verikoukis, and N. Pleros, “Throughput and delay fairness through an agile medium-transparent MAC protocol for 60  GHz fiber-wireless LAN networks,” in Proc. Hybrid Optical-Wireless Access Networks Workshop (WCNC), Paris, France, Apr. 2012.

M. Jaworski and M. Klinkowski, “Optical transmission impairments in 60  GHz radio-over-fiber system,” in Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), July 2010, pp. 1–5.

T. P. C. de Andrade, N. L. S. da Fonseca, L. B. Oliveira, and O. C. Branquinho, “MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks over radio-over-fiber links,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2012, pp. 254–259.

A. Haddad, E. A. Doumith, and M. Gagnaire, “Impairment-aware radio-over-fiber control plane for LTE antenna backhauling,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2012, pp. 2816–2821.

G. Das, B. Lannoo, D. Pareit, C. Okonkwo, T. Koonen, D. Colle, I. Moerman, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “A new architecture and MAC protocol for flexible radio over fiber home networks,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2009, pp. 1–3.

H. B. Kim, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “A medium access control protocol for radio over fiber wireless LAN operating in the 60-GHz band,” in Proc. 5th Personal Mobile Communications Conf., Glasgow, Apr. 2003.

M. Mjeku, B. Kalantari Sabet, J. E. Mitchell, and N. J. Gomes, “TCP and UDP performance over fibre-fed IEEE 802.11b networks,” in Proc. 12th Microcoll Colloq. on Microwave Communications, 2007, pp. 89–92.

IEEE P802.11ad, http://www.ieee802.org/11/Reports/tgad_update.htm .

IEEE 802.15 TG3c, http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG3c.html .

WirelessHD, http://www.wirelesshd.org/ .

ECMA TC48—High Rate Short Range Wireless Communications, http://www.ecma-international.org/TC48-M.htm .

C. Cordeiro, “Evaluation of medium access technologies for next generation millimeter-wave WLAN and WPAN,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications Workshops, June 2009, pp. 1–5.

http://www.micronoptics.com/tunable_filters.php .

A. M. Zin, S. M. Idrus, and N. Zulkifli, “Performance of IEEE 802.11 over fiber at MAC layer employing GPON architecture,” in Proc. IEEE 2nd Int. Conf. on Photonics (ICP), Oct. 2011, pp. 1–3.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Network configuration over bus topology.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) RAU design. (b) Data/control signal spectral arrangement.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Total bus insertion losses for both RAU architectures versus the number of RAUs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) First Cont. period. (b) SF, superframe; RRF, resource requesting frame; and DF, data frame structure. Nonshaded RRFs are optional.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CW-MT-MAC’s flowchart.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

CW-MT-MACs operation example compared to MT-MAC. Utilization counter (UC) refers only to the client-weighted scenario. Different colors correspond to packets originating from different RAUs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Markov model from the perspective of a single remote antenna unit.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Node population distributions for five different standard deviations.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) User throughput versus w/R ratio. (b) Throughput per user for all participating users of the network. (c) User throughput and its standard deviation versus the user distribution standard deviation.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Throughput versus w/R. (b) Delay versus w/R. (c) Throughput versus load. (d) Delay versus load.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a), (b) MT-MAC protocol user throughput and mean user delay performance with their respective standard deviations versus the user’s distribution standard deviation. (c), (d) CW-MT-MAC protocol user throughput and mean user delay performance with their respective standard deviations versus the user’s distribution standard deviation.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(a) User throughput versus user ID. (b) User mean packet delay and its standard deviation for each of the 50 users of the network.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Insertion Losses

Tables Icon

TABLE II Simulation Parameters

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΠWAIT=1f·w,
f={1/R(MT-MACoperation)n/z(CW-MT-MACoperation).
Π1,n=ΠWAIT·p¯w.
Π1,n=kΠ2,k=kΠ3,k==kΠi,k=f·w/i.
p¯W=f·w/(i·(1f·w)).