Abstract

A real-time base-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transceiver with a simple symbol synchronization and channel estimation scheme is implemented on only one off-the-shelf commercial field programmable gate array (FPGA). The real-time optical OFDM long-reach passive optical network (PON) system with direct detection over 100 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) employing a cost-effective directly modulated distributed feedback (DFB) laser has been successfully demonstrated experimentally. The experimental results show that the simplified symbol synchronization with low complexity and high accuracy is effective for long-reach optical OFDM transmission systems. After 100 km SSMF transmission, the power penalty at a bit-error rate of 1e3 is only about 1.1 dB.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. M. Tang, and K. A. Shore, “Real-time 3  Gb/s 16QAM-encoded optical OFDM transmission over 75  km metroCor SMFs with negative power penalties,” in 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Hong Kong, July 2009, paper ThPD8.
  24. Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4  GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express, vol.  17, pp. 17658–17668, Sept. 2009.
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2012 (3)

K. Y. Cho, U. H. Hong, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, T. Sano, M. Suzuki, and Y. C. Chung, “103-Gb/s long-reach WDM PON implemented by using directly modulated RSOAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 209–211, Feb. 2012.

W. Zou, J. Yu, J. Xiao, X. Wang, and L. Chen, “Direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system with new training sequence,” Frequenz, vol.  66, pp. 27–32, 2012.
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of record high 19.125 Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM transmission over 25 km SMF in a simple EML-based IMDD system,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, pp. 20666–20679, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

X. Q. Jin and J. M. Tang, “Optical OFDM synchronization with symbol timing offset and sampling clock offset compensation in real-time IMDD systems,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  3, pp. 187–196, 2011.

2010 (6)

2009 (3)

2003 (1)

B. Park, H. Cheon, C. Kang, and D. Hong, “A novel timing estimation method for OFDM systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  7, pp. 239–241, 2003.
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  45, pp. 1613–1621, Dec. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Agata, A.

K. Y. Cho, U. H. Hong, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, T. Sano, M. Suzuki, and Y. C. Chung, “103-Gb/s long-reach WDM PON implemented by using directly modulated RSOAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 209–211, Feb. 2012.

Appathurai, S.

Aupetit-Berthelemot, C.

L. A. Neto, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Gharba, N. Genay, R. Xia, M. Ouzzif, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, J. L. Masson, D. Erasme, E. Grard, and V. Rodrigues, “On the interest of chirped lasers for AMOOFDM transmissions in long distance PON networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, paper OWK4.

Benlachtar, Y.

Bourdoux, A.

A. Fort, J.-W. Weijers, V. Derudder, W. Eberle, and A. Bourdoux, “A performance and complexity comparison of auto-correlation and cross-correlation for OFDM burst synchronization,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Apr. 2003.

Bouziane, R.

Cartolano, A.

Chanclou, P.

L. A. Neto, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Gharba, N. Genay, R. Xia, M. Ouzzif, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, J. L. Masson, D. Erasme, E. Grard, and V. Rodrigues, “On the interest of chirped lasers for AMOOFDM transmissions in long distance PON networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, paper OWK4.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Charbonnier, B.

L. A. Neto, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Gharba, N. Genay, R. Xia, M. Ouzzif, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, J. L. Masson, D. Erasme, E. Grard, and V. Rodrigues, “On the interest of chirped lasers for AMOOFDM transmissions in long distance PON networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, paper OWK4.

Chen, H.-Y.

Chen, J.

Chen, K.

Z. Shi, S. Hong, and K. Chen, Baseband Design of OFDM System Based on Xilinx FPGA (in Chinese). Zhejiang, China: Zhejiang University Press, 2009, pp. 188–189.

Chen, L.

W. Zou, J. Yu, J. Xiao, X. Wang, and L. Chen, “Direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system with new training sequence,” Frequenz, vol.  66, pp. 27–32, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, Q. Yang, and W. Shieh, “Demonstration of 12.1-Gb/s single-band real-time coherent optical OFDM reception,” in 15th OptoeElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Sapporo, Japan, July 2010, pp. 472–473.

Chen, Y.-K.

Chen, Z.

H. Yang, J. Li, B. Lin, Y. He, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a smooth evolution scheme from conventional TDM-PON to TDM-OFDM-PON,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, May 2012, paper JTh2A.120.

Cheon, H.

B. Park, H. Cheon, C. Kang, and D. Hong, “A novel timing estimation method for OFDM systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  7, pp. 239–241, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Cho, K. Y.

K. Y. Cho, U. H. Hong, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, T. Sano, M. Suzuki, and Y. C. Chung, “103-Gb/s long-reach WDM PON implemented by using directly modulated RSOAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 209–211, Feb. 2012.

Chung, Y. C.

K. Y. Cho, U. H. Hong, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, T. Sano, M. Suzuki, and Y. C. Chung, “103-Gb/s long-reach WDM PON implemented by using directly modulated RSOAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 209–211, Feb. 2012.

Cox, D. C.

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  45, pp. 1613–1621, Dec. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Cvijetic, M.

N. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y. K. Huang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Coherent 40  Gb/s OFDMA-PON for long-reach (100+km) high-split ratio (>1:64) optical access/metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OW4B.8.

Cvijetic, N.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “108  Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 484–493, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

D. Qian, T. T.-O. Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “41.25  Gb/s real-time OFDM receiver for variable rate WDM-OFDMA-PON transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper PDPD9.

N. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y. K. Huang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Coherent 40  Gb/s OFDMA-PON for long-reach (100+km) high-split ratio (>1:64) optical access/metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OW4B.8.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, Y.-K. Huang, J. Yu, and T. Wang, “100  km long reach upstream 36  Gb/s-OFDMA-PON over a single wavelength with source-free ONUs,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.5.1.

Davey, R. P.

Derudder, V.

A. Fort, J.-W. Weijers, V. Derudder, W. Eberle, and A. Bourdoux, “A performance and complexity comparison of auto-correlation and cross-correlation for OFDM burst synchronization,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Apr. 2003.

Eberle, W.

A. Fort, J.-W. Weijers, V. Derudder, W. Eberle, and A. Bourdoux, “A performance and complexity comparison of auto-correlation and cross-correlation for OFDM burst synchronization,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Apr. 2003.

Erasme, D.

L. A. Neto, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Gharba, N. Genay, R. Xia, M. Ouzzif, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, J. L. Masson, D. Erasme, E. Grard, and V. Rodrigues, “On the interest of chirped lasers for AMOOFDM transmissions in long distance PON networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, paper OWK4.

Fort, A.

A. Fort, J.-W. Weijers, V. Derudder, W. Eberle, and A. Bourdoux, “A performance and complexity comparison of auto-correlation and cross-correlation for OFDM burst synchronization,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Apr. 2003.

Genay, N.

L. A. Neto, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Gharba, N. Genay, R. Xia, M. Ouzzif, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, J. L. Masson, D. Erasme, E. Grard, and V. Rodrigues, “On the interest of chirped lasers for AMOOFDM transmissions in long distance PON networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, paper OWK4.

Gharba, A.

L. A. Neto, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Gharba, N. Genay, R. Xia, M. Ouzzif, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, J. L. Masson, D. Erasme, E. Grard, and V. Rodrigues, “On the interest of chirped lasers for AMOOFDM transmissions in long distance PON networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, paper OWK4.

Giddings, R. P.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of record high 19.125 Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM transmission over 25 km SMF in a simple EML-based IMDD system,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, pp. 20666–20679, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of optical OFDM symbol synchronization in directly modulated DFB laser-based 25 km SMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, pp. 21100–21110, Sept. 2010.
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time 3 Gb/s optical OFDM transceivers,” Opt. Express, vol.  17, pp. 16654–16665, Sept. 2009.
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings and J. M. Tang, “End-to-end real-time DSP for high-speed optical access/metro links,” in 18th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. held jointly with 2013 Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching (OECC/PS), Kyoto, Japan, June/July 2013, paper WP2-1.

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. M. Tang, and K. A. Shore, “Real-time 3  Gb/s 16QAM-encoded optical OFDM transmission over 75  km metroCor SMFs with negative power penalties,” in 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Hong Kong, July 2009, paper ThPD8.

Glick, M.

Grard, E.

L. A. Neto, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Gharba, N. Genay, R. Xia, M. Ouzzif, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, J. L. Masson, D. Erasme, E. Grard, and V. Rodrigues, “On the interest of chirped lasers for AMOOFDM transmissions in long distance PON networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, paper OWK4.

Grossman, D. B.

He, Y.

H. Yang, J. Li, B. Lin, Y. He, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a smooth evolution scheme from conventional TDM-PON to TDM-OFDM-PON,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, May 2012, paper JTh2A.120.

Hoe, J. C.

Hong, D.

B. Park, H. Cheon, C. Kang, and D. Hong, “A novel timing estimation method for OFDM systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  7, pp. 239–241, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.

Z. Shi, S. Hong, and K. Chen, Baseband Design of OFDM System Based on Xilinx FPGA (in Chinese). Zhejiang, China: Zhejiang University Press, 2009, pp. 188–189.

Hong, U. H.

K. Y. Cho, U. H. Hong, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, T. Sano, M. Suzuki, and Y. C. Chung, “103-Gb/s long-reach WDM PON implemented by using directly modulated RSOAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 209–211, Feb. 2012.

Hsu, D.-Z.

Hu, J.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “108  Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 484–493, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

D. Qian, T. T.-O. Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “41.25  Gb/s real-time OFDM receiver for variable rate WDM-OFDMA-PON transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper PDPD9.

Huang, M. F.

N. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y. K. Huang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Coherent 40  Gb/s OFDMA-PON for long-reach (100+km) high-split ratio (>1:64) optical access/metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OW4B.8.

Huang, Y. K.

N. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y. K. Huang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Coherent 40  Gb/s OFDMA-PON for long-reach (100+km) high-split ratio (>1:64) optical access/metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OW4B.8.

Huang, Y.-K.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, Y.-K. Huang, J. Yu, and T. Wang, “100  km long reach upstream 36  Gb/s-OFDMA-PON over a single wavelength with source-free ONUs,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.5.1.

Hugues-Salas, E.

Ip, E.

N. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y. K. Huang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Coherent 40  Gb/s OFDMA-PON for long-reach (100+km) high-split ratio (>1:64) optical access/metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OW4B.8.

Jin, X. Q.

X. Q. Jin and J. M. Tang, “Optical OFDM synchronization with symbol timing offset and sampling clock offset compensation in real-time IMDD systems,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  3, pp. 187–196, 2011.

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of optical OFDM symbol synchronization in directly modulated DFB laser-based 25 km SMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, pp. 21100–21110, Sept. 2010.
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time 3 Gb/s optical OFDM transceivers,” Opt. Express, vol.  17, pp. 16654–16665, Sept. 2009.
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. M. Tang, and K. A. Shore, “Real-time 3  Gb/s 16QAM-encoded optical OFDM transmission over 75  km metroCor SMFs with negative power penalties,” in 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Hong Kong, July 2009, paper ThPD8.

Kaneda, N.

Kang, C.

B. Park, H. Cheon, C. Kang, and D. Hong, “A novel timing estimation method for OFDM systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  7, pp. 239–241, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Kelly, A. E.

Killey, R. I.

Kim, B.-W.

H. Song, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, pp. 112–123, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Koutsoyannis, R.

Kwok, T. T.-O.

D. Qian, T. T.-O. Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “41.25  Gb/s real-time OFDM receiver for variable rate WDM-OFDMA-PON transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper PDPD9.

Lee, S.-S.

L. Shi, S.-S. Lee, H. Song, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient long-reach passive optical network: A network planning approach based on user behaviors,” IEEE Syst. J., vol.  4, pp. 449–457, Dec. 2010.

Li, J.

H. Yang, J. Li, B. Lin, Y. He, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a smooth evolution scheme from conventional TDM-PON to TDM-OFDM-PON,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, May 2012, paper JTh2A.120.

Li, W.-Y.

Lin, B.

H. Yang, J. Li, B. Lin, Y. He, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a smooth evolution scheme from conventional TDM-PON to TDM-OFDM-PON,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, May 2012, paper JTh2A.120.

Lin, S.-H.

Liu, X.

Masson, J. L.

L. A. Neto, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Gharba, N. Genay, R. Xia, M. Ouzzif, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, J. L. Masson, D. Erasme, E. Grard, and V. Rodrigues, “On the interest of chirped lasers for AMOOFDM transmissions in long distance PON networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, paper OWK4.

Milder, P.

Mukherjee, B.

L. Shi, S.-S. Lee, H. Song, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient long-reach passive optical network: A network planning approach based on user behaviors,” IEEE Syst. J., vol.  4, pp. 449–457, Dec. 2010.

H. Song, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, pp. 112–123, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Nesset, D.

Neto, L. A.

L. A. Neto, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Gharba, N. Genay, R. Xia, M. Ouzzif, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, J. L. Masson, D. Erasme, E. Grard, and V. Rodrigues, “On the interest of chirped lasers for AMOOFDM transmissions in long distance PON networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, paper OWK4.

Ouzzif, M.

L. A. Neto, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Gharba, N. Genay, R. Xia, M. Ouzzif, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, J. L. Masson, D. Erasme, E. Grard, and V. Rodrigues, “On the interest of chirped lasers for AMOOFDM transmissions in long distance PON networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, paper OWK4.

Park, B.

B. Park, H. Cheon, C. Kang, and D. Hong, “A novel timing estimation method for OFDM systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  7, pp. 239–241, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. B.

Püschel, M.

Qian, D.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “108  Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 484–493, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

D. Qian, T. T.-O. Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “41.25  Gb/s real-time OFDM receiver for variable rate WDM-OFDMA-PON transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper PDPD9.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, Y.-K. Huang, J. Yu, and T. Wang, “100  km long reach upstream 36  Gb/s-OFDMA-PON over a single wavelength with source-free ONUs,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.5.1.

Rafel, A.

Rangaraj, D.

Rodrigues, V.

L. A. Neto, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Gharba, N. Genay, R. Xia, M. Ouzzif, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, J. L. Masson, D. Erasme, E. Grard, and V. Rodrigues, “On the interest of chirped lasers for AMOOFDM transmissions in long distance PON networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, paper OWK4.

Sano, T.

K. Y. Cho, U. H. Hong, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, T. Sano, M. Suzuki, and Y. C. Chung, “103-Gb/s long-reach WDM PON implemented by using directly modulated RSOAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 209–211, Feb. 2012.

Schmidl, T. M.

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  45, pp. 1613–1621, Dec. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Shao, Y.

N. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y. K. Huang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Coherent 40  Gb/s OFDMA-PON for long-reach (100+km) high-split ratio (>1:64) optical access/metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OW4B.8.

Shi, L.

L. Shi, S.-S. Lee, H. Song, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient long-reach passive optical network: A network planning approach based on user behaviors,” IEEE Syst. J., vol.  4, pp. 449–457, Dec. 2010.

Shi, Z.

Z. Shi, S. Hong, and K. Chen, Baseband Design of OFDM System Based on Xilinx FPGA (in Chinese). Zhejiang, China: Zhejiang University Press, 2009, pp. 188–189.

Shieh, W.

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y.-K. Chen, “Real-time 2.5-GS/s coherent optical receiver for 53.3-Gb/s sub-banded OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 494–501, 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Q. Yang, and W. Shieh, “Demonstration of 12.1-Gb/s single-band real-time coherent optical OFDM reception,” in 15th OptoeElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Sapporo, Japan, July 2010, pp. 472–473.

Shore, K. A.

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. M. Tang, and K. A. Shore, “Real-time 3  Gb/s 16QAM-encoded optical OFDM transmission over 75  km metroCor SMFs with negative power penalties,” in 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Hong Kong, July 2009, paper ThPD8.

Song, H.

H. Song, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, pp. 112–123, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

L. Shi, S.-S. Lee, H. Song, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient long-reach passive optical network: A network planning approach based on user behaviors,” IEEE Syst. J., vol.  4, pp. 449–457, Dec. 2010.

Suzuki, M.

K. Y. Cho, U. H. Hong, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, T. Sano, M. Suzuki, and Y. C. Chung, “103-Gb/s long-reach WDM PON implemented by using directly modulated RSOAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 209–211, Feb. 2012.

Takushima, Y.

K. Y. Cho, U. H. Hong, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, T. Sano, M. Suzuki, and Y. C. Chung, “103-Gb/s long-reach WDM PON implemented by using directly modulated RSOAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 209–211, Feb. 2012.

Tang, J. M.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of record high 19.125 Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM transmission over 25 km SMF in a simple EML-based IMDD system,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, pp. 20666–20679, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Jin and J. M. Tang, “Optical OFDM synchronization with symbol timing offset and sampling clock offset compensation in real-time IMDD systems,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  3, pp. 187–196, 2011.

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of optical OFDM symbol synchronization in directly modulated DFB laser-based 25 km SMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, pp. 21100–21110, Sept. 2010.
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time 3 Gb/s optical OFDM transceivers,” Opt. Express, vol.  17, pp. 16654–16665, Sept. 2009.
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. M. Tang, and K. A. Shore, “Real-time 3  Gb/s 16QAM-encoded optical OFDM transmission over 75  km metroCor SMFs with negative power penalties,” in 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Hong Kong, July 2009, paper ThPD8.

R. P. Giddings and J. M. Tang, “End-to-end real-time DSP for high-speed optical access/metro links,” in 18th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. held jointly with 2013 Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching (OECC/PS), Kyoto, Japan, June/July 2013, paper WP2-1.

Wang, T.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “108  Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 484–493, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

D. Qian, T. T.-O. Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “41.25  Gb/s real-time OFDM receiver for variable rate WDM-OFDMA-PON transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper PDPD9.

N. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y. K. Huang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Coherent 40  Gb/s OFDMA-PON for long-reach (100+km) high-split ratio (>1:64) optical access/metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OW4B.8.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, Y.-K. Huang, J. Yu, and T. Wang, “100  km long reach upstream 36  Gb/s-OFDMA-PON over a single wavelength with source-free ONUs,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.5.1.

Wang, X.

W. Zou, J. Yu, J. Xiao, X. Wang, and L. Chen, “Direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system with new training sequence,” Frequenz, vol.  66, pp. 27–32, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Watts, P. M.

Wei, C.-C.

Weijers, J.-W.

A. Fort, J.-W. Weijers, V. Derudder, W. Eberle, and A. Bourdoux, “A performance and complexity comparison of auto-correlation and cross-correlation for OFDM burst synchronization,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Apr. 2003.

Xia, R.

L. A. Neto, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Gharba, N. Genay, R. Xia, M. Ouzzif, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, J. L. Masson, D. Erasme, E. Grard, and V. Rodrigues, “On the interest of chirped lasers for AMOOFDM transmissions in long distance PON networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, paper OWK4.

Xiao, J.

W. Zou, J. Yu, J. Xiao, X. Wang, and L. Chen, “Direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system with new training sequence,” Frequenz, vol.  66, pp. 27–32, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, J. Li, B. Lin, Y. He, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a smooth evolution scheme from conventional TDM-PON to TDM-OFDM-PON,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, May 2012, paper JTh2A.120.

Yang, Q.

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y.-K. Chen, “Real-time 2.5-GS/s coherent optical receiver for 53.3-Gb/s sub-banded OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 494–501, 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Q. Yang, and W. Shieh, “Demonstration of 12.1-Gb/s single-band real-time coherent optical OFDM reception,” in 15th OptoeElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Sapporo, Japan, July 2010, pp. 472–473.

Yang, S.-H.

Yu, J.

W. Zou, J. Yu, J. Xiao, X. Wang, and L. Chen, “Direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system with new training sequence,” Frequenz, vol.  66, pp. 27–32, 2012.
[CrossRef]

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, Y.-K. Huang, J. Yu, and T. Wang, “100  km long reach upstream 36  Gb/s-OFDMA-PON over a single wavelength with source-free ONUs,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.5.1.

Yuang, M. C.

Zou, W.

W. Zou, J. Yu, J. Xiao, X. Wang, and L. Chen, “Direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system with new training sequence,” Frequenz, vol.  66, pp. 27–32, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Frequenz (1)

W. Zou, J. Yu, J. Xiao, X. Wang, and L. Chen, “Direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system with new training sequence,” Frequenz, vol.  66, pp. 27–32, 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

B. Park, H. Cheon, C. Kang, and D. Hong, “A novel timing estimation method for OFDM systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  7, pp. 239–241, 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

H. Song, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, pp. 112–123, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X. Q. Jin and J. M. Tang, “Optical OFDM synchronization with symbol timing offset and sampling clock offset compensation in real-time IMDD systems,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  3, pp. 187–196, 2011.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Y. Cho, U. H. Hong, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, T. Sano, M. Suzuki, and Y. C. Chung, “103-Gb/s long-reach WDM PON implemented by using directly modulated RSOAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 209–211, Feb. 2012.

IEEE Syst. J. (1)

L. Shi, S.-S. Lee, H. Song, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient long-reach passive optical network: A network planning approach based on user behaviors,” IEEE Syst. J., vol.  4, pp. 449–457, Dec. 2010.

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  45, pp. 1613–1621, Dec. 1997.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Express (5)

Other (10)

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. M. Tang, and K. A. Shore, “Real-time 3  Gb/s 16QAM-encoded optical OFDM transmission over 75  km metroCor SMFs with negative power penalties,” in 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Hong Kong, July 2009, paper ThPD8.

R. P. Giddings and J. M. Tang, “End-to-end real-time DSP for high-speed optical access/metro links,” in 18th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. held jointly with 2013 Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching (OECC/PS), Kyoto, Japan, June/July 2013, paper WP2-1.

D. Qian, T. T.-O. Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “41.25  Gb/s real-time OFDM receiver for variable rate WDM-OFDMA-PON transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper PDPD9.

L. A. Neto, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Gharba, N. Genay, R. Xia, M. Ouzzif, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, J. L. Masson, D. Erasme, E. Grard, and V. Rodrigues, “On the interest of chirped lasers for AMOOFDM transmissions in long distance PON networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, paper OWK4.

Z. Shi, S. Hong, and K. Chen, Baseband Design of OFDM System Based on Xilinx FPGA (in Chinese). Zhejiang, China: Zhejiang University Press, 2009, pp. 188–189.

H. Yang, J. Li, B. Lin, Y. He, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a smooth evolution scheme from conventional TDM-PON to TDM-OFDM-PON,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, May 2012, paper JTh2A.120.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, Y.-K. Huang, J. Yu, and T. Wang, “100  km long reach upstream 36  Gb/s-OFDMA-PON over a single wavelength with source-free ONUs,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.5.1.

N. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y. K. Huang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Coherent 40  Gb/s OFDMA-PON for long-reach (100+km) high-split ratio (>1:64) optical access/metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OW4B.8.

S. Chen, Q. Yang, and W. Shieh, “Demonstration of 12.1-Gb/s single-band real-time coherent optical OFDM reception,” in 15th OptoeElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Sapporo, Japan, July 2010, pp. 472–473.

A. Fort, J.-W. Weijers, V. Derudder, W. Eberle, and A. Bourdoux, “A performance and complexity comparison of auto-correlation and cross-correlation for OFDM burst synchronization,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Apr. 2003.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Signal processing flow of the symbol synchronization scheme.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Principle of channel estimation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Real-time optical OFDM transceiver architecture and experimental setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Power spectral density of ADC captured samples. (b) Estimated channel response versus positive subcarrier index.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Real-time measured timing metric of two continuous OFDM frames. (b) Detailed impulse-shaped timing metric.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Phase (a) uncompensated and (b) compensated QPSK symbols.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Real-time measured BER performance versus received optical power.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Complexity Comparisons

Tables Icon

TABLE II FPGA Compilation Report

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ppro=[CN/4DN/4CN/4DN/4],
M(d)=|P(d)|2|R(d)|2,
P(d)=k=0Nt1t(k)r(k+d),
R(d)=k=0Nt1r(k+d)2,
MPro(d)=k=0Nt1sign[t(k)]sign[r(k+d)],
Heven(i)=Hodd(i1)+Hodd(i+1)2,
Rc(k)=R(k)H(k)=R(k)H*(k)|H(k)|2,
Rc(k)=R(k)H*(k)/|H(k)|2>Th.
R(k)H*(k)>Th|H(k)|2.