Abstract

We propose a scheme of a radio-over-fiber (RoF) network supporting the simultaneous transmission of radio frequency identification (RFID), Wi-Fi, and ZigBee services. All services share the same optical transmitter and receiver to reduce the network complexity. Error vector magnitude (EVM) values of 0.36%, 1.23%, and 0.25% can be achieved in the downlink for RFID, WiFi, and ZigBee signals, respectively. The corresponding EVM values in the uplink are 0.37%, 1.78%, and 0.29%, respectively. The scheme is verified over a 2 km RoF link where RFID, WiFi, and ZigBee master nodes can communicate normally with their slave nodes.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  6. M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Watts, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Uplink and downlink coverage improvements of 802.11  g signals using a distributed antenna network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 11, pp. 3388–3395, Nov. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
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  10. S. Sabesan, M. Crisp, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of improved passive UHF RFID coverage using optically-fed distributed multi-antenna system,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on RFID (IEEE RFID), 2009, paper 4B.3.
  11. R. Klinda, V. Bartoss, M. Csornyei, T. Banky, and T. Berceli, “General purpose combined optical-wireless ZigBee sensor networks,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, paper Mo.p.2.
  12. D. Coelho, J. M. B. Oliveira, L. M. Pessoa, J. C. S. Castro, and H. M. Salgado, “Experimental and theoretical performance assessment of WiFi-over-fiber using low cost directly modulated VCSELs,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, paper Th.A3.4.
  13. A. Kobyakov, D. Thelen, A. Chamarti, M. Sauer, and J. Winters, “MIMO radio signals over fiber in picocells for increased WLAN coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, paper JWA113.
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  16. R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationship among EVM, BER, and SNR as performance metrics,” in Int. Conf. on Electrical and Communication Engineering (ICECE), 2006, pp. 408–411.
  17. W. Kim, M. Lee, J. Kim, H. Lim, J. Yu, B. Jiang, and J. Park, “A passive circulator for RFID application with high isolation using a directional coupler,” in European Microwave Conf. (EuMC), 2006, pp. 196–199.

2013

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

Alphones, A.

Alves, T. M. F.

Bakual, M.

Banky, T.

R. Klinda, V. Bartoss, M. Csornyei, T. Banky, and T. Berceli, “General purpose combined optical-wireless ZigBee sensor networks,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, paper Mo.p.2.

Bartoss, V.

R. Klinda, V. Bartoss, M. Csornyei, T. Banky, and T. Berceli, “General purpose combined optical-wireless ZigBee sensor networks,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, paper Mo.p.2.

Berceli, T.

R. Klinda, V. Bartoss, M. Csornyei, T. Banky, and T. Berceli, “General purpose combined optical-wireless ZigBee sensor networks,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, paper Mo.p.2.

Budiardjo, K. R. B.

E. S. Sugesti, P. S. Priambodo, and K. R. B. Budiardjo, “Delay bound analysis for hybrid network: IEEE 802.11  g ERP-OFDM WLAN over fiber,” in Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conf. (ATNAC), 2010, paper 6A1-1.

Cabon, B.

Cartaxo, A. V. T.

Castro, J. C. S.

D. Coelho, J. M. B. Oliveira, L. M. Pessoa, J. C. S. Castro, and H. M. Salgado, “Experimental and theoretical performance assessment of WiFi-over-fiber using low cost directly modulated VCSELs,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, paper Th.A3.4.

Chamarti, A.

A. Kobyakov, D. Thelen, A. Chamarti, M. Sauer, and J. Winters, “MIMO radio signals over fiber in picocells for increased WLAN coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, paper JWA113.

Chang, G.

Chien, H.

Chowdhury, A.

Coelho, D.

D. Coelho, J. M. B. Oliveira, L. M. Pessoa, J. C. S. Castro, and H. M. Salgado, “Experimental and theoretical performance assessment of WiFi-over-fiber using low cost directly modulated VCSELs,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, paper Th.A3.4.

Crisp, M.

I. H. White, R. V. Penty, M. Crisp, and S. Sabesan, “Wideband wireless over fiber systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper OTuF1.

S. Sabesan, M. Crisp, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of improved passive UHF RFID coverage using optically-fed distributed multi-antenna system,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on RFID (IEEE RFID), 2009, paper 4B.3.

Crisp, M. J.

Csornyei, M.

R. Klinda, V. Bartoss, M. Csornyei, T. Banky, and T. Berceli, “General purpose combined optical-wireless ZigBee sensor networks,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, paper Mo.p.2.

Csörnyei, M.

Dai, Y.

Fan, S.

Fukada, Y.

T. Tashiro, K. Miyamoto, T. Iwakuni, K. Hara, Y. Fukada, J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Iwatsuki, T. Higashino, and K. Tsukamoto, “40  km fiber transmission of time domain multiplexed MIMO RF signals for ROF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper OTu2H.4.

Gamage, P.

Gomes, N. J.

Hara, K.

T. Tashiro, K. Miyamoto, T. Iwakuni, K. Hara, Y. Fukada, J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Iwatsuki, T. Higashino, and K. Tsukamoto, “40  km fiber transmission of time domain multiplexed MIMO RF signals for ROF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper OTu2H.4.

Higashino, T.

T. Tashiro, K. Miyamoto, T. Iwakuni, K. Hara, Y. Fukada, J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Iwatsuki, T. Higashino, and K. Tsukamoto, “40  km fiber transmission of time domain multiplexed MIMO RF signals for ROF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper OTu2H.4.

Iezekiel, S.

Islam, A. R.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationship among EVM, BER, and SNR as performance metrics,” in Int. Conf. on Electrical and Communication Engineering (ICECE), 2006, pp. 408–411.

Iwakuni, T.

T. Tashiro, K. Miyamoto, T. Iwakuni, K. Hara, Y. Fukada, J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Iwatsuki, T. Higashino, and K. Tsukamoto, “40  km fiber transmission of time domain multiplexed MIMO RF signals for ROF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper OTu2H.4.

Iwatsuki, K.

T. Tashiro, K. Miyamoto, T. Iwakuni, K. Hara, Y. Fukada, J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Iwatsuki, T. Higashino, and K. Tsukamoto, “40  km fiber transmission of time domain multiplexed MIMO RF signals for ROF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper OTu2H.4.

Jiang, B.

W. Kim, M. Lee, J. Kim, H. Lim, J. Yu, B. Jiang, and J. Park, “A passive circulator for RFID application with high isolation using a directional coupler,” in European Microwave Conf. (EuMC), 2006, pp. 196–199.

Kani, J.

T. Tashiro, K. Miyamoto, T. Iwakuni, K. Hara, Y. Fukada, J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Iwatsuki, T. Higashino, and K. Tsukamoto, “40  km fiber transmission of time domain multiplexed MIMO RF signals for ROF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper OTu2H.4.

Kim, J.

W. Kim, M. Lee, J. Kim, H. Lim, J. Yu, B. Jiang, and J. Park, “A passive circulator for RFID application with high isolation using a directional coupler,” in European Microwave Conf. (EuMC), 2006, pp. 196–199.

Kim, W.

W. Kim, M. Lee, J. Kim, H. Lim, J. Yu, B. Jiang, and J. Park, “A passive circulator for RFID application with high isolation using a directional coupler,” in European Microwave Conf. (EuMC), 2006, pp. 196–199.

Klinda, R.

R. Klinda, V. Bartoss, M. Csornyei, T. Banky, and T. Berceli, “General purpose combined optical-wireless ZigBee sensor networks,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, paper Mo.p.2.

Kobyakov, A.

A. Kobyakov, D. Thelen, A. Chamarti, M. Sauer, and J. Winters, “MIMO radio signals over fiber in picocells for increased WLAN coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, paper JWA113.

Lee, K.

Lee, M.

W. Kim, M. Lee, J. Kim, H. Lim, J. Yu, B. Jiang, and J. Park, “A passive circulator for RFID application with high isolation using a directional coupler,” in European Microwave Conf. (EuMC), 2006, pp. 196–199.

Lethien, C.

Li, S.

Li, Y.

Lim, C.

Lim, H.

W. Kim, M. Lee, J. Kim, H. Lim, J. Yu, B. Jiang, and J. Park, “A passive circulator for RFID application with high isolation using a directional coupler,” in European Microwave Conf. (EuMC), 2006, pp. 196–199.

Lin, J.

Llorente, R.

Mitchell, J. E.

Miyamoto, K.

T. Tashiro, K. Miyamoto, T. Iwakuni, K. Hara, Y. Fukada, J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Iwatsuki, T. Higashino, and K. Tsukamoto, “40  km fiber transmission of time domain multiplexed MIMO RF signals for ROF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper OTu2H.4.

Morant, M.

Nirmalathas, A.

Nkansah, A.

Novak, D.

Oliveira, J. M. B.

D. Coelho, J. M. B. Oliveira, L. M. Pessoa, J. C. S. Castro, and H. M. Salgado, “Experimental and theoretical performance assessment of WiFi-over-fiber using low cost directly modulated VCSELs,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, paper Th.A3.4.

Park, J.

W. Kim, M. Lee, J. Kim, H. Lim, J. Yu, B. Jiang, and J. Park, “A passive circulator for RFID application with high isolation using a directional coupler,” in European Microwave Conf. (EuMC), 2006, pp. 196–199.

Penty, R. V.

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Watts, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Uplink and downlink coverage improvements of 802.11  g signals using a distributed antenna network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 11, pp. 3388–3395, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

I. H. White, R. V. Penty, M. Crisp, and S. Sabesan, “Wideband wireless over fiber systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper OTuF1.

S. Sabesan, M. Crisp, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of improved passive UHF RFID coverage using optically-fed distributed multi-antenna system,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on RFID (IEEE RFID), 2009, paper 4B.3.

Pessoa, L. M.

D. Coelho, J. M. B. Oliveira, L. M. Pessoa, J. C. S. Castro, and H. M. Salgado, “Experimental and theoretical performance assessment of WiFi-over-fiber using low cost directly modulated VCSELs,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, paper Th.A3.4.

Priambodo, P. S.

E. S. Sugesti, P. S. Priambodo, and K. R. B. Budiardjo, “Delay bound analysis for hybrid network: IEEE 802.11  g ERP-OFDM WLAN over fiber,” in Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conf. (ATNAC), 2010, paper 6A1-1.

Rahman, M. S.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationship among EVM, BER, and SNR as performance metrics,” in Int. Conf. on Electrical and Communication Engineering (ICECE), 2006, pp. 408–411.

Sabesan, S.

I. H. White, R. V. Penty, M. Crisp, and S. Sabesan, “Wideband wireless over fiber systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper OTuF1.

S. Sabesan, M. Crisp, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of improved passive UHF RFID coverage using optically-fed distributed multi-antenna system,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on RFID (IEEE RFID), 2009, paper 4B.3.

Salgado, H. M.

D. Coelho, J. M. B. Oliveira, L. M. Pessoa, J. C. S. Castro, and H. M. Salgado, “Experimental and theoretical performance assessment of WiFi-over-fiber using low cost directly modulated VCSELs,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, paper Th.A3.4.

Sauer, M.

A. Kobyakov, D. Thelen, A. Chamarti, M. Sauer, and J. Winters, “MIMO radio signals over fiber in picocells for increased WLAN coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, paper JWA113.

Shafik, R. A.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationship among EVM, BER, and SNR as performance metrics,” in Int. Conf. on Electrical and Communication Engineering (ICECE), 2006, pp. 408–411.

Shen, X.

Stöhr, A.

Sugesti, E. S.

E. S. Sugesti, P. S. Priambodo, and K. R. B. Budiardjo, “Delay bound analysis for hybrid network: IEEE 802.11  g ERP-OFDM WLAN over fiber,” in Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conf. (ATNAC), 2010, paper 6A1-1.

Sun, X.

Tashiro, T.

T. Tashiro, K. Miyamoto, T. Iwakuni, K. Hara, Y. Fukada, J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Iwatsuki, T. Higashino, and K. Tsukamoto, “40  km fiber transmission of time domain multiplexed MIMO RF signals for ROF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper OTu2H.4.

Thelen, D.

A. Kobyakov, D. Thelen, A. Chamarti, M. Sauer, and J. Winters, “MIMO radio signals over fiber in picocells for increased WLAN coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, paper JWA113.

Tsukamoto, K.

T. Tashiro, K. Miyamoto, T. Iwakuni, K. Hara, Y. Fukada, J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Iwatsuki, T. Higashino, and K. Tsukamoto, “40  km fiber transmission of time domain multiplexed MIMO RF signals for ROF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper OTu2H.4.

Wake, D.

Waterhouse, R.

Watts, A.

White, I. H.

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Watts, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Uplink and downlink coverage improvements of 802.11  g signals using a distributed antenna network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 11, pp. 3388–3395, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

I. H. White, R. V. Penty, M. Crisp, and S. Sabesan, “Wideband wireless over fiber systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper OTuF1.

S. Sabesan, M. Crisp, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of improved passive UHF RFID coverage using optically-fed distributed multi-antenna system,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on RFID (IEEE RFID), 2009, paper 4B.3.

Winters, J.

A. Kobyakov, D. Thelen, A. Chamarti, M. Sauer, and J. Winters, “MIMO radio signals over fiber in picocells for increased WLAN coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, paper JWA113.

Wu, J.

Xu, K.

Yang, Y.

Yoshimoto, N.

T. Tashiro, K. Miyamoto, T. Iwakuni, K. Hara, Y. Fukada, J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Iwatsuki, T. Higashino, and K. Tsukamoto, “40  km fiber transmission of time domain multiplexed MIMO RF signals for ROF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper OTu2H.4.

Yu, J.

A. Chowdhury, H. Chien, S. Fan, J. Yu, and G. Chang, “Multi-band transport technologies for in-building host-neutral wireless over fiber access systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 16, pp. 2406–2415, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

W. Kim, M. Lee, J. Kim, H. Lim, J. Yu, B. Jiang, and J. Park, “A passive circulator for RFID application with high isolation using a directional coupler,” in European Microwave Conf. (EuMC), 2006, pp. 196–199.

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

J. Opt. Netw.

Other

I. H. White, R. V. Penty, M. Crisp, and S. Sabesan, “Wideband wireless over fiber systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper OTuF1.

S. Sabesan, M. Crisp, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of improved passive UHF RFID coverage using optically-fed distributed multi-antenna system,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on RFID (IEEE RFID), 2009, paper 4B.3.

R. Klinda, V. Bartoss, M. Csornyei, T. Banky, and T. Berceli, “General purpose combined optical-wireless ZigBee sensor networks,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, paper Mo.p.2.

D. Coelho, J. M. B. Oliveira, L. M. Pessoa, J. C. S. Castro, and H. M. Salgado, “Experimental and theoretical performance assessment of WiFi-over-fiber using low cost directly modulated VCSELs,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, paper Th.A3.4.

A. Kobyakov, D. Thelen, A. Chamarti, M. Sauer, and J. Winters, “MIMO radio signals over fiber in picocells for increased WLAN coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, paper JWA113.

T. Tashiro, K. Miyamoto, T. Iwakuni, K. Hara, Y. Fukada, J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, K. Iwatsuki, T. Higashino, and K. Tsukamoto, “40  km fiber transmission of time domain multiplexed MIMO RF signals for ROF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibition and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper OTu2H.4.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationship among EVM, BER, and SNR as performance metrics,” in Int. Conf. on Electrical and Communication Engineering (ICECE), 2006, pp. 408–411.

W. Kim, M. Lee, J. Kim, H. Lim, J. Yu, B. Jiang, and J. Park, “A passive circulator for RFID application with high isolation using a directional coupler,” in European Microwave Conf. (EuMC), 2006, pp. 196–199.

E. S. Sugesti, P. S. Priambodo, and K. R. B. Budiardjo, “Delay bound analysis for hybrid network: IEEE 802.11  g ERP-OFDM WLAN over fiber,” in Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conf. (ATNAC), 2010, paper 6A1-1.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Traditional block diagram of remote monitoring and (b) proposed scheme of a radio-over-fiber (RoF) distributed antenna system (DAS) for remote monitoring.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for the simultaneous transmission of RFID, WiFi, and ZigBee services over 2 km single-mode fiber (SMF). DML, directly modulated laser; PD, photodetector; LNA, low-noise amplifier; BPF, band pass filter; PA, power amplifier; VA, variable attenuator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

EVMs versus the input powers of (a) RFID, (b) WiFi, and (c) ZigBee signals in the RoF downlink and (d) RFID, (e) WiFi, and (f) ZigBee signals in the RoF uplink.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagram of practical RoF link performance evaluation utilizing commercial products.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reading and writing distance (RWD) of RFID service versus the RFID input power with/without 2 km fiber transmission.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectra of WiFi and ZigBee signals at the output of WiFi AP and ZigBee master node.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Throughput of TCP packages of WiFi measured at different wireless distances between the 2.4 GHz antenna and PC (i.e., 1.2, 3.6, and 6 m) as a function of the time: (a), (d), (g) without 2 km fiber transmission; (b), (e), (h) with 2 km fiber transmission; and (c), (f), (i) with 2 km fiber transmission as well as coexistence of the ZigBee signal.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Strain measured by the ZigBee slave node and displayed on a desktop PC in the monitoring room after 2 km fiber, as well as with the existence of WiFi signals at different wireless distances.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Uplink Gains of RFID, WiFi, and ZigBee Signals in Different Locations